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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Dec 1996
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Aug 1996
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Apr 1996
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Recent Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 389~415
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer(Araliaceae) has been traditionally used as an expensive and precious medicine in oriental countries for more than 5, 000 years. Ginseng saponin isolated from the root of Panax ginseng have been regarded as the main effective components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities. Such as antiaging effects. antidiabetic effects anticancer effects. Protection against physical and chemical stress. Analgesic and antipyretic effects. Effects on the central nervous system, tranquilizing action and others. Thirty kinds of ginsenosides have been so far isolated from ginseng saponin and their chemical structures have been elucidated since 1960's. Among which protopanaxadiol type is 19 kinds. protopanaxatriol type. 10 kinds and oleanane type, one. Since ginsenosides are generally labile under acidic conditions ordinary acid hydrolysis is always accompanied by many side reactions, such as epimerization. hydroxylation and cyclization of side chain of the sapogenins Especially. it is well known that C-20 glycosyl linkage of ginsenoside was hydrolysed on heating with acetic acid to give an equilibrated mixture of 20(S) and 20(R) epimers. And also, the chemical transformations of the secondary metabolites have appeared during the steaming process to prepare red ginseng. Indicating demalonylation of malonyl ginsenosides, elimination of glycosyl residue at C-20 and isomerization of hydroxyl configuration at C-20. But these studies have not provided a comprehensive picture in explaning how these ginsenosides showed val'iotas pharmacological activities of ginseng. Though some of them have been involved in the mechanism of pharmacological actions. Recently, non-saponin components have received a great deal of attention for their antioxidant, anticancer antidiabetic, immunomodulating. anticomplementary activities and so on. To meet the demand for such wide applications, studies on the non-saponin components play an important role in providing a good evidence of pharmacological and biol ogical activities. Among the non-saponin constituents of Korean ginseng, polyacetylenes, phenols. Sesquiterpenes, alkaloids. polysaccharides oligosaccharides, oligopeptides and aminoglycosides together with ginsenosides of terrestrial part are mainly described.
Pharmacological Actions of Ginseng -The endothelium related response
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 416~430
With the progress of chemical researches in ginseng studies, efforts to elucidate the pharmacological actions of ginseng have been greatly increased. The majority of ginseng reaserches in the past has been performed with crude extracts from ginseng roots to verify scientifically the empirical application of ginseng in men and animals recently. Ginseng reaserches have been done mostly with pure ginsenosides and there has been a shift in focus to the various biochemical pathways. It was demonstvated that ginseng had diverse effects by modulating the second-messenger system, such as cyclic nucleotides. calcium The demonstration in 1987 of the formation of nitric oxide(NO, endothelium-derlled rectating factor) by an enzyme in vascular endothelial cells opened up a new area of biological reaserches of ginseng. It was shown that vascular relaxations induced by glnsenosides are mediated by release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells. According to the literature search from'hledline". There have been 737 original and review articles during the last 30 years. In these review articles, an attempt has been made to summalize some results from some of these published papers. Ginseng has a wide range of phal.macologtcal and therapeutical actions. It acts on the centralral nervous system and cardiovascular system, promotes immune function and metabolism. Possesses anti-stress. Anti-cancer and anti-ageing activities, and so on.o on.
Studies on the Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Korean Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 431~471
Korean ginseng has been thought and used the most very important medicinal herb among the oriental medicinal drugs for thounds of years Korean ginseng had many ingredients such as tripenoid saponins. Nitrogen compounds, polysaccharides, polyacetylenic compounds and lipid compounds. Korean ginseng has wide effects in the various systems of human such as nervous system. Vascular system. Digestive system. endocrine system, immune system. etc. Many researchess who were interested in the biological effects of Korean ginseng have concerned the tripenoid saponins among the components of ginseng and carried out to find the effects of ginseng using the various experimental system. From their results, it was unveiled many effects of Korean ginseng gractually in the experimental systems and shown that Korean ginseng has various effects in the biological system. But recent studies has been carried out to the difference ginseng components, besides ginseng saponin thought to have various effects in biological systems. Also the functional mechanism of ginseng in the biological system is limited but the basic research to elucidate the mysterious effects of ginseng has been preferred. In this review, we focus on biological effects of Korean ginseng. Especially physiological and biochemical aspects in biological systems.
