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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Dec 1997
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Aug 1997
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
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Studies on the Genesis of Ginseng Rust Spots
Wang, Yingping ; Li, Zhihong ; Sun, Yanjun ; Guo, Shiwei ; Tian, Shuzhen ; Liu, Zhaorong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 69~77
In order to explain the connection between ginseng rust spot and soil ecological conditions, the bed soils and ginseng roots were sampled at different microrelief units and the reducing substances of the bed soils and iron forms of the ginseng root epi dermises were determined. The results showed that the occurrence of the rust spot was connected with the ecological conditions of the soils and the metabolism of the plant which was caused by the excessive
in the soil solution. Ginseng rust spot was the enrichment of iron which was mainly composed of organic complex irons. Including active ferrous active ferric and non active ferric forms and they were transformed into each other following the change of soil moisture and temperature regimes. According to the regularity of growth and decline of reducing substances in soil and rust index of ginseng roots as well as the difference of adaptability to excessive
in soil among different year-old seeding, a new comprehensive measure based on the connection of ameliorating soil and improving cultivation system was recommended to prevent the occurrence of ginseng rust spot.
Preclinlcal Evaluation of Polysaccharides Extracted from Korean Red-ginseng as an Antineoplastic Immunostimulator
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 78~84
As a part of our ongoing effort to develop new antineoplastic immunostimulator from natural sources, bioassay-directed fractionationn of polysaccharides from Korean red ginseng was carried out by observing the proliferation of marine spleen cells and the generation of lymphoklne activated killer (LAK) cells. The acidic polysaccharide fractions proliferated spleen cells and generated LAK cells in proportion to their acidity in vitro. The LAK cell which was induced by ginseng showed tumoricidal activity against both NK celt sensitive and insensitive tumor target cells without major histocompatibility (MHC) restriction. Adherent macrophages and CD4+helper T cells were involved in the generation of the LAK cells. The acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng synerglzed with recombinant IL-2 (rIff-2) at lower than 3 U/ml. The optimal doses of the acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng for the proliferation of spleen cells and for the generation of LAK cells were 1 mg/ml and 100
/ml, respectively; this means that the mechanisms for the both activities may be different from each other.
Studies on Incompatibility in Interspecific Hybrid Between Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolium L.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 85~90
This study was carried out to clarify the cause of incompatibility in interspecific hybrid plant between Panax ginseng and p. quinquefolium. The floral structure of F,(p.g. x p.q.) hybrid was normal because the redundant anther was 0.2 mm longer than pistil in Fl hybrid and the size and structure of redundant carpel in F, hybrid were similar to P. ginseng and p. quiquefolium Pollens of
hybrid did not germinate on stigma of P-quinquefolium but germinated well on stigma of P. ginseng. Pollen tube was able to penetrate styles completely and seed harvest rate was 16.8% in field. However on stigma of
hybrid, Pollen did not germinate when P. ginseng was used as male Parent. In addition, the growth of pollen tube was halted on style and seed was not set when P qlfinquefoEi2a was used as male Parent. These suggest that the inhibitor of pollen germination present on stigma caused
hybrid sterility. It took 5 hours for pollen grains to germinate, 12 hours to arrive at in trance of ovule, 16 hours to penetrate micropyles in Panax ginseng.
Red-Colored Phenomena of Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) Root and Soil Environment
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 91~97
In order to elucidate the mechanism of red-colored phenomena(RCP) in ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), distribution of inorganic elements of ginseng root and its surrounding soil, and microflora in the soil were investigated. Red brown colored-substances were accumulated in the cell wall of epidermis at early stage of red-colored ginseng (RCG). Cell wall of the late stage of RCG was disordered and microorganisms were shown in the disordered cell wall. Al, Si and Fe contents among inorpanic elements in the epidermis of RCG were higher at two or three times than that of healthy ginseng. On the other hand, K content was higher at three times in healthy ginseng than that of RCG. Especially, Fe content was higher at three times in lateral roots of RCG than that of healthy ginseng. Total 21 strains of microorganisms were isolated on the 523 medium from surface soil, surrounding soil of both healthy and RCG, and RCG. Six strains of microorganisms among them were resistant to 2 mM Fe. Two species in Bacillus app. and Lactobacillus app. , and one species in Micrococcus sp. and Npisseria sp. respectively were identified. It seemed that RCP was closely related with the distribution and uptake of inorganic elements, was also correlated Fe-independent metabolism of microorganisms.
