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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Toxicity of Fungicides in vitro to Cylindrocarpon destructans
A.Monique Ziezold ; Robert Hall ; Richard D.Reeleder ; John T.A.Proctor ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 223~228
As part of a study on the ability of fungicides to control disappearing root rot of ginseng (Panax quinquvdius) caused by Cylindruarpn destmtans, 15 fungicides were screened for toxicity to the fungus in vitro. Highly toxic fungicides were Benlate (benomyl), Thiram (thiram), and Orbit (propiconazole). EC5O values (mg a.i./L) were less than 1 and EC95 values were less than 10. Crown (carbathiin and thiabendazole), ASC-66835 (fluazinam), and UBI-2584 (tebuconazole) were moderately toxic, with EC5O values in the range 1-10 and EC95 values in the range 32-45. Weakly toxic fungicides (EC5O in the range 20-80, EC95 in the range 35-140) included UBI-2643 (thiabendazole), UBI-2565 (cyproconazole), and Vitaflo-280 (carbathiin and thiram). Anvil (hexaconazole), Vitaflo-250 (carbathiin), UBI-2383 (triadimenol), Daconil (chlorothalonil), CGA-173506 (fludioxonil), and CGA-169374 (difeno- conazole) were considered nontoxic to C. destmtan (EC5O 1.29->600, EC95>500). Relations between proportional inhibition of growth and concentration of fungicide were linear on arithmetic plots (Benlate, UBI-2643, UBI-2565, Vitaflo-280) or logarithmic plots (all other fungicides). Based on toxicity in vitro and formulation, it is recommended that Benlate, Orbit, and ASC-66835 be tested as soil drenches, and Benlate, Thiram, UBI-2584, and Crown be tested as seed treatments for controlling disappearing root rot.
Seedborne Fungi and Fungicide Seed Treatment of Ginseng
A.Monique Ziezold ; Richard D.Reeleder ; Robert Hall ; John T.A.Proctor ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 229~236
The incidence of fungi and their possible contribution to low vigour were examined in a collection of ginseng (Panax quiquefolius) seed from Ontario. When examined after one winter of stratification in the field and storage at 4f for five months in the laboratory, the collection exhibited low vigour (plant stand 16.7% of seeding rate six weeks after seeding) and high incidence (94%) of discolored or soft seed. Fungi isolated (and incidence) from 1,304 endosperm halves recovered from surface-sterilized seed were, in order of abundance, Fusarium rostrum (22.2%), Chaetomium crispuum (14.3%), Funriud oxysporum (9.0%), Fusarium sdani (9.0%), iwmor sp. (8.4%), Alternaria sp. (8.1%), Zowieua lucotricha (7.8%), Cylindruarpn sp. (0.9%), Fusarium avenacmm (0.9%), and Vdudla iliata (0.4%). Most of these fungi, including known and potential pathogens of ginseng (species of Alerraria, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, and Trichodirma), were associated with both healthy and diseased seed. Application of Benlate (benomyl), Thiram (thiram), or UBI-2584 (tebuconazole) to seed caused slight to pronounced reduction in emergence and did not significantly affect plant stand six weeks after seeding. The study demonstrated the high level of infection by fungi, including known and potential pathogens of the cry, in an arbitrary collection of ginseng seed from commercial sources, and the phytotoxicity of the fungicides tested when applied to moist stratified seed. The lack of efficacy of the fungicides precluded determination of the contribution of seedborne fungi to low vigour of the seed.
Effect of Drenching Soil with Benomyl, Propiconazole and Fluazinam on Incidence of Disappearing Root Rot of Ginseng
A.Monique Ziezold ; Robert Hall ; Richard D.Reeleder ; John T.A.Proctor ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 237~243
Three fungicides, Orbit (propiconazole), Benlate (benomyl) and ASC-66835 (fluazinam), were tested as soil drenches to control disappearing root rot (DRR) of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in gardens artificially infested with Cylindrocarpon dsstrutans. The incidence of DRR was low (0∼3.5%) in uninfected plots and significantly higher in infested plots (2.6∼19.9%). Significant reductions in the incidence of DRR were observed in 1-year-old and 2-year-old gardens that were treated and assessed for disease in the same year Significant control was not obtained in 3-year-old gardens treated and as secede in the same year, or in 1-year-old or 2-year-old gardens assessed in the year following information. Disease incidence was significantly reduced by 49-77% by low and high rates of benomyl (45 and 1,250 mg a.1./L) and propiconazole (10 and 40 mg a.i./L) and by fluazinam at 150 mg a.i./L. These fungicides seem to be worthy of further investigation as soil drenches to control DRR of ginseng.
