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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Aug 1996
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Apr 1996
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Effects of the Petroleum-ether Extract of Ginseng on the Cell Cycle and Protein Kinase C Activity in Cancer Cells
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 219~225
This study was performed to investigate the inhibition mechanism of cancer cell proof iferation caused by the petroleum-ether extract of ginseng against human rectum (HRT-18), colon (HT-29), llepatoma (Hep G2) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells and monkey kidney cells (Vero 76). Cells were treated with the petroleum-ether extract of ginseng (50 to 200
/ml) in G1 or S phase of the cell cycle, and proliferation and protein kinase C activity were measured. The petroleum-eth or extract of ginseng inhibited proliferation of HRT-18, HT-29, Hep G2 and LNCaP when treated in Gl phase, but not in S phase. This result shows that the ginseng extract arrests the cell cycle in G1 phase, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. At the same concentrations, treatment of the ginseng extract in G1 phase decreased protein kinase C activity, while the treatment in S phase had no effect. This reault suggests that protein kinase C might be involved in the inhibition of the cell cycle and proliferation of cancer cells caused by the petroleum-ether extract of ginseng.
Effects of Red Ginseng Extract Including Vitamin B Groups on Learning and Memory in Mice
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 226~232
This study was performed to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract including some vitamin B groups as test drug on learning and memory in mice. Single and repeated administrations of the test drug improved the acquisition and the process of consolidation in the tests using step-through and step-down apparatus, indicating this test drug improved learning and memory. However, the test drug did not improve scopolamine-induced amnesia. These results suggest that test drug may be useful as a nootropic agent
인삼(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Saponin 성분이 흰쥐의 장기에서 Polyamine 대사에 미치는 영향
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 233~240
In order to study effects of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) saponin fraction on polyamine metabolism in rat organs, Korean ginseng saponin fraction was administrated to rats for 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months and brain, liver, prostate, spleen and testis were removed from these rats. Two enzyme activities were measured from those organs; ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is a regulatory enzyme of putrescence biosynthesis and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), which is also a regulatory enzyme of spermidine and spermine biosynthesis. The amounts of polyamine were also determined. As for prostate and testis organs, Korean ginseng saponin fraction was innocuous for ODC and SAMDC activities from rats fed for 1 and 2 months. However, after 3 months, the stimulatory effect on the activities of two enzyme gradually increased in test groups and reached its maximum in 12 months. The contents of spermidine and spermlne of test groups in prostate and testis were also much higher than those of control groups. Another stimulatory effect on the activities of two enzymes was observed in liver and reached its maximum in 6 months. In the other organs such as brain and spleen, the enzymes were turned out to be not affected by feeding Korean ginseng saponin fraction. From the cumulative results, the stimulatory effect of Korean ginseng saponin fraction on polyamine metabolism was observed in prostate, testis and liver.
Comparison of the Effects of Ginseng Total Saponin, Ginsenoside-
and Lovastatin on the Expression of mRNAs for HMG CoA reductase and LDL Receptor
Noh, Yun-Hee ; Lim, G-Rewo ; Koo, Ja-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 241~247
The effects of ginseng total saponin, ginsenoside-Rb, and -Rb, on the reduction of chmlesterol level and the myNA expression rates of HMG CoA reductase and LDL receptor in Hep G2 were investigated and compared with that of lovastatin, a competitive HMG CoA reductase Inhibitor. The amounts of cholesterol in Hep G2 decreased in total saponin-and ginsenoside-treated groups as compared with that of control group, while there was no significant reduction in lovastatin-treated group. The mRNA expression rates of HMG CoA reductase increased in total saponin and gin- senoside groups except for ginsenoside-Rb, (10-3%) group and decreased in lovastatin group com- pared with that of control group. The mRNA expression rates of LDL receptor generally increased In all of the test groups except for total saponin (10-5%) group compared with that of control group. Because the ginseng components tested were more effective in the reduction of cholesterol level in Hep G2 than lovastatin and induced the gene expression of LDL receptor, we suggest the possibility that they could be used as a replacement agent for lovastatin which can not be prescribed especially to patients with hepatic diseases.