Research on Ginseng Production During the Past 20 years
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 472~500
Researches on mineral nutrition, physiology and phyrsiological diseases, . cultivaction methods. brceding. pest control quality management and extension during 1976-1995 in Korea were reviewed Review in brceding and pest control was restricted to the researches directely related to cultivaction. Mineral nulrient up take. partion and varicos factors such as top dreasing. Light intersity etc. and interrelationship between minerals were investigated. Top dressing was not effective due to low minera1 requorement Physiological characteristics on tempelature light and water were well elucidated and applied to assess traditional cultivation method and its inovation. Photosyrnthetic pigments. light harvest proteins and activity of related enzymes were studied. In nitrogen metabolism arginine, praline, ammonium, threonine appeared to have important role in re growth of shoot Saponin metabolism was studied in relation to growth and new ginsenosides were found but physiological role of saponin was not clearly elucidated yet Endogenous growth regulators were reported and various erogenous growth regulators were studied for growth stimulation. short stem and seed pruning etc. Various physiological diseases were investigated for cause and control measures were established. Water culture was little studied Forest culture was studied but not retched the recommendable stage Drip irrigation straw mulching. seasonal shading and soil preparation method including soil fertility adjustment were established for practical application. Shading materials completely changed to polyethylene net and materials of polymers The research on ginseng cultivation in paddy field opened the way to establish the permanent ginseng cultivation plantation Ginseng harvester and seeder were developed in the late 1950s. Transplanted and many other machines were developed in the early 1990s. In ginseng breeding only pure line selection was of practical significance several verities were at the stage of seed propagation at ginseng plantations. Mutation breeding (
-ray. X-ray chemicals) was not successful. The research on plantlet formation through tissue culture was a little progressed but still far behind to vegetative propagation. Disease control research was concentrated in the isolation and identification of pathogans. their ecological charactelistics and biological control and soil humigation. Potato root rot nematodes was found and control method was established. Insect and small animal control research was greatly progresses in identification, ecological investigation, and ecological and physical control. Weed control was less important due to the development of mulching method of ridge and ditch. Quality factors of raw ginseng in relation to red ginseng process were extensively studied. Traditional quality measures were elucidated in accordance with modern analytical chemistry resulting in the importance of peptides in the centrat part rather than ginsenosides For large root production growth promoting rootzone micrcorganisms (PGPRM) were isolated and active compounds were identified. Field test on PGPRM was on going. Varictus methods formality improvement through cultivation were developed. Management research of ginseng production was rare Extension was active throuch official and private organizations and through workshop for the extension specialists, and direct lectures to grower's. Extension services made the researcher to understand the existing problems at grower's fields. Research environment for ginseng production was in prime time only for three years when Korea Ginseng Research Institute was established then gradually aggravated.
