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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Improved Method for the Preparation of Crude Ginseng Saponin
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 155~160
This stuffy was carried to establish a new efficient method for the preparation of edible crude ginseng saponin. The conventional butanol extraction and resin adsorption methods were compared for the contents of total crude ginseng saponin and major ginsenosides. Seventy- percent methanol extract was applied to Diaion HP-20 column and the resin was washed with Hn and eluted with absolute methanol. The methanol elute was dried in vivo and analyzed for its ginsenosides. Use of ethanol instead of methanol to make edible crude ginseng saponin gave a similar result. Butanol extraction was performed by the conventional method. The final aqueous layer from butanol extraction was passed through Diaion HP-20 column followed by elution with methanol and Diaion HP-20 passed fraction was extracted with butanol to recover remaining components, respectively, in order to determine saponin loss. TLC and HPLC qualitatively and quantitatively monitored Ginsenosides, respectively. Loss of ginsenosides was higher in butanol extraction method than in Diction HP-20 adsorption method. In addition, saponin fractions prepared by Diction HP-20 adsorption method showed higher content of each ginsenoside, showing 8.2% higher purity than that of butanol extracted fraction. From these results, we propose the resin adsorption method as a new efficient measure for the preparation of crude ginseng saponin, which is edible by using spirit instead of methanol.
Seasonal Growth and Root Respiration of North American Ginseng
John, T.A. Proctor ; Dean, Louttit ; Jirong, Jiao ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 161~167
American ginseng plants (Panax quinquefolium L.) of various ages were harvested every two weeks during each of three growing seasons and dry matter yield of components and root respiration determined. Shoot dry weight was about 0.5 g, 2.5 g and 4 g for 2, 3 and 4-year-old plants, respectively and fruit dry weight was as much as 50% of this in 3- and 4-year-.old plants. Root dry weight decrease by 30~50% as shoots emerged and at the end of the season was about 2 g, 3.5 g and 5 g in 2, 3, 4 and 5-year-old plants, respectively. Shoot and root dry weight were linearly related with an approximate 1:2 ratio. Root respiration rate at 2
in the dark was about 5
CO2 g-1 DW(dry weight) min-1 in the early season, then doubled within 50 days as shoots emerged, and thereafter declined over the season to 2~5
CO2 g-1 DW min-1. The Q10 for dark respiration over the interval from 10 to 2
was 1.58. Root respiration rate and shoot growth rate was positively linearly related in all ages of plants. Key words: Dry weight, partitioning.
Genetic Analysis of Ginseng Germplasm by Lactate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Seed Protein
Zhao, Shoujing ; Zhao, Yahui ; Yang, Zhentang ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 168~172
Systematic electrophoretic analysis of alcohol-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins of 247 Panax ginseng (P.g) and Panax quinquefolium (P.q) germplasms seed was carried out on an improved lactate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a method with high resolving power, good reproducibility and stability. The electrophoregrams of proteins, according to their migration rate, were classified into four groups such as
for the alcohol-soluble proteins and three such as I, II and III for the salt-soluble ones. Panax ginseng or Panax quinquefolium had their own unique band pattern distinguishable from each other, regarding as their specific "fingerprint". In this study, 3 of 168 (1.8%) P.g germplasms and 1 of 79 (1.3%) P.q germplasms had their own unique band pattern, showing that P.g and P.q germplasms have poor genetic diversity in species. The band patterns of dry seed and stratified seed (embryo rate=60%) were basically the same. The band number of the F, hybrid of p.gx p.q was exactly equivalent to the number of the common bands plus the specific bands of the two parents, indicating that the difference of band patterns was a genetic trait con- trolled by the nuclear genes. The electrophoregram of F1 of P.g x P.q could be predicted by that of the two parents and the band pattern of the F1 hybrids could be demnonstrated by that of the mixed seed extract from the two parents.
Effects of Intaking of Red Ginseng Products on Human Platelet Aggregation and Blood Lipids
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 173~180
Thrombogenesis and atherosclerosis are mainly caused by platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, and hyperlipidemia. Platelet aggrelation, activated platelet thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured as indexes of blood coagulation and lipid contents in the subjects who have taken red ginseng products (e.g. water extract, tea, drink etc.) for 4 to 5 years. The platelet aggregation in the red ginseng-taking group was significantly decreased, as compared with the non-red ginseng-intaking group, when platelets were stimulated by 100
/ml of collagen (P<0.01). The atherogenic index and the ratio of triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol in blood, the risk factors of atherosclerosis, were decreased in the subjects of ginseng group, compared with that in control group. APTT was also prolonged to greater extent in ginseng group than in control group. These results suggest that long-term intake of ginseng products may help to prevent the risks of thrombogenesis and atherosclerosis.
Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthesis from Ginseng in Activated Macrophages
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 181~187
Nitric Oxide (NO), derived from L-arginine, is produced by two types (constitutive and inducible) of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The NO produced in large amounts by the inducible NOS is known to be responsible for the vasodilation and hypotension observed in septic shock. We have found three polyacetylene compounds which inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Their structures were identified as panauynol, ginsenoyne A and PQ-6 by the spec- troscopic analysis (IC50 values were 32.3
M, respectively). These polyacetylenes may be useful candidates for the development of new drug to treat endotoxemia and inflammation accompanied by the overproduction of NO.