Effect of Acidic Polysaccharide Components of Korean Ginseng on Lipolytic Action of Toxohormone-L and on Activity of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
Lee, Sung-Dong ; Hwang, Woo-Ik ; Okuda, Hiromichi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 248~255
This study was devised to observe in vitro, the inhibitory effects of acidic polysaccharide fractions from Korean red ginseng (KRG) and white ginseng (KWG) on the lipolytic action of loxohormone-L and on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, peptidyldipeptidase hydrolase, EC 18.104.22.168) . The crude acidic polysaccharides (CAP) extracted from main and lateral roots of KRG and KWG were separately purified through several procedures. The total inhibitory activities on the lipolytic action of toxohormone-L of CAP from main roots of KRG and KWG was higher than those of CAP from lateral roots of KRG and KWG, respectively, and that of CAP from main root of KRG was 3.1 times higher than that of CAP from main root of KWG. The specific activity of CAP from main root of KRG was measured as 5.40 units/mg, when one unit was defined as the amount giving 50% inhibition on toxohormone-L induced lipolysls. A subfraction named PG4 3 obtained by replanted chromatography on DEAE-TOYOPEARL 650M gave the specific activity of 24.4 units/mg. On the other hand, it was found that the total inhibitory activity on ACE of CAP from lateral root of KRG was the highest among the 4 kinds of CAP, but the specific activity of CAP from lateral root of KWG was the highest.
A Comparative Biological Study of the Rhizome and Main Root from Red and White Ginsengs
Park, Jong-Dae ; Wee, Jae-Joon ; Kim, Young-Sook ; Kim, Si-Kwan ; Park, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 256~261
Comparative biological activities of 70fr methanol extracts from the main roots and rhizomes of both red and white ginsengs were investigated using several in vitro experimental models. The main root of red ginseng and the rhizome of white ginseng strongly inhibited lipld peroxidation of hepatic microsomes induced by the non-enzymatic
/ Ascorbate system. The main root and rhizome of red ginseng markedly inhibited the release of G07, GPT and LDH by
-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes as compared with those of white ginseng. And also, the main root of red ginseng showed a slight differentiating activity on HL-60 cancer cell line. The results suggest that the rhizome of ginseng have potential as a source of medicinal crude drug with possible pharmacolobica1 applications .
Effect of Controlled Atmosphere Storage on the Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Activities of Fresh and Red Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 262~268
4-year-old fresh ginseng was stored for 12 weeks at 4
under the CA storage and samples were withdrawn after every 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for processing of red ginseng. Antloxidative and cytotoxic activities of steamed red ginseng for the quality evaluation are summarized as follows: Reducible activity of water extract to 1, 1-dipenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl increased with increasing storage period. Antioxldative activity of red ginseng did not change in petroleum ether fraction, while it had a tendency to increase In the fractions of ethyl ether and ethyl acetate with increasing storage period. in contrast to fresh ginseng, malonaldehyde formation In heparin mlcrosome of red ginseng processed from fresh ginseng stored In CO2:O2:Nl (6:4:90) with a 0.5% DF-100 immersion condition decreased but was not changed significantly by the period of storage. Cytotoxic activity against cancer cell at a 40 mg/ml concentration of red ginseng slightly increased with an increase in storage period but no effect was observed at the concentration less than 10 mg/ml.
