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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Dec 1997
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Aug 1997
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
Selecting the target year
Ginseng; Recent Advances and Trends
Nah, Seung-Yeol ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~12
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is well-known oriental herbal medicine. The number of paper reporting the effects on its physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral effects has been increased every year, since ginsenosides isolated from ginseng are known to be biologically active components. This brief review summarizes some of new findings from recently published papers on ginsenosides or ginseng saponins. Therefore, this paper includes the various effects of ginsenosides on neuronal cell growths, on behavior of experimental animals, on enzyme activities, on the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, on neuronal cell excitability, on the motility of intestine, on antitumor activity, on cardiovascular system and metabolism. In spite of various effects of ginsenosides on various cells or organs, it is still to date impossible for one to clearly explain the exact mechanism on the action of ginsenosides. However, in this article I will discuss several papers providing possible explanations on the physiological and pharmacological actions including signal transudation pathway of ginsenosides. The elucidation of the exact mechanism of ginsenosides on cellular or molecular level will not only give us a chance to explain why people have used ginseng as an elixir of life for several thousands of year but also give us a crucial chance to apply ginseng to modern medicine.
Identification and Changes of Physiologically Active Substances During Chilling Storage of Dehisced Ginseng Seeds
Kwon, Woo-Saeng ; Baek, Nam-In ; Lee, Jung-Myung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 13~18
Identification and changes of physiologically active substances during chilling storage of dehisced ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) seeds were analyzed using various preparatory separation methods and purification columns; Dowex 50W and silica gel columns. Seven components with Rf values of 0.20, 0.40, 0.58, 0.66, and 0.70 In solvent system,
:MeOH=3:1 (v/v), Rf values of 0. 63 and 0.74 in solvent system,
:=7:3:1 (v/v) were obtained through Dowex 50W and silica gel column chromatographies. Two components with Rf values of 0.20 and 0.63 in the all chilling treatments were detected in the extract obtained through both chromatographies, and only the former component was gradually increased till 4 weeks of chilling storage and then rapidly decreased from 8 to 16 weeks. UV spectra of Rf values of 0.66 and 0.56 were similar to that of cytokinin, but their physiological activities were not found. Rf values of 0.20 showed activity by radish cotyledon expansion bioassay. The component with Rf value of 0.20 was revealed to have a naphthalene in the proposed chemical structure by various NMR techniques.
Effect of Ginsenosides from Red Ginseng on the Enzymes of Cellular Signal Transduction System
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 19~27
The present study was conducted to assess the effect of total saponins from Korean red ginseng on the biosynthesis of inositol phospholipids in vivo and also effects on the metabolic enzymes, such as phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C(Pl-PLC) and PI-kinases. The administration of 0.1% saponin solution, 0.1 ml 3 times a day intraperitoneally to 5 mice for 30 days has increased a 23% of the body weight when it compared with a control group. The amounts of 32P-phoschorus radioactivity incorporated into the phosphoinositides from the liver and brain tissues have increased a 310% and 260%, respectively, in the saponin treated mice. The activities of PI-PLC from liver and brain were stimulated in the various amounts by the conditions treated with saponins. The PI-kinases from liver and brain were also activated by saponins, but its effect was lower than that of PI-PLC. From these results, it was confirmed that red ginseng saponins have affected positively not only on the biosynthesis of phosphoinositides but also on the PI-PLC and PI-kinases related to the cellular signal transduction.