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Rabbit and Rat Corpus Cavernosal Smooth
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 98~103
On the precontracted rabbit cavernosal muscle strips with phenylephrine (
M), Increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (10-7, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4M) showed relaxation effect dose-dependently in control group (
M : 15.32%,
M : 35.44%, 10-5M : 59.45%, 10-4M : 76.54%). After 3 months administering Korean red ginseng, the relaxation action of acetylcholine was significantly increased (
M : 34.18%,
M : 56.35%,
M : 75.33%,
M : 89.86%). Relaxation effect of Korean red ginseng was significantly increased after 3 months administering Korean red ginseng. Intracavernous pressure response to electrostimulation wan 107.52 cm
in control group and significantly increased to 138.34 cm
after 3 month administering Korean red ginseng. With these results, we can confirm that long-term administration of Korean red ginseng enhances the erectly capacity and that its action is mediated by endothelium derived relaxing factor and peripheral neurophysiologic enhancement.
NMR Data of (20S)-ginsenoside
and its Isomers
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 104~108
and its isomers were chemically prepared from diol ginseng saponins by partial acid hydrolysis and acetylation. The characteristics of
data were compared with each other and fully assigned.
Effects of Ginsenosides Injected Intrathecally or Intracerebroventricularly on Antinociception Induced by D-
-enkephalin Administered Intracerebroventricularly in the Mouse
Hong-Won Suh ; Don ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 109~114
The effect of total saponin fraction of Ginseng injected intrathecally (i.1.) or in- tracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the antinociception induced by D-
- enkephalin (DPDPE) ad ministered i.c.v. was studied in ICR mice in the present study. The antinociception was assessed by the tail-flick test. Total saponin fraction at doses 0.1 to 1.0
, which administered i.t. Alone did not affect the latencies of tail-flick threshold, attenuated dose-dependently the inhibition of the tail-flick response induced by i.c.v. administered DPDPE (10
). However, total saponin fraction at doses 1 to 20
, which administered i.c.v. Alone did not affect the latencies of the tail-flick response, did not affect i.c.v. administered DPDPE (10
)-induced antinociception. The duration of antagonistic action of total saponin fraction against DPDPE-induced antlnociception was lasted at least for 6 hrs. Various doses of ginsenosides Rd, but not
, Rc, Rg1, and
and Re, injected i.t. Dose-dependently attenuated antinociception induced by DPDPE administered i.c.v. Our results indicate that total saponin fraction injected spinally appears to have antagonistic action against the antinociception induced by supraspinally applied DPDPE. Ginsenoside Rd appears to be responsible for blocking j.c.v. administered DPDPE-induced antinociception. On the other hand, total ginseng fraction, at supraspinal sites, may not have an antagonistic action against the antinociception induced by DPDPE.
Effect of Seeding Depth and of Soil Texture on Seeding Emergence and Root Shape of American Ginseng
Li, Thomas S.C. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 115~118
Stratified American ginseng(Panax quinquefoilium L.) seeds were planted in a shaded greenhouse at four depths and in four different soil types to observe effects on emergence rate and root size. Seeding depth affected seedling emergence rates and the number of days required to complete emergence. The shape of the roots was affected by the texture of soil, especially percentage of sand.