Action of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoidal Glycosides and Their Aglycones on Lipid Membranes
Kim, Yu.A. ; Park, Kyeong-Mee ; Hyun, Hack-Chul ; Song, Yong-Bum ; Shin, Han-Jae ; Park, Hwa-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 269~273
We investigated the effects of ginseng glycosides and their aglycones on processes of single ion channel formation and channel properties. The glycosides, Rg, and Rb, , and their aglycones, 20-(S)-protopanaxatriol (PT) and 20-(S)-protopanaxadiol (PD) increased the membrane permeability for ions. PT, PD, Rg1, and Rb1; at concentrations of 0.5, 3.0, 10.0 and 30.0
/ml respectively; Induced single ion channel fluctuations with the life times in the range of 0.1~1005 in open states and conductances from 5 to 30 pS in 1 M KCI. At high concentrations of these substances, rapid fluctuations of transmembrane ion current with amplitude from hundred pS to dozen nS were observed. Against other substances, ginsenoside Rbl began to increase the membrane conductance at concentration of about 60
/ml without fluctuation of single ion channel. Membranes treated with PT, PD, Rg1 and Rb1 are more permeable to K+, than to Cl while zero current membrane potentials with 10 gradients of KCI were 12, 16, 8, 25 mV respectively. Key words : Membrane conductance, single ion channel, ginsenosides.
Effect of Ginseng Components on Ryanodine Receptor-
Release Channel Complex Protein in Sarcoplasmlc Reticulum of Skeletal Muscle
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 274~283
In this study, the effects of red ginseng components [ginsenosides (total saponins and
) on the function of ryanodine receptor (RyR) -
release channel complex protein (named as RyR or
channel), a membrane protein in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of rabbit skeletal muscle were examined at the SR vesicle's level and the molecular levels with Chaps-solubilized and purified
channel protein and with reconstituted proteoliposomes by dialysis. The results were as follows. 1. The binding of ryanodine known as inhibitor of muscle contraction to the RyR was decreased at the whole range of concentration (
%) by these two ginseng components. In heavy SR vesicles, Chaps-solubilized and purified
channel protein, and reconstituted vesicles, its maximal inhibition by total saponins was shown at the concentration of
% respectively, and by gin- senoside
) each was
%. 2. The release of
channel in heavy SR vesicles and reconstituted proteoliposomes was increased as a whole by these two ginseng components, and particularly maximal release by both of them was shown at the range of
%. These results were seemed to be caused by conformational change of
release channel protein (RyR) by red ginseng components [ginsenosides (total saponins and
Analysis of Phenolic Components in Korean Red Ginseng by GC/MS
Wee, Jae-Joon ; Heo, Jeong-Nam ; Kim, Man-Wook ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 284~290
To Identify phenolic components known to exist in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by GC/MS, three derivatization methods were employed for their analyses. First, phenolic components in ether soluble acidic fraction prepared from Korean red ginseng powder were taimethylsilylated. Secondly, phenolic acids in the same fraction were esterified with diazomethane followed by trlmethylsilylation. Thirdly, acidic components in ginseng powder were extracted and esterified concurrently by methanolic sulfuric acid, followed by fractionation of phenolic components with Silica Sep-Paka and trimethylsilylatlon. All phenolic components found in ginseng except gen tisic acid were identified by retention times and mass spectrums of standards. Besides, 5 phenolic components including salicyl alcohol and 1-H-indole-2-carboxylic acid were first identified from Korea an red ginseng by GC/MS.
Free Amino Acid Composition of Tap Root in Panax species
Lee, Mee-Kyoung ; Park, Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 291~298
Free amino acid (FAA) compositions in the central part (pith-xylem : P-X) and the outer part (phloem-cortex : P-C) of root were investigated for P ginseng (P.g), p. quinque-folium (P.q) an, B P nutoginsen (P.n) by an amino acid analyzer. Total free amlno acids content (TFAA) was highest in p.맥 and lowest in p.n. The TFAA of P-Xs were higher than those of P-Cs in these Panax species except p.n. The higher the TFAA in P-X, the higher the ratio of TFAA in P-X to that in P-C. Seven- teen free amino acids and ammonia were identified, and four unknown peaks appeared before the usual amino acids eluted. The total aspartic acid equivalent of these unknown peaks was corresponded to 77% of known TFAA in P-C of p.n, 17% in P. n, and 7% in p.q. The pattern of unknown peaks of p.g was different from p.q and similar to P.n. In all samples six major amino acids and ammonia accounted for 90~95% of TFAA. Arginine was comprised from 29% (P.n) to 43% (P.g) by amole as amino acid and from 50 to 71% by amole as nitrogen (N amole) in TFAA. Ammonia was the second abundant one by amole and the third by Npmole. Histidine was the second by Npmole. Praline was one of major FAA in p.q. Pattern similarity of FAA composition (excluding Arg and Am) by simple correlation was closer between P-C of p.g and P-X of p.q than between both P-Xs and quite different between the P-X of p.g and that of p.n. The pattern similarities of major FAA percent abundance excluding Arg and Am were significant only between P-X and P-C of the same species. Arginine content (amole) had positive correlation (r=0.859, p=0.05) with Arg/Am among species. Ammonia content was higher than arginine in p.n. Tryptophan content was greatest in p.n among species and higher than lysine only in p.n. The ratios of TFAA to N(W/W) were in the range of 3.89~4.14 for TFAA and 3.61~3.92 for TFAA plus ammonia.