Effects of Light on the Pigment Production and Chloroplast Development of Ginseng Hairy Roots
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 28~34
The effects of light on the pigment production and chloroplast development were examined on ginseng hairy roots cultured in 1/2MS liquid medium. The chlorophyll and carotenoid production were increased from 1,000 to 3,500 lux condition, but decreased drastically in 7,000 lux condition. The anthocyanin production was significantly increased with increment light intensity(1,000∼7,000 lux). The thylakoid membrane of chloroplast was proplastid in dark condition and it began to develop into thylakoid membrane in 1,000 lux condition and then intact thylakoid membrane was developed in 3,500 lux condition. However, the development of thylakoid membrane in 7,000 lux condition was inhibited comparing to 3,500 lux condition. The total chlorophyll production in blue light condition were high comparing to other wavelength and same as 40% of total chlorophyll on white light(3,500 lux) condition. The chlorophyll and carotenoid production by sucrose concentration were high in 3% sucrose condition and anthocyanin production was high in 4% condition. The production of chlorophyll and carotenoid by light periods was high when explants were cultured in dark condition for 1 week and then transferred to light condition for 4 weeks. Our results suggest that pigment production and chloroplast development could be accelerated by light Intensity of specific wavelength in cultures of ginseng hairy root.
Ginseng protopanaxatriol Saponins but not Protopanaxadiol Saponins Inhibit Spontaneous Motility of Intestine
Young-Hee Shin ; Seo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 35~38
We investigated the effects of ginseng protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol (PT) saponins on the spontaneous contractility of intestine. Treatment with PD saponins showed a slight inhibition of spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum. In contrast, PT saponins showed much larger inhibition with dose-dependent manner in a range of 25~250
/ml. The inhibitory effect by PT saponins was not desensitized with continuous presence of PT saponins for several minutes. In addition, leu-enkephalin (1 PM) also inhibited the spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum but the in- hibition by leu-enkephalin was desensitized rapidly. The presence of PT saponins prevented the desenstization induced by leu-enkephalin. In conclusion, we found that PT saponins exert inhibition of spontaneous contractility of rabbit jejunum and the pattern of inhibition is different from that of opioid.
Dynamic Studies on Physiology and Biochemistry in American Ginseng Seed During Stratification - Part II. Contents of Soluble Carbohydrate, Crude Fat, Fatty Acid and Soluble Protein -
Huang, Yao-Ge ; Li, Xiang-Gao ; Cui, Shu-Yu ; Yu, Wen-Bo ; Kuang, Ya-Lan ; Yan, Jie-kun ; Yang, Ji-Xiang ; Liu, Ren-Song ; Kim, Hack-Seang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 39~42
Dynamic parameters of biochemistry including the contents of soluble carbohydrate (SC) , crude fat (CF) , fatty arid (FA) and soluble protein (SP) in American send (Panax qufnquelolium L.) seed are reported in the present paper. When embryo ratio (ER) increased from 7.31 to 20.48%, the SC content decreased from 4.08 to 1.16%. After that, SC content changed little. The CF content decreased successively from 34.50 to 14.40% from the beginning to the end during the embryo afterripening. The changes of FA content did not correlate with that of ER and the changing range of SP content was not large during the seed stratification. All of these may provide some information for understanding the dormancy mechanisms of American seng seed.
Dynamic Studies on Physiology and Biochemistry in American Ginseng Seed During Stratification Part III. POD Activity, Contents of DNA and RNA, Isozymes of POD and ES -
Huang, Yao-Ge ; Li, Xiang-Gao ; Kuang, Ya-Lan ; Yan, Jie-Kun ; Cui, Shu-Yu ; Yu, Wen-Bo ; Yang, Ji-Xiang ; Liu, Ren-Song ; Kim, Hack-Seang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 43~48
Dynamic parameters of biochemistry including the POD (peroxidase) activity, contents of DNA and RNA, isozymes of POD and ES (esterase) in American send (Panax quinquefolium L.) seed are reported in the present paper. The dynamic changes of POD activity proved that the PAS (physiological afterripening stage) is a stage in which some substances are prepared for seed germination. The POD activity correlated with ER (embryo ratio) significantly DNA content changed little only within 0.0036∼0.013 mg/ml, which did not correlate with ER. RNA content changed from 0.1539 to 1.0313 mg/ml and correlated significantly with RE during all of the embryo afterripening. None of the POD isozyme band was obtained in ESGS (embryo slowly growth stage), but five bands in ERGS (embryo rapidly growth stage) and six bands in PAS. Four bands of ES isozymes were obtained in ESGS, but six bands in ERGS, particularly, the content of ES isozymes increased in PAS. All of these may provide some information for understanding the dormancy mechanisms of American song seed.