Current Status of processing and Research Trends in Ginseng Products
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 501~519
There are two kinds of commercially available ginseng root, red ginseng and white ginseng processed from fresh ginseng root Those ginsengs are primary product from fresh ginseng root and have the characteristic of keeping their original root shape Processed ginseng products are made from either red ginseng or white ginseng by way of complicated process of pulverization. Extraction. Condensation, fettering, sterilization, etc. Among them there are extracts. extract powder, powder, capsules tablets, Candy, drinks, nectar, jelly, gums. chicken soup. tonic. etc. to meet the demand for consumer's pretheronce . The 200 kinds of processed secondary products are approximately produced in the form of 20 kinds of ginseng products by about 60 domestic companies. In spite of about 213.000 million won of domestic market in 1993. it seems like that the ginseng market of the future has not a good prospects The total market sale of white ginseng in Korea has been continuously decreased since 1991 And 963 tons of white ginseng was consumed in domestic market in 1993 The domestic market sales of white ginseng in origina1 root shave. was 90, 000 million won in 1993 and market price of the fine root used as a source of processed products has not been changed in these ten years. The total market sale of red ginseng and its processed products was 58, 000 million won in 1993 9.800 mi11ion won of red ginseng in original root shape and 48.000mi11ion of processed red ginseng product. Ginseng products such as extracts, drinks, teas and tonics etc atre mostly exported to south-east Asia. And the total exports of ginseng pi.oducts (extracts, drinks teas) decreased to 54 million dollars in 1994, compared with 85 million dollars in 1992. Despite of extensive knowledge about ginseng little is still known about the development of new processed ginseng pl.oducts because of "Know-How". Some papars have presented the effects of extracting method(amounts of solvent. time. temperature, equipment. etc.) on the quality and yields of ginseng extr acts. Also. some researchers have carried out a few studies on the poriflcation of the extracts and the amounts of precipitation in the drink at variotas pH during the storage for preventinly drink from precipitation. A fell studies on the preservation of Korean ginseng powder. tea. Extract powder by irradiation and ozone treatment have been reported by some researcher for the improvement hygienic quality of ginseng products There are also some reports about the effects of ginseng components on the acid production by lactic acid bacteria or acetic acid bacteria. and alcohol production by yeast for the development of new ginseng products processed by fermentation. To make ginseng more able to contribute to the health of mankind in the future. consistent and considerable efforts should be focussed on improving the taste of ginseng and developing various new product as a health food or a function food.tion food.
Clinical Studies on Korean Ginseng in Korea
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 520~539
Based upon Shennong's Ancient Chinese Medical Textbook and Tsorngji Mingyi Byelu. Ginseng has been widely used for over 2,000 years in oriental countries. Scientific basic medical study or clinical study on ginseng was seal·toed 1910's in Eastern countries and from the 1950's in Western countries To obtain kotvledge of clinical studies on Korean ginseng. I investigated the following items 1) Oriental pharmacological documents. 2) the start and corrent state of ginseng research. 3) Clinical studies, 4) epidemiological studies. 5) non-medical human studies. 6) Foreign evaluation in published papers, and 7) future perspectives of clinical study. Although wide and profound research has been carried on the effect of ginseng (diabetes cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, liver diseases. gastrointestinal disorders soress, bram function. aging, antiradiation effect. anemia. hemopoiesis. immuomodulating effect. and tonic effect). Systemic clinical study to determine the therapeutic effects of speciblc disease have hardly been done even in other countries Clinical study or researches with human as the target. on ginseng has been performed in the field of body tenperazure. Pulse, clinical symptoms and hematological findings . fatigue, porformances. anemia. essential hypertension. blood sugar. serum cholesterol. lipid and prolactin. adrenocortical function. impotence. hypospermia. male sterility, climacteric disorder. anticancer effects. cancer preventive effects. and viral hepatitis. adverse effects. and prefered type of ginseng. At the same time as trying preventives or therapeutics from dietary oi natural products scientific research to support that ginseng is not a mystery. should be porformad to prove the effectiveness of Korean ginseng in the treatment of certain diseases using scientific methods or epidemiological approach.
Ginseng Research in China During The Past 20 Years
Wang, Zhen-Gang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 556~557
Ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been used as a tonic drug in Chinese Traditional Medicine for two thousand years. It is believed to be significantly beneficial for human health. During the past 20 years. due to the modern chemical, biological and pharmacological technology. the ginseng research of China has been developed rapidly Major-work has been carried out by many laboratories in beijing. shanghai and shonzhen, etc Since most of the research works were supported by pharmacological companies. Many interesting papers sometimes are of confidential limitation. It is not easy to bind those papers in common library. To make a comprehensive review of ginseng is very difficult and reluctant.
Ginseng Research in Russia During The Past 20 Years
Kim, Yuri-A. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 558~560
Ginseng researches in the Russia during last two decades (1975-1995). were reviewed especially experimental with data of interactions of saponines from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on membranes. The publications on researches of ginseng were about 200 in total (papers and monographs) for 1975-1995 in Russia.
Ginseng Research During Past 20 Years in Southeast Asia
Yang, Ling-Ling ; Yen, Kun-Ying ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 20, issue 4, 1996, Pages 561~562