Physicochemical and Microbiological Changes in Dongchlmi Juice during Fermentaion with the Addition of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 299~306
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of fresh ginseng on the physicochemical and microbiological changes in dongchimi juice fermented under various conditions. The pH was somewhat lower in dongchimi juice added with 2.0% and 4.0% of fresh ginseng than that without ginseng, whereas the titratable acidity was higher in dongchimi juice with 2.0% and 4.0% of ginseng addition than the control. The addition of fresh ginseng to dongchimi preparation increased the numbers of total viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostac mesenterotdes in dongchimi juice during fermentation. The changes in the counts of lactic acid bacteria were similar to those of total viable cells throughout the experiment except the initial stage of fermentation. However, the number of Leucosfastoc mesenternidgs decreased after the palatable stage. Key words : Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, dongchlmi juice, pH, titratable acidity, microbiological changes.
Changes in Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Dongchiml Juice during Fermentation with the Addition of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Oh, Hoon-Il ; Kwon, Soo-Mi ; Shin, Tai-Sun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 307~317
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of fresh ginseng addition on the chemical and sensory properties of dongchimi juice fermented under various conditions. The contents of free sugars in dongchimi juice during fermentation increased at the initial stage, but decreased at the palatable stage and then increased again thereafter. Free sugars were higher in dongchlml juice with 4% of ginseng addition than with Soye ginseng and without ginseng addition. Analyses of organic acid contents showed that all three groups contained relatively high amounts of citric, lactic and malic acids. It was also found that, as fermentation progressed, the amounts of tactic and acetic acids in- creased, while that of malic acid decreased at the palatable stage and increased again thereafter. Total saponins were highest in dongchimi juice fermented at 4
with 4% of ginseng addition and panax atrlol ginsenosldes were found more than panaxadiol ginsenosides in dongchimi juice The results of sensory evaluation revealed that dongchimi juice prepared with the addition of
and 4% ginseng was lower in sour taste and moldy off flavor than the control, thus scoring high In total acceptability. Dongchimi juice with 4% of ginseng addition was best in most sensory characteristics.
Growth and Ginsenosides Production of Hairy Root (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) via Light Energy
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 318~324
The effects of light on the growth and ginsenosides production were examined in the hairy roots of Panax ginsen C.A. Meyer induced by Agrobacterium rhizogines A4. The 9rowth of ginseng hairy roots in 1/2MS liquid medium was significantly decreased with an increment of light intensity (1,000~7,000 lux). The growth of hairy roots under 7,000 lux condition was decreased at 17% compared to the dark condition. The production of 7 ginsenosides in hairy root was very high in 3,500 lux condition. The production of ginsenoside-Rg, and Rf increased 3.3 and, 2.4 times respectively as compared to dark condition. The growth of hairy roots was inhibited by blue light, while ginsenosides production was increased. The sucrose demands of hairy roots was examined in light condition(3,500 lux). The growth of hairy roots in 1/2MS liquid medium with various sucrose concentrations(1~4%) was high in IVp sucrose, while ginsenosides production was high in 3% sucrose condition. The growth and ginsenosides production were high when hairy roots were cultured in dark condition for 1 week and then transferred to light condition(3,500 lux) for 4 weeks. It is suggested that ginsenosides production could be accelerated by light intensity of specific wavelength in cultures of ginseng hairy roots.