Effect of Protopanaxatriol Ginsenosides on the Blood Pressure and Endothelial Dysfunction In the Aorta of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 119~124
Chronic hypertension is associated with impaired endothelial function such as reduced synthesis/release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(EDRF, nitric oxide) and increased synthesis/release of endothelium-derived contracting factor(EDCF) including prostaglandin endoperoxide(
) , superoxide anion both in animals and in humans. We have previously shown that ginsenosides lower the blood pressure and enhance the release of nitric oxide(NO) from endothelial cells in the rat aorta of the normotensive rats. The aim of the present study is to examine whether in vivo treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRs) with protopanaxatriol ginsenosides(PPT) reduces the blood pressure and improves endothelial function in the isolated thoracic aorta of SHR. In addition, the contractile response to
and superoxide anion in the aorta treated with PPT was assessed. SHRs at the age of 16 weeks were savaged with PPT(30 mg/kg/ day) for 2 weeks and systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Whereas blood pressure was significantly increased in SHRs by 5.4 mmHg during this period of treatment, treatment of SHRs with PPT blocked the elevation of blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly increased in the PPT-treated animals.
- and oxygen-derived free radical-induced contractions were significantly suppressed in aortic rings without endothelium from PPT-treated SHR. These findings indicate that PPT reduces the blood pressure of SHR, which may be associated with either increase of NO release or by antagonizing superoxide anion and PGH2 in the aortic smooth muscle.
Ginsenosides Inhibit Endothelium - dependent Contraction in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Aorta isn vitro
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 125~132
Our previous study showed that in vivo treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with protopanaxatriol ginsenosides (PPT) reduces the blood pressure and inhibits the con- tractions induced by endothelium-derived contracting factor (prostaglandin endoperoxide (
) and superoxide anion) in aorta isolated from SHR. The aim of the present study is to examine whether PPT improves endothelial functions in the isolated thoracic aorta of SHR in vitro. Treatments of aortic rings with PPT, purified ginsenoside
) or indomethacin normalized endotheliuln-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine, but not with protopanaxadiol ginsenosides (PPD) and purified ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1). The effects of PPT were dose-dependent. PGH,- and oxygen free radical-inducted contractions in rat aorta without endothelium were inhibited by PPT or
, but not by PPD or
. Contractions induced by PGF2
, U-46619, a stable thromboxane A2 agonist or KCI (60 mM) were not inhibited by PPT,
. These findings demonstrate that PPT but not PPD scavenges the oxygen-derived free radicals and/or antagonize the effects of
in the vascular smooth muscle and may explain the hypotensive effect of ginseng in the SHR.
Inhibitory Effects of Ginsenoslde
on Platelet Aggregation and its Mechanism of Action
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 2, 1997, Pages 132~140
The effects of ginsenosides purified from red ginseng on platelet aggregation were investigated. Preincubation of washed platelets from rats with either ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenosides non-polar fraction (G-NPF), ginsenoside Rg1(Rg1) or ginsenosides polar fraction(G-PF) reduced the plytelet aggrelation induced by collagen in a dose-dependent manner, whereas ginsenoside Rg2 failed to inhibit the aggregation. Their IC50 values of Rg3, G-NPF, Rgl, and G-PF were 8.7
/ml, respectively. Aggrelation induced by thrombin was also inhibited by Rg3 and G-NPF with IC50 being 5.2
1.1 and 66.5
/ml, respectively. The alterations of Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in platelets were monitored using fura-2 as a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. Both Ca2+ release from internal stores and Ca2+ influx into cytosol were suppressed by Rg3. Rg3 also inhibited granular release of ATP and TXA2 formation induced by thrombin in a dose-dependent manner in the washed platelets. Rg3 also inhibited Aggregation and ATP release from human platelets induced by collagen to a similar extent as were observed in rat platelets. In conclusion, Rg3 is a Potent anti-aggregating component in ginsenosides and may exert its anti-aggrega1ing activity by decreasing TXAa formation and granular secretion in platelets, most likely by inhibiting Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. Thus ginseng may contribute to the prevention and treatment of thrombosis.