Effect of Ginseng on Renal Function in Patient with Renal Injury
Kim, Hyoung-Kyu ; Cho, Won-Yong ; Koo, Ja-Ryong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 49~52
There are many mechanisms that mediate progression of renal injury, such as abnormalities of nitric oxide (NO) regulation, increased Platelet aggregatlon, and oxygen free radical injury. Ginseng has been known to have NO dependent vasorelaxant effect and antioxidant effect, also inhibit thrombin stimulated platelet aggregation. And these effects of ginseng may have some roles in prevention of renal injury. So we studied 24 patients with mild pathologic proteinuria and hypertension to evaluate the effect of ginseng on progression of renal injury. After 1 month treatment, creatinine clearance was significantly increased especially in the patient group with normal serum creatinine level without specific side effect. The result of this study suggest that ginseng may pre vent or retard the progression of renal injury especially in early stage.
The Effect oi Saponin Fraction of Panax Ginsen C.A. Meyer on Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Neurons and Astrocytes Isolated from Ethanol Administered Rat Brain
Lee, Myeong-Don ; Hwang, U-Seop ; Seo, Hae-Yeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 53~60
The changes in aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH, E.C. 188.8.131.52.) activity in neurons and astrocytes isolated from rat brains were investigated after administration of ethanol and Korean red ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) saponln. The cerebral ALDH activity with acetaldehyde and Propionaldehyde was higher in the white matter than in the gray matter. However, using indole-3-a-cetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde as substrates, there was no significant difference in activity between two regions in cerebrum. In ethanol treated group, ALDH activity with all the substrates in the gray and white matter was lower than in normal group. In ethanol-saponin treated group, the enzyme activity in the white matter remarkably Increased. The ALDH activity in neurons isolated from cerebral cortex in ethanol-treated group was lower than in normal group. In ethanol-saponin treated group, neuronal ALDH activity with propionaldehyde was significantly recovered but not with Indole-3-acetaldehyde. In astrocytes, although the ALDH activity with propionaldehyde in the ethanol-treated group was not changed as compared with normal group, considerable increase in activity was found in ethanol-saponin treated group. These results suggest that Korean red ginseng saponin may protect the neuronal functions from the toxic effects of acetaldehyde derived from ethanol by stimulation of ALDH activity in astrocytes surrounding nerve cells.
일측성선조체의 6-OHDA손상 후 도파민효능약물 투여로 발현된 회전운동의 특성
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 1, 1997, Pages 61~67
The present study examined the characteristics of behavior Induced by dopamine agonists following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA) unilaterally into left striatum in rats. 6-OHDA was administered at doses of 8,16 and 24
(in 0.1% ascorbic acid) into dopaminergic neurons in left striatum of 7 weeks old rat under anesthetic. Locomotor activity was significantly decreased at 1 week following 6-OHDA-administration in 7 weeks old rats. The contralateral circling behavior was induced by apomorphine(5 mg/kg, i.v.) after 1 week following 6-OHDA(24
) treatment, and was further increased by repeated administration of apomorphine at 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The contralateral circling behavior was also induced by lisuride and 1-dopa in a dose dependent manner, but not by SK & F 82526 in 7 weeks old rats treated with 6-OHDA. The contralateral circling behavior was significantly higher in 21 weeks old rats but significantly lower In 35 weeks old rats when compared with 7 weeks old rats. The contralateral circling behavior induced by apomorphlne did not differ significantly in 7 and 35 weeks old male and female rats. These results suggest that 6-OHDA treatment into left striatum causes remarkable destrurtion of intrastriatal dopaminergic netcons leading to dopaminergic receptor supersensitivity. Thus, the contralateral circling behavior in duces by apomorphine may be used as indicator for neurodegenerative diseases.