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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Aug 1996
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Apr 1996
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Effects of Panax ginseng on Type I Hypersensitivity
Kim, Young-Ran ; Lee, Eun ; Lee, Shee-Yong ; Kim, Kyeong-Man ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~6
Effects of Panax ginseng on allergic reactions were studied uslng various in vivo and in vitro experimental models such as 48-hr passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, mediators-induced skin reactions, histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells, and lipoxygenase assay . In all of anti-allergic experiments we conducted, ginseng components (50% ethanol extract or ginseng total saponin or ginsenosides) extracted from Korean red ginseng, did not show significant anti-allergic actions. In 48-hr passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mediators-induced skin reactions, 50% ethanol extract did not suppress hypersensitivity reactions. Total saponin, 50% ethanol extract, and 8 major ginsenosides did not show inhibitory effects on lipoxygeanse activity. Ginseng total saponin did not inhibit histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. All of the ginseng components mentioned above were also tested on RBL-2H3 cells, but none of them inhibited hexosaminidase release from this cell line. These results suggest that Panax ginseng does not have effects on allergic reactions at the level of 50% ethanol extract or total saponin used. All of 8 major saponin components tested (
, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf,
), did not inhibit lipoxygenase activity and degranulation events.
Effects of Red Ginseng Saponin on Normal and Scopolamine-induced Memory Impairment of Mice in Passive Avoidance Task
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 7~14
This study was performed to examine the effect of red ginseng total saponin and extract on memory in mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance method. Red ginseng total saponins (No. 1: PD/PT ratio=1.24, No. 2: PD/PT ratio=1.47) were prepared with the different mixing ratio by using the parts of red ginseng. In single administration of total saponin No. 1 (100 mg/ kg, bw) or No. 2 (50 mg/kg, bw) increased the latency time as compared with control group but was not statistically significant. Treatment of total saponin No. 1 (50 mg/kg, bw) for 10 days produced an increase of latency time but was not statistically significant. In scopolamine-induced memory deficient mice total saponin No. 1 (50 mg/kg, bw) and No. 2 (100 mg/kg, bw) significantly improved the latency time. These results show that red ginseng total saponin may improve the memory of sco-polamine-induced memory deficient mice and have nootropic activity.
Effects of Ginseng Saponin on the Cytokine Gene Expression in Human Immune System
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 15~22
In order to investigate the Immunomodulatory effects of ginseng, we have studied the effects of ginseng saponin on the proliferation and cytosine gene expression of human pheripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). In the PBMC proliferation assay, total saponin exhibited proliferation inhibition on the PBMC or phytohemagglutinin(PHA)-stimulated PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Immunomodulatory effects of ginseng were further investigated using the cytokine gene expression as the indicators. In the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), migration inhibitory factor and transforming growth factor genes were expressed in the PHA-stimulated PBMC 48 hrs after cell culture. Among expressed cytokines, total saponin could increase the expression of IL-1 and TNF of PBMC without stimulation of PHA. All of ginsenosides,
, Rc, Re, incresed TNF gene expression. Especially, Rb2 (20 g/ml) showed most prominent effect on TNF gene expression and it also slightly increased IL-1 gene expression of PBMC.
Effect of Triterpenoidal Glycosides of Dammarane Series and Their Aglycones on Phase Transitions of Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
Kim, Yu.A. ; Park, Kyeong-Mee ; Park, Hwa-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 23~29
The effect of ginseng glycosides and their aglycones on the thermodynamic characteristics of membranes from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was investigated. Total saponins (TS) from Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, interacted with the Eel Phase of lipid in the Polar region and did not penetrate the deeper glycerol backbone of lipid molecule. From the all investigated components of TS (aglycons and ginsenosides), only 20-(S)-panaxadiol (PD) had an effect similar to TS. High concentration of TS penetrated in hydrophobic Cl-C8 region. The presence of cholesterol did not influence the interaction of TS with DPPC. An elimination of transition, however, took place at 10~100
/ml of TS. DPPC had a low ability to interact with cholesterol (CHL) as compared with other lecithins except ethanolamine. From our results, only TS and PD, at high concentrations (100 mol%), influenced the phase transition of mixture of DPPC:CHL.
Polyacetylenes from the Rhizome of Korean Red Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 30~35
Some polyacetylenes were Isolated from the rhizome of Korean red ginseng through re - pealed column chromatogrphy, and identified as 3-hydroxy-1, 9-heptadecadiene-4, 6-diyne (panaxynol), 9, 10-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-heptadecene-4, 6-diane(panaxydol), 3, 9, 10-trihydroxy-1-heptadecene-4, 6-diyne(panaxytriol), 9, 10-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1, 16-heptadecadiene-4, 6-diyne(ginsenoyne A) and 10-ch1oro-3, 9-dihydroxy-1-heptadecene-4, 6-diane(panaxydol chlorohydrine) by several spectral and chemical methods.