Growth Inhibition of Red Ginseng Extracts Against Human Tumor Cell Line by Clonogenic Assay
Kim, Chang-Han ; Lee, Gyeong-Ho ; Byeon, Eun-Gyeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 188~192
We established the model of clonogenic assay with human tumor cell line such as Calu-3 (lung carcinoma), HEC- lB (endometrial adenocarcinoma) , HEp-2 (larnyx carcinoma), Hs-5787 (breast carcinoma), K-562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia), SF-188 (brain carcinoma), SNU-1 (stomach carcinoma) and WiDr (colon carcinoma) . We investigated growth inhibition of solvent (EtOH, MeOH) and water (100
) extracts from Korean red ginseng by clonogenic assay. The results of clonogenic assay showed that EtOH extract had growth inhibition against Calu-3, SF-188 and SNU-1, MeOH extract had growth inhibition against Calu-3, Hs-5787, K-562, and WiDr, but water extract at 100
and water extract at 121
had not growth inhibition against used cell lines.
Characteristics of the Water Soluble Browning Reaction of Korean Red Ginseng as Affected by Heating Treatment
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 193~199
The purpose of this study was to Investigate characteristics of the water soluble browning reaction products (WS-BRPs) from Korean red ginseng by heat treatment. Absorbance of WS- BRPs was increased with increases of heating temperature and time, but pH value were decreased In Muter color value L and b value were decreased, while a value was increased. and absorbance at 280 nm in spectrum of the WS-BRPs was increased according to the increase of heating temperature. When the WS-BRPs were applied on Bio-Gel P-30 column after heating and pH treatment, two majors browning products increased according to the progress on time. And pH 3.0 increased in quantity of high molecular fractions and pH 8.0 increased in quantity of low molecular fractions.
Effect of Red Ginseng Saponins on Intestinal Contractility
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 200~205
Isolated rabbit jejunal segments were used to study the effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) , protopanaxatriol saponins (PT) and protopanaxadiol saponins (PD) on intestinal contractility. GTS, PT and PD caused a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal spontaneous movements, and PT was the most efficacious of them. The effect of GTS, PT and PD were not blocked by pretreatment with phentolamine (10-6 M), yohimbine (10-6 M), d1-propranolol (10-6 M), naloxone(10-6∼10-5M), Nu-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10-4 M), methylene blue (10-5M), and N-ethylmaleimide (10-4 M). However, pretreatment with tetraethylammonium chloride (3-10 mM) antagonized the effect of GTS, PT and PD. Furthermore, 4-amlnopyridine (1 mM) also inhibited the effect of GTS, PT and PD. The results suggest that GTS, PT and PD inhibited the spontaneous movements in isolated rebait jejunum by causing hyperpolarization through an activation of K+ channels directly.
Controls of the Hydrolysis of Ginseng Saponins by Neutralization of Organic Acids in Red Ginseng Extract Preparations
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 205~210
Glucosidic bonds at the C20 position of the sapogenins were hydrolyzed easily in the lower pH, higher temperatures and longer times to give prosapogenins and sugars. The glucosidic bond of saponin at the C3 of ginsenoside-Rb1, which is secondary carbon, was relatively stable due to the low electron density of -0.2. But the bond of saponin at the C20 position, which is tertiary carbon with the relatively high electron density of -0.3, was liable to be hydrolyzed even in weakly acidic solution by the increase of heating time. On the other hand, red ginseng contained 13.34 mg/g of citric acid, 8.78 mg/g of malonic acid, 3.70 mg/g of oxalic acid, 2.13 mg/g of malic acid and 0.44 mg/g of succinct acid. Ginseng saponins were very stable in ginseng extract neutralized with sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate corresponding to the equivalent amount of the total organic acid in the red ginseng.
A Rapid Separation of an Edible Panaxadiol and Panaxatriol in Ginseng Saponins by Benzene Ethylene Resin Adsorption
Kim, Cheon-Seok ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Lee, Yong-Gu ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 211~215
A rapid separation of an edible panaxadiol (PD) and panaxatriol (PT) in ginseng saponins has been investigated by benzene ethylene resin adsorption method. Briefly, powdered red ginseng was extracted with water. The obtained ginseng extract were dissolved in suitable volume of distilled water, and adsorbed on the benzene ethylene resin with 200 folds water of the resin weight. Sugars and hydrophilic character compounds not absorbed were washed with water, and eliminated by 10-fold water of the resin weight. An edible panaxadiol and panaxatriol can be perfectly separated from ginseng saponins with the fractions below 40% aqueous ethanol and over 45% as an fluent.
의 HT1080 세포 침윤억제 작용에 관한 연구
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 3, 1998, Pages 216~221
We examined the anti-invasive activity of ginsenosides Rhl, Rha on the highly metastatic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line. In vitro invasion assay showed ginsenoside Rhr reduced tumor cell invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane in a transwell chamber more than ginsenoside Rh1. Significant down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by ginsenosides Rh, and Rh2 was detected by Northern blot analysis. However, the expression of MMP-2 was not affected by Rh, and Rhr. The expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was increased by Rhl after 0.5, 1 or 3 day-treatment but reduced after 6 day-treatment. However, the expression of TIMP-2 was not changed by treatment with Rh2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) and urokinase-type plasmlnogen activator (uPA) were not changed by treatment with Rh1 and Rh2 for 3 and 6 days. Quantitative gelatin-based zymography confirmed a markedly reduced expression of MMP-9 but MMP-2 after treatments with ginsenosides Rhl and Rha. These results suggest that down-regulation of MMP-9 contributes to the anti-invasive activity of ginsenosides Rhl and Rhr in the HT1080 cells.