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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Dec 1997
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Aug 1997
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
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Effect of cAMP on the Differentiation of F9 Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells Induced by Ginsenosides
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 141~146
The role of cAMP in the differentiation process of F9 cells induced by ginsenosides was examined by performing transient transfixion assay with CRE-luciferase reporter plasmid, GR thansactivation assay with GRE-luciferase activity with or without treatment of CAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, and protein klnase A assay in the presence of ginsenosides. Ginsenosides had no effect on CRE-transactivation activity, whereas retinoic acid induced the activity. When cAMP or forskolin was treated with ginsenosides, GRE-luciferase activity was further augumented by them. In addition, ginsenosides induced protein kinase A activity in the presence of cAMP. These results suggest that ginsenosides activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A which, in turn, increase GR activity in F9 cells.
Identification of Nuclear Receptors by RT-PCR in F9 Cells Induced by Ginsenosides
Youl-Nam Lee ; Shi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 147~152
Induced the differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. These agents are structurally similar to the steroid hormones, therefore, we speculated that the steroid receptor (s) or novel nuclear receptor (s) could be involved in the differentiation process induces by them. Based on this speculation, we tried to alone new nuclear receptors with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method by isolating RNA from F9 teratocarcinoma cells induced by ginsenosides. By using RT-PCR with degenerated primers from highly conserved DNA binding domain of nuclear receptors, we identified several nuclear receptors. In northern blot analysis we found that these clones are transcriptionally regulated by ginsenoside Rhl or Rh2 treatment. Further characterizations of these clones are needed to identify the mechanism of gene expression, which has an important role in the differentiation of F9 cells induced by ginsenosides.
Effects of Red Ginseng on the Lipid Peroxidation of Erythrocyte and Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity In NIDDM Patients
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 153~159
Living organisms have antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase SE glutathione peroxidase, that protect themselves from the toxic effect of superoxide free radicals. Some report says that intracellular oxidation stress is involved in pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of red ginseng on lipid peroxidation of red blood cell and antioxidant SOD activity of serum in NIDDM patients. As a result, there were trends for decrease of lipid peroxidases of RBC and Increase of SOD activity of serum in ginseng group but that were not statistically significant. Therefore, we suggest long term and large sized control study is necessary to confirm the protective effects of red ginseng on oxidative damage in NIDDM patients.
Inhibitory Effects of Ginseng Saponin Fractions on Dexamethasone-induced Thymus Apoptosis
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 160~168
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Panax ginseng saponin extracts on the dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of mouse thymus in vivo and mouse thymocytes in vitro. The saponin fractions of red ginseng (R-SAP) and white ginseng (Wl-SAP) were provided by the Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute, and the other saponin fraction of white ginseng (W2-SAP) was extracted in our laboratory. 1. The male ICR mice (3~4 wk old; weighing 15
2 g) were given by each saponin fraction of 5 mg/kg/ day for 4 days, and at one hour after the last treatment, they were injected by deuamethasone (5 mg/kg : DX). The mouse thymus was extracted at 6 hours after DX injection, and they were stained with hematoxylin-eosin reagents and an Apop-Tag kit, respectively, and the thymocytes prepared from it were labelled with anti-mouse FITC-anti-CD4 and anti-mouse PE-anti-CD8 and then analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). DX-induced reduction of thymus weight was significantly attenuated by W2- SAP but was not affected by other saponin fractions. And DX-induced apoptotic death of thymocytes, appeared in the histologic findings of the thymus, was inhibited by the saponin fractions and the order of these inhibitory potencies was R-SAP》W2-SAP>Wl-SAP. However, in respect of T cell receptors, the differentiation of thymocytes seems not to be changed by treatments with DX or/and the saponin fractions. 2. In the primary thymocyte culture, the DX-induced reduction of thymocyte MTT values was rather greater in RPMI 1640 medium of IWc fetal bovine serum (FBS) or horse serum (HS). In addition, the DX-Induced MTT reduction was significantly inhibited by R-SAP or W2-SAP, in the culture using that medium of 5% FBS or HS. But these saponin fraction did not effected the DX-induced reduction of thymocyte MTT value in primary culture of 10% FBS or 10% HS. These results suggest that R-SAP and some W-SAP fractions may protect thymocyte from stress or glucocorticoisteroid-induced death of them.
Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract Mixture of Red Ginseng and Steamed RehManiae Radix on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 169~173
The effects of extract mixture of red ginseng and steamed Rehmaniae radix prepared for antidiabetic activity was examined in streptozotocin-Induced diabetic rats. The increased blood glucosec level in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was significantly decreased by the treatment with the mixture (800, 1600 mg/kg, p.o.). However, neither red ginseng extract nor steamed Rehmaniae radix extract alone showed significant hypoglycemic effects. The mixture prevented a weight loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the mixture has the relieving action against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia.
Hypoglycemic Action of Components from Red Ginseng : (I) Investigation of the Effect of Ginsenosides from Red Ginseng on Enzymes related to Glucose Metabolism in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes
Lee, Hyeon-A ; Gwon, Sang-Ok ; Lee, Hui-Bong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 174~186
In this study, rat hepatocytes known to have active carbohydrate metabolism were obtained by using the liver perfusion technique to examine the hypoglycemic action of red ginseng saponin components [ginsenoside (mixture,
)] and incubated in two different media-one containing insulin and glucagon (control group), and the other containing glucagon only, The specific activities of some regulatory enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose 6-phosphatase, in main pathways which were directly related to the glucose metabolism were compared between these two kinds of hepatocytes cultured in two different media. The effects of red ginseng saponin components [ginsenoside (mixture,
)] under the concentration of
% on these enzymes In hepatocytes were also investigated, when they were added to these two media. The results were as follows. The specific activity of enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase related to glucose-consuming pathways of insulin-deficient group was much less than control one, however, their decreased activity was recovered after the addition of ginseng components at all range of concentrations. The increased specific activity of these on - zymes was shown by the addition of ginseng components to the control group. On the other hand, the specific activity of glucose 6-phosphatase related to glucose-producing pathway of insulin-deficient group was much higher than control one, but their Increased activity was decreased after the addition of ginseng components at all range of concentrations. The same results were obtained after the addition of ginseng components to the control group. These results suggest that the red ginseng saponin components might better diabetic hyperglycemia by regulating the activity of enzymes related to glucose metabolism directly and/or Indirectly though more detailed studies were needed.