Comparison of Proximate Composition, Mineral Nutrient, Amino Acid and Free Sugar Contents of Several Panax Species
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 36~41
Chemical components of Panax (P) species were compared. p. species used were Korean white ginseng, Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng (P ginseng), American and Canadian ginseng (P. quinquefolium) , and sanchl ginseng (P. notoginseng). No significant difference in the proximate contents was observed among P. species. Ash, crude lipld and total sugar contents in root of P. notoginseng were found to be relatively lower than those of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium, but the contents of crude protein and crude fiber were similar among those ginsengs. Mineral nutrient con tents showed a little difference among ginseng species. Total nitrogen contents were slightly higher in P. ginseng than P. quinquefolium and P. notoginseng and Fe and Cu were lower in Chinese and Japanese red ginsengs. Kinds and compositions of amino acids were similar but contents of amino acids were different among ginseng species. Total amino acid contents were 76.3∼83.9 mg/g in P. ginseng 53.8∼60.4 mg/g in p. quinquefolium and 54.9 mg/g in P notoginseng. Free sugar contents were lower in P. notoginseng than P. ginseng or P. quinquefolium. Sucrose accounted for 90∼92% of total free sugar contents with relatively high content in white ginsengs, while sucrose and maltose were 32-36% and 55∼60%, respectively, in red ginseng.
Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Components of Panax Species
Ko, Sung-Ryong ; Choi, Kang-Ju ; Kim, Young-Hoi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 42~48
This study was carried out to determine the differences of essential oil components among Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng, and Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Mayer) , American and Canadian ginseng (P. Quinquefolium), and sanchi ginseng (P notoginseng). The steam distilled oils of these ginsengs were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and 22 sesquiterpenes, 8 sesquiterpene alcohols, 8 monoterpenes, 5 aldehydes, 4 esters, 3 acids, 2 alcohols and 5 miscellaneous components were identified. The major oil components of Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng were
-neoclovene, selina-4,11-diane, bicyclo-ger-macrene and spathulenol. The contents of
-basabolene and spathulenol were higher in Korean red ginseng than Chinese and Japanese red ginseng. The contents of
-cubebene, selina-4,11-diene and ledol were higher in Chinese red ginseng than Korean and Japanese red ginseng, but those of selina-4,11-diene and spathulenol were lower in Japanese red ginseng than Korean or Chinese red ginseng. On the other hand, the GC patterns of the oils from American, Canadian and sanchi ginseng were different from that of Korean white ginseng.
Comparison of Protein Patterns of the Root Pith from Panax ginseng and Panax quirnquefolium
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 49~53
The purpose of this study was to analyze the electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins from ginseng roots and to compare the protein patterns from Korean ginseng and American quinquefolium. The size difference was found in the major protein bands of a molecular weight of about 27,000 between Korean ginseng and American quinquefolium. The protein band of a molecular weight of 22,000 showed a quantitative difference in its amount. The major 27 K proteins appeared to form a complex heterodimer of 66,000 and to have internal bisulfide bonds, from band shifting studies under non-denaturing conditions. Three peaks appeared when the protein extract from root homogenates was purified using gel filtration and DEAE ion exchange chromatography. The examination of physiological activity and further purification of these fractions are underway.
Changes in Chemical Components of Red Ginseng Extract Solution and Physicochemical Properties of Precipitates Formed During Pterilization and Storage
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 54~59
Red Ginseng extracts sol'n was sterilized at 85f for 20 mins and/or stored at 4
for 6 months and centrifuged for 20 mins at 8,500xg in order to investigate the changes in chemical components of supernatants and the properties of precipitates. Contents of crude saponin and ginsenoside-
, -Re were partially decreased during heating and storage. Starch contents were decreased from 26.81% in red ginseng extracts to 17.50-8.81% in supernatants, whereas free sugar contents were increased from 15.50% to 20.29~21.35% by heating and storage. The contents of protein and minerals in supernatants were decreased, but acidic polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds were not changed. pH values of supernatants and precipitates were decreased. The absorbances of brown color precursor and brown pigment in precipitates, detected at 285 nm and 440 nm were remarkably increased. The Overa11 data suggest that precipitates in red ginseng extracts sol'n formed during steilization and storage are provably the brown pigments resulting from Maillard reaction of amino compounds with reducing sugar which could be released from starch and protein matrix and
ions are implicated with the reaction incorporated.