Red Ginseng Quality and Characteristics of KG101 a Promising Line of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 244~251
KG101 was developed by the Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute. We reported about yield trials and local adaptability test. Growth characteristics and red ginseng quality of KG101 in local performance test can be summarized as follows. Aerial parts growth, stem and leaf, was similar about KG101 and Jakyungjong, 4-year old and 6-year old ginseng. Emergence rate of KG101 was higher than Jakyungjong in the 3 location of local performance test. Taproot diameter of KG101 was smaller than Jakyungjong and taproot shape of KG101 had fitted characteristics, radish type and human body type, to manufactured red ginseng. Raw ginseng grade, 1st and 2nd of KG101 was higher than Jakyungjong's. Chun, Jeesam ratio to manufacture of 2nd grade of raw ginseng of KG101 was 25%, Jakyungjong was 6-13% in 3 location of local performance test. Distribution of red ginseng weight of Jakyungiong was heavier than KG101 in 2 location, Kongju and Jungup, but KG101 was heavier than Jakyungjong in Ichon. Red ginseng quality of KG101 was better than Jakyungiong. Main degrade factor of red ginseng quality was inside cavity and inside white, was not different lines and location.
Effects of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Color and Organoleptic Qualities of Ginseng Powders
Lee, Mi-Gyeong ; Gwon, Jung-Ho ; Do, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 252~259
Electron beam, electrically produced from an electron accelerator, was compared with gamma energy in terms of its influence on color and organoleptic qualities of ginseng powders when exposed to the energy used for their microbial decontamination. Hunter color L and b values were suitable for measuring color characteristics of ginseng powders, which were not significantly changed by the exposure to 5 to 7.5 kGy electron beam and gamma energy. Fifty percent ethanol extracts of irradiated ginseng powders at 10 key showed negligible differences from the non-irradiated control in the pattern of absorption spectra at 280∼800 am, but showed increased values in overall color difference (AE) as compared with powdered samples. Irradiation more than 10 kGy and storage at ambient temperature for 4 months caused browning of powdered samples. Irradiation at more than 10 kGy of electron beam was found a critical level to bring about appreciable changes (p<0.05) in or-ganoleptic qualities such as color and odor of sterilized samples, and red ginseng powder was more susceptible than white one to organoleptic changes by irradiation.
Biological Activity of Acidic Polysaccharide of Korean Red Ginseng 1.-Effects on Alcohol Detoxification System in the Llver of Alcohol-intoxicated Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 260~266
The effects of acidic polysaccharide of Korean red ginseng (AcPS) on metabolisms of drug and alcohol in the liver were investigated. We could find that treatment of AcPS to six-week ethanol administered rats lowered the levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in serum. We also we found that treatment of AcPS normalized the elevated activities of free radical generation system, decreased activities of detoxification system such as
-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione S-transferase, and decreased activities of acetaldehyde metabolizing system. The cytosolic alcohol dehy drogenase and microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) were strongly enhanced.
Biological Activities of Acidic Polysaccharide of Korean Red Ginseng.111.-Effects on Metabolizing Activities in Acetaminophen- treated Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 267~273
Pretreatment of acidic polysaccharide of Korean red ginseng (AcPS) for two weeks remarkably lowered the elevated content of lipid peroxide and levels of aminotransferases, sorbitol dehydrogenase,
-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in liver intoxicated by acetaminophen (AA) . Pretreatments of AcPS also strengthen the liver function of glutathione related detoxication system indicated by glutathione contents and activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reeducates which were affected by AA treatments. Activity of
-glutamylcysteine syntheses was not changed by AcPS pretreatment whereas the activity of flu tathione reeducates was increased significantly. These results collectively indicate that the treatments of AcPS can promote the metabolism of lipid and reduce the production of peroxide in acetaminophen-intoxicated animals.
Relationship of Saponin and Non-saponin for the Quality of Ginseng
Nam, Gi-Yeol ; Go, Seong-Ryong ; Choe, Gang-Ju ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 274~