Dynamic Studies on Physiology and Biochemistry in American Seng Seed During Stratification - Part I. Embryo Ratio, Dry Weight Ratio and respiration Rate
Huang, Yao-Ge ; Li, Xiang-Gao ; Yang, Ji-Xiang ; Kuang, Ya-Lan ; Yan, Jie-Kun ; Cui, Shu-Yu ; Liu, Ren-Song ; Kim, Hack-Seang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 325~330
Dynamic parameters of physiology including embryo ratio (ER), embryo length to endosperm length, dry weight ratio between embryo and endosperm (DWR) and respiration rate (RR) in American send (Panax quinquefolium L.) seed were investigated. According to the changes of ER during seed stratification, the duration of embryo afterripening could be divided into three stages as \circled1 embryo slow growth stage (ESGS), ER increased from 7.31% to 20.48% (0.16% day-1): \circled2 embryo rapid growth stage (ERGS), ER increased to 80.98% (0.61% day-1) (75G5+ ERGS=morphological afterripening stage (MP,5)) and \circled3pysiological afterripening stage (PAS), ER Increased to 88.50% (0.094 day-1) only. DWR Increased slowly from 0.20% to 2.76clp (0.016% day-1) in MAS and rapidly to 8.81% (0.061% day-1) in PAS. The RR correlated significantly with ER as well (r=0.8934 > rot, 0.6610). The steep increment of both DWR and RR in PAS indicated that the PAS was not a static stage although the ER was not changed too much. All of these may provide some information for understanding the dormancy mechanisms of American sting seed.
Screening and Utilization of Antagonistic Plants to Control Northern root-knot Nematode in Ginseng Fields
Yang, Kae-Jin ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 331~338
This study was conducted to screen the antagonistic plants on northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne) and to utilize those in its control. Egg hatching of M. hapla was found to be inhibited by 17 plant methanol extracts, and 11 plant extracts among them were also toxic to M. hapla second stage juvenile. Egg hatching of iW. hapla was also found to be inhibited by squeezed extracts of Cassia tora and Zea mays, and they were also toxic to M. hapla second stage juvenile. Extracts of Achyranthes japonica, Melia axedrach and Acorus graminens were toxic to M. hapla second stage with a juvenile mortality above 70clc at the 10 folds diluted concent ration and A. graminens was toxic to tested juvenile mortality above 50% at the 100 folds diluted concentration. The toxicity was directly propotional to the diluted concentration of the plant extracts and to the exposure period. Punica granatum, Acorns graminens and Melia axedrach were effective in inhibiting root penetration of JW. hapla juveniles, among of them p. granatum is most effective Percent inhibition of penetration by second and third stage juveniles into tomato slants penetrating by it was 72.7 and 82.4%, respectively.
Effect of Ginseng on the Relaxation of the Penile Corpus Cavernosal Smooth Muscle in Rabbits
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 3, 1996, Pages 339~343
The effect of ginseng on the reactivity of penile corpus cavernosal smooth muscle strips of rabbits was investigated to support the clinical application of ginseng for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, normal diet group (n=9) and ginseng saponin diet group (n=5). Then, each group was fed normal diet and Korean red ginseng saponin diet (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks. We measured concentration dependent relaxation of corporal smooth muscle to acetylcholine (10-8 M to 10-4M) in organ chamber. The degree of relaxation was expressed as percentage of maximal relaxation obtained by papaverine (10-4M). Dose dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle to acetylcholine, at the concentration of 10-8 M to 10-4M by half log increment, was 4.06
2.40 and 33.41
2.48 (%), respectively in normal diet group and 9. 83
4.62, 24.1815.12, 35.75
4.17 and 51.98
3.92 (Vc), respectively in ginseng group. These data suggest that ginseng enhances ondothelium-dependent acetylcholine-induced relaxation of penile corpus cal.ernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.