Preparation of Red Ginseng Extract Rich in Acidic Polysaccharide from Red Tail Ginseng Marc Produced After Extraction with 70% Ethyl Alcohol
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 60~64
In this study, we investigated the appropriate conditions to extract acidic polysaccharide and to prepare red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide from red tail ginseng marc produced after manufacturing alcoholic extract from red tail ginseng. Amount of acidic polysaccharide in red tail ginseng marc was about 11%. The best condition for the extraction of acidic polysaccharide from the marc was using of 3~5 mg of
-amylase/g residue/15 ml of distilled water, and the amount of acidic polysaccharide in water extract of the residue treated with
-amylase was about 27%. So, it is possible to manufacture red ginseng extract being rich in acidic polysaccharide using water extract of red tail ginseng alcoholic residue as extraction solvent. From the above results, we suggest that red tail ginseng residue produced by manufacturing alcoholic extract of red tail ginseng has high potencies in the utilization of waste material.
Automatic Decision-Making on the Grade of 6-Year-Old Fresh Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by an Image Analyzer 1. Shape and Weight Analyses according to the Grade of Fresh Ginseng
Kang, Je-Yong ; Lee, Myong-Gu ; Kim, Yo-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 65~71
This study was undertaken to evaluate the automatic decision-making on the grading of 6-year-old fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by an image analyzer. The best input method for the 6-year-old fresh ginseng was under condition of a low resolution (128u 128 pixel) and illumination direction from bottom to up (light box). It was possible to identify the main root, lateral root, and rhizome of fresh ginseng by application of OPEN process in a function of an image analyzer. Finally, we developed the grade decision-making programs, GinP-1. The fitness rates for the fresh ginseng standards which were classified by experts were 94.6, 80.6, 81.5, and 100.0% for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade of fresh ginseng, respectively, and the total time of decision-making was about 4.3 seconds per one root. The decision-making time was reduced to 0.8 seconds per one root by enhancemeat of the Image analyzer, which was tested by the technical company of the image analyzer,'Carl Zeiss (Germany). As a result of this study, the automatic decision-making on the grade of fresh gin send by image analyzer seems to have high possibility.
Identification of Age of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) based on Stem Vestige of Rhizome
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 72~77
This study was conducted to establish an identification method age for cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) based on counting the stem vestige at rhizome. Weight, diameters of body and lateral roots, and ratios of those diameters were overlapped with those of other ages, so these are not enough as a criterion for identification of ginseng age. Since the stem vestige at rhizome was remained clearly from the 3rd-year age, root age can be the number of stem vestige +2. The number of stem vestige should be counted at the one side of rhizome with abundant vestige for multi stewed plant. It is necessary that the number of year-ring in root is investigated for rhizome damaged plant, but it must be considered that the new year-ring can be shown clearly after around loth of June. All dormant roots had damaged rhizome by some reasons.
Effect of Transplanting Angle of Seedling on Root Shape and Growth of Ginseng Plant (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 78~82
In order to clarify effect of transplanting angle of seedling on shape and growth of ginseng root, ginseng of seedlings were transplanted with
respectively, and the root characters of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old ginseng were investigated. The length of main root with 45
was above 7 cm (standard) but that of
was below 7 cm (standard). Number of good lateral root was above 2.3 ea for
, but below 2.3 ea per plant for 60~
respectively. Root fresh weight with
was heavier than that with
. Root disease infection rate was highest with
. There were, no significant difference in stem length, stem diameter, leaf area, comber of palmate leaves and leaflets per plant, ratio of missing plant, root diameter in 2-, 4- and 6-year-old ginseng.
and ABA Application on After-ripening of Panax quinquefolium Seeds during Stratification
Guixing Ren ; Feng Chen ; Haozhe Lian ; Jinghui Zhao ; Xianzong Gao ; Chongming Guo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 83~87
The effects of gibberilin (
) on levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and zeatin in both fresh and stratified American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) seeds were investigated. In our first experiment, the fresh seeds were stratified after soaked in 80 ppd
solution for 24 hours. We found that the IAA concentration in embryo increased by 50.7% and 82.1% respectively at the 120th day and the 188th day of stratification, and the zeatin concentration also increased by 3.8% and 51.6% respectively. In our second experiment, we treated the seeds after 134 days stratification with 80 ppm GA3 for 24 hours and then continued to stratify them. We found that the IAA concentration in embryo increased by 32.9% and 17.7% respectively at the 164th day and the 208th day of stratification while zeatin concentration increased by 22.7% and 30.6% respectively In our another experiment, we studied the effects of
, abscislc acid (ABA) and GA, plus ABA on germination rate of seeds treated with these plant hormones during stratification. We found that when the stratified seeds whose ratio of embryo had reached 75% were treated with 80 ppm GA3 for 24 hours and then were allowed to be stratified for another 88 days, the weight and length of embryo (p < 0.05), and germination rate (p < 0.01) increased. In contrast, the 25 ppm ABA treated with for 24 hours was found to Inhibit the growth of embryo (p < 0.05) and reduce the germination rate (p < 0.05) . The experiment of combination treatment of
and ABA showed that
could relieve the inhibitory effects of the ABA on the development of the seeds.
