Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Radioprotective Effect of Ginseng Components on Antioxidant Enzymes, Glutathione and Lipid Peroxidation of Liver in
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~10
In the present study, to determine whether the antioxidative components of Korean red ginseng protect against radiation damage and the possible relationship among the radioprotective effects and antioxidant actions, the effects of total saponin (200 mg/kg, ip) and lipophilic fraction (200 mg/kg, oral) preferment of mice on the survival ratio, major antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione levels and lipid peroxidation in the liver were exiled for 2 weeks after whole
-irradiation (6.5 Gy). The 30-day survival ratio increased from 10% to 57% and 40% for mice treated with total saponin and lipophilic fraction, respectively. On day 14 after
-irradiation, the ginseng total saponin pretreatment produced a slight increase of antioxidant enzymes activities and significantly Increased reduced glutathione (GSH) contents (p<0.05) in the liver compared with non-treated group. Pretreatment with ginseng total saponin significantly deceased GSSG/total GSH ratio (p<0.05) without change of GSSG in the liver and inhibited the radiation-induced incense in the hepatic malondialdehyde levels. (p<0.05) In these results, GSH plays an important role in the liver in several detoxifications and the reduction of lipid peroxides. Thus, it appears that total saponin of red ginseng exerts its radioprotective effect by accelerating the production of endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione from radiation induced damages and thereby oxygen free radicals.
Breeding Process and Characteristics of KG101, a Superior Line of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 11~17
To develop a new ginseng varieties with good quality and high yielding, a lot of individual ginseng plants were selected in the farmer's fields in 1972. Among them, a promising line, 7259-3-1, has been developed through comparative cultivation of several lines selected with pure line separation of local races in Korea Ginseng '||'&'||' Tobacco Research Institute. Preliminary and advanced yield trials were performed for 8 years. It was then designated as "KG 101" and tested in the regional yield and adaptation trials for 10 years (1981-1990). KG101 has a green stem with light violet and orange-yellow fruit and flowers 3-7 days later than local race, Takyungjong. Taproot of KG101 was longer than local race Jakyungjong, and root yield of KG101 was 9% higher than local race Jakyungjong. In red ginseng quality, the rates of Chun-Jeesam (Chun and Jee means 1st and 2nd grade, respectively) were 22.3% and 9.4% for KG101 and Jakyungjong, respectively. In these results, it was clarified that KG101 was superior ginseng line with good quality.y.
Comparative Cytotoxic Activities of Various Ginsengs on Human Cancer Cell Lines
Sung Ryong Ko ; You ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 18~21
Comparative cytotoxic activities of petroleum ether soluble fraction from various ginsengs of Panax species were evaluated using A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and SK-OV-3(human ovary carcinoma) cancer cell lines. Korean red ginseng, Korean white ginseng, American ginseng and Canadian ginseng were found to show more potent cytotoxicitles on A549 and SK-OV-3 cell lines than Chinese red ginseng, Japanese red ginseng and Sanchi ginseng. It is noteworthy that especially, red ginseng prepared from the root of Panax ginseng cultivated in Korea shows relatively stronger cytotoxic activities than those cultivated in China and Japan.
Effects of Ginsenosides on Acid Secretion in Gastric Cells Isolated from Human and Rabbit Gastric Mucosa
Kim, Hye-Yeong ; Kim, Sin-Il ; Kim, Gyeong-Hwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 22~31
Antiulcer effects of ginseng saponin, acidic polysaccharide and methanol extract of Panax ginseng in the patients and experimental animals were reported. Postulated action mechanisms of ginseng were histamine-Ht receptor blocking and increasing gastric blood flow In the present study, the effect of ginsenosides, the biologically active glycosides of ginseng, on gastric acid secretion was examined using gastric cells isolated from human and rabbit gastric mucosa. Ginseng saponin, ginsenoside
were tested in unstimulated as well as stimulated gastric cells. Histamine (
M) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (
M) were used as secretagogues. To investigate the mechanism of ginsenosides on acid secretion, the levels of cAMP and cGMP were monitored in gastric cells. As a result, high concerltration(1mg/ml) of ginseng saponin showed 73-75% of stimulated acid secretion in control gastric cells. However, ginseng saponin had no effect on unstimulated acid secretion and the levels of cGMP and cAMP in gastric cells. Ginsenoside
significantly inhibited stimulated acid secretion. Gastric cGMP levels were increased by all ginsenosides tested while cAMP levels were increased by all ginsenosides in unstimulated state of gastric cells, but increased by ginsenosides ginsenoside
in stimulated state of gastric cells. The results suggest that inhibition of ginseng saponin on gastric acid secretion represents a complex effect of individual ginsenosides, which produce a range of effect on acid secretion. The inhibition site of ginseng saponin on stimulated acid secretion is postulated as post cAMP levels in acid secretary pathway such as protein phosphorylation or proton pump. Nitric oxide may not be involved in the inhibitory effect of ginseng saponin on stimulated acid secretion.