The Comparison of the Appearances Between the Korean Ginseng the Chinese Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 187~195
The Chinese ginseng roots were collected at twelve places of Jilin Province and two places of Liaoning Province in China and their appearances were compared with those of the Korean ginseng roots. The color of the most of the Chinese red ginseng was brown or dark brown and the color of many of the Chinese dried ginseng was pale yellow and the root-age of the most of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng was evaluated five or six year regardless of the collection places, so it cannot be easily concluded that the color and the root-age of the Chinese ginseng roots are different from those of the Korean ginseng roots. However the rhizomes and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots were poorly developed and many of them did not have either rhizome or lateral roots. Moreover the rhizomes of the Chinese red ginseng as well as the Chinese dried ginseng were much more easily removed than those of the Korean red ginseng and the Korean white ginseng. Therefore it is thought that the development status of the rhizome and the lateral roots of the Chinese ginseng roots are quite different from those of the Korean ginseng roots.
A Comparison of the Composition of the Major Headspace Volatiles Between the Korean Ginseng and the Chinese Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 196~200
The headspace volatiles of the Korean ginseng and the Chinese ginseng were extracted using the SepPak Cl8 cartridge (Wasters Co.) and were analyzed using GC/MSD. The overall GC pattern of the headspace volatiles of the Chinese ginseng was similar to that of the Korean ginseng, but the composition ratios of the two major components,
-muurolene, were quite different between them. The composition ratios of
-muurolene of the Korean red and white ginseng were 1.02
0.28 (n=19) and 1.49
0.55 (n=14) , respectively. However the com- position ratios of the Chinese red and dried ginseng were 0.58
0.19 (n=41) and 0.57
0.17 (n=28), repetitively, which were significantly lower than those of the Korean ginseng at I% level. The composition ratio of the two major headspace volatile components,
-muurolene, is thought to be as a useful indicator for differentiating the Chinese ginseng with the Korean ginseng.
The Comparison of the Break Intensity of the Rhizome Between the Korean Ginseng and the Chinese Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 201~208
In order to compare the physical property of the rhizome of the Korean ginseng with the Chinese ginseng, the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome was measured using a rheometer (FVDOH RHEO METER, Rheotech Co.). The intensities for the Korean red ginseng were 10.0
2.1 kg/cm2(n=72), while the intensities for the Chinese red ginseng were 4.0
2.4 kg/cm2(n=142) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean red ginseng at 1% level. The intensities for the Korean white ginseng were 9.9
2.0 kg/cm2 (n=97), while the intensities for the Chinese deied ginseng were 4.5
2.7 kg/cm2(n=138) which were significantly lower than those for the Korean white ginseng at 1% level. These results suggest that the rhizome of the Chinese ginseng might be much more easily broken than the rhizome of the Korean ginseng. Conclusively the break intensity of the ginseng rhizome is thought to be useful for differentiating the Chinese ginseng with the Korean ginseng.
Comparison of Sesquiterpenes in Korean and American Ginsengs
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 209~213
Sesquiterpenes of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, KG) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium, AG) were Isolated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with 30% methanol and n-hexane or adsorption using C18 Sep-Pak . The sesquiterpenes in KG and AG were compared each other by using TLC and GC/MS. Thin layer chromatogram of KG gave 4~5 spots of terpenes colored by vanillin-sulfuric acid, while AG did one major spot. Total ion chromatogram of KG showed about 30 peaks of sesquiterpene having molecular weight 204. Among these, 9 components such as alloaromadendrene, germacrene B, isocaryophyllene,
-panasinsene together occupied 81.5% of total sesquiterpenes identified. In AG, however, only 3 components, i.e., isocaryophyllene,
-sesquiphellandrene occupied 79.3% of total sesquiterpenes identified. Especially isocaryophyllene was a dominant component of AG occupying 56.6%. Eight sesquiterpenes, including alloaromadendrene, germacrene B and
-humulene, were not detected in AG. These results indicate that sesquiterpenes could be used as indices for the chemical difference between KG and AG.
New Methods for Isolation of Sesquiterpene from Panax ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 21, issue 3, 1997, Pages 214~218
New simple methods for the Isolation of sesquiterpenes from Panax ginseng were developed. First, volatile compounds were isolated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with 30% methanol and
-hexane instead of water and ethyl ether/pentane (1:1). Secondly, head space volatiles in U-shaped tube at 7
were passed through C18 Sep-Pak by nitrogen gas streaming and the adsorbed volatiles were fluted by
-hexane. TLC analysis showed that the volatile concentrates consisted mainly of terpenes when colored by vanillin-sulfuric and. GC/MS data revealed that approximately 30 sesquiterpenes of molecular weight 204 occupied 81.1% or more of the volatile concentrates isolated by those two newly developed methods. Among these, alloaromadendrene, germacrene B, isocaryophyllene,
-humulene were identified as being major sesqulterpenes by authentic samples or literatme search Key words : Panax ginseng, volatile compound, sesquiterpene, isolation, new method, GC/MS.