Effect of Incubation Time, Temperature and pH on the Production of Conidia and Chlamydospore of Cylindrocarpon destrutans (Zinssm.) Scholten Causing Root Rot of Panax ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 88~95
The effects of media, incubation time, temperature and pH on production of conidia and chlamydospore of Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinssm.) Scholen causing root rot of Panax ginseng were studied. Microconidia of the pathogen were abundantly produced on V-8 juice agar as a solid substrate with 5.73(log conidia/mm2) and in V-8 broth as a liquid substrate with 6.65 (log conidia/ml) among media tested. No difference was observed on the length of microconidia produced from the media with a range of 9.50∼11.38
. However, tryptic soy agar produced the broadest microconidia (average 5.00
) among the media tested. All the media produced chlamydospores In a range of 1.06∼4.37 (log chlamydospores/mm2) without a significant difference in number, while V-8 juice agar produced the bigger one (18.39
in diameter) as compared to the tested media. The fungus began to sporulate conidia after three days of incubation and reached maximum at the 8th day. It seemed to be in a stationary phase until 30 days of incubation but was decreased thereafter. Chlamydospore was produced at 4th day after incubation. Maximum production was observed at 8th day and the number seemed to be maintained during the observation period. Both conidia and chlamydospore of the pathogen were able to be spoluated at 10∼25
. However, optimum temperatures of conidia and chlamydospore formation were 15∼25
, respectively. C. destrmtans produced conida with an wide range of pH from 3.3 to 8.0 and chlamydospore from 2.8 to 8.0. Number of conidia was increased with an increase of pH up to 4.0. There was no significant difference in the number between 4.0 to 8.0. It seemed to have two optimum pH ranges, 3.3∼4.0 and 7.1∼8.0 for the chlamydospore formation.
Effect of Herbicide Quinclorac on Ginseng Growth
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 96~100
In this experiment, germination test of ginseng seed and growth test of two year old ginseng in soil incorporated with quinclorac (3,7-Dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid) were conducted to evaluate phytotoxicity caused by quinclorac residue in soil. Ginseng seed germiilation was hardly affected, but growth of ginseng seedling was retarded by quinclorac. The phytotoxicity of quinclorac on ginseng seedling was expressed at the lowest level tested, 3.75 g a.i./10a (118 of recommended rate for rice cultivation). The representative phytotoxicity in ginseng were decreased root weight, shortened leaf width and leaf length, and weak lateral root Quinclorac residue decreased by 1/4 in pot soil after 2 months and below 2 ppm in the paddy soil applied at usual rate (30 g a.i./10a) after 1∼ 2 years. Below 2 ppd ginseng did not show any phytotoxicity symptom.
Studies on Reduction of Quinclorac Phytotoxicity in Ginseng Growth
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 101~105
Several attempts have been made to protect crops against injury from herbicide quinclorac residue in soil. In this experiment, a selection of suitable crops for bioassay of the residue and a reduction of phytotoxicity by treatment with active carbon were carried out to prevent or to counteract the phytotoxicity. Cucumber (Cuumts satims) and kidney bean (Phaseolus Mgaris) were the suitable indicator plant in points of a sensitivity to the herbicide residue and an easy cultivation. The phytotoxicity was able to be observed at 20 and 30 days after seeding on kidney bean and cucumber respectively. In pot trials, application of the active carbon at 50 kg/10a protected effectively the 2-year-old ginseng plant from the injury in a paddy soil where the herbicide had been treated at 3 g a. i./10a.
Inhibitory Effects of Ginseng Components on Rat Lens Aldose Reductase Activities
Kim, Hack-Seang ; Park, Ung-Yang ; Seong, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 106~110
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of ginseng components on rat lens aldose reductase activity. Ginseng total saponin (GTS) exhibited inhibitory activities on rat lens aldose reductase in a dose-dependent manner. Among ginsenosides, Rf and Rgl showed potent inhibitory activities on rat lens aldose reductase. Lipid soluble fraction also inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activities. These data suggest that ginseng components inhibit rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro.
-NMR Data in Some (20R)-ginsenosides
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 111~112
The chemical shifts of C-21 and C-23 in the
-NMR for (20R)-protopanaxatriol, (20R)-ginsenoside
were revised by employing some extensive 2D-NMR techniques.
인슐린 비의존성, 당뇨병 환자에서 홍삼이 적혈구의 지질과산화 및 항산화효소 슈퍼옥시드 디스뮤타제에 미치는 영향
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 1, 1996, Pages 113~122