The Effect of Red Ginseng for Postoperative Immune Response in Gastrointestinal Carcinoma
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 32~42
(Backgrounds) This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of red ginseng ex rant as adjuvant therapeutic agent improving immune function in immune compromizing gas-trointestinal carcinoma patient. (Material and Methods) We were treated 72 patients with two groups after we were undertaken the curative resection for gastrointestinal carcinoma; 1) only chemotherapy and immunotherapy (control group) 2) chemotherapy and immunotherapy with 4500 mg (15 tablets) red ginseng for 6 months (study group). For investigating the immunologic alternations alongside the numerical changes in peripheral blood Iymphocyte and their subsets in the gastrolntestinal carcinoma patients, Iymphocyte surface markers were determined by monoclonal antibodies on the preoperative day, postoperative 1 months, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months in 40 controls and 32 red ginseng groups In gastrointestinal carcinoma patients which was recruited at Korea diversity Hospital from March, 1995 to January, 1997. The patient was measured and compared in both groups with the body weight, total protein and albumin, blood hematocrit and hemoglobin, total leukocyte, lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets count in peripheral blood through planed schedules. (Couclusion) This data suggests that red ginseng may be useful as a adjuvant therapeutic agent for improving the immune function after curative operation for immune compromizing gastrointestinal carcinoma patients. Key words : Ginseng, Immunity, Gastrointestlnal carcinoma patients.
Ginsenosides That Show Antinociception in Writhing and Formalin Tests
Shin, Young-Hee ; Jeong, Ok-Mi ; Nah, Jin-Ju ; Yoon, So-Rah ; Nam, Ki-Youl ; Kim, Si-Kwan ; Kim, Seok-Chang ; Nah, Seung-Yeul ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~50
We demonstrated in previous study that protopanaxadiol and protopanxatriol saponins show antinociceptive activity in acetic acid induced writhing test and in the second phase (11-40 min) of formalin test but not tail-flick test. To identify further which ginsenoside has antinociceptive activity among various ginseng saponins, we have investigated antinociceptive effects of several ginsenosides using writhing and formalin test. Ginsenoside Rc, Rd, Re, and Rf induced antinociception in writhing test. These four ginsenosides also induced antinociception in the second phase of formalin (11-40 min) test but these ginsenosides showed a slight antinociception in the first phase (010 min) of formalin test except ginsenoside Rf. The antinociceptive effects induced by the ginsenosides were dose dependent and were not blocked by an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The order of antinociceptive potency was Rd > Rc > Re > Rf in the formalin test. However, these ginsenosides did not show any significant analgesic effects in a tail-flick test. These results suggest that ginsenosides such as Rc, Rd, Re, and Rf inhibit tonic pain rather than acute pain induced by noxious heat. These results also indicate that the antinociceptive activity. Induced by ginsenosides may be one of the actions for pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng.
Hypoglycemic Action of Red Ginseng Components (II). Investigation of the Effect of Fat Soluble Fraction from Red Ginseng on Enzymes Related to Glucose Metabolism in Cultured Rat Hapatocytes
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 51~59
In this study, rat hepatocytes known to have active glucose metabolism were obtained to investigate the hypoglycemic action of fat soluble fraction of red ginseng by using the liver perfusion technique and incubated in two different media-one containing insulin and glucagon (control group), and the other containing glucagon only The activities of main regulating enzymes, such as glucokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenate, and glucose 6-phosphatase, related to metabolic pathways of glucose in these two kinds of hepatocytes were compared between these two groups and the effects of addition of fat soluble fraction (
%) from red ginseng to these two groups on these enzymes were also detected. The results were as follows. The specific activity of enzymes such as glucokinase, flucorse 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase related to glucose-consuming pathways of insulin-deficient group was much less than control one. However, their decreased activity was recovered after the addition of fat-soluble fraction at all range of concentrations. The specific activity of these enzymes after the addition of ginseng components to the control group was also increased. On the other hand, the specific activity of glucose 6-phosphatase related to glucose-producing pathway of insulin-deficient group was much higher than control one, but their increased activity was decreased obviously after the addition of fat soluble fraction at all range of concentrations. The same results were observed after the addition of fat-soluble fraction to the control group. These results suggest that the red ginseng saponin components might be effective on diabetic hyperglycemia by regulating the activity of enzymes related to glucose metabolism directly and/or indirectly. The effects of fat-soluble fraction (
%) and ginsenosides (mixture,
%) on hypoglycemic action were compared. As a result, they showed considerable effect on hyperglycemia, but the best eff ect on the activities of glucokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was appeared by ginsenoside
and that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phosphatase was by ginsenoside mixture.
Stimulatory Effect of Korean Red-Ginseng Extract on the Proliferation and . Cellular Activity of Lymphocytes
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 60~65
The effect of Korean red-ginseng extract on the proliferation and cellular activity of mouse B and T lymphocytes was examined in vitro. Both water and ethanol extract from red-ginseng increased the growth of normal B and T lymphocytes 1.5∼2.5-folds. Saponin and polysaccharide fractions from ginseng extract also stimulated the proliferation of normal lymphocytes much higher than several well-known immunostimulators. B and T lymphoma cell lines responded to the ginseng extract and fractions by growth, too, while non-lymphoid cell lines did not. Immunoglobulin production of unprimed B-lymphocytes was little affected by the ginseng extract and fractions, though the ethanol extract slightly enhanced Ini, production of B-lymphocytes. When cytolytic activity of T lymphocytes against tumor tells was induced in vitro, both of the saponin and polysaccharide fractions and the ginseng ethanol extract increased the cellular activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes 4-5-folds, while the ginseng water extract did not. Especially, the saponin fraction exhibited 10-times higher stimulatory effect on the cytolytlc activity of cytotoxic T cells than the ethanol extract and the pclysaccharide fraction did. These results suggest that Korean red-ginseng contain potent immunomodulating components to stimulate the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes and the cellular activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Radioprotective Effect of Red Ginseng in Irradiated Mice with High and Low Dose of Radiation
Kim, Seong-Ho ; O, Heon ; Lee, Song-Eun ; Yang, Jeong-A ; Jeong, Yong-Un ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 1, 1998, Pages 66~72
Studies were performed to determine the effect of Korean red ginseng (extract powder, spray-dried), it is made of choice 6-year-old raw ginseng roots, and processed by steaming and drying, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of irradiated mice. Jejunal crypts were protected by pretreatment of red ginseng (1 mg/head, single I.P. at 24hours before irradiation, p<0.05). Red ginseng administration before irradiation (1 mg/head, single I.P at 24hours before irradiation) resulted in an increase of the formation of endogenous spleen colony (p<0.05). The frequency of radiation-Induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells was also reduced by treatment of red ginseng both pretreatment (P.O.: 2 mg/ml of drinking water for 7 days, p<0.005, I.P.: 1 mg/head, single I.P. at 24 hours before irradiation, p<0.005) and post-treatment (1 mg/head, single I.P at 30 minutes after irradiation, p<0.05). These results indicated that Korean red ginseng might be a useful radio-protector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product. Further studies are needed to characterize better the promotion nature of red ginseng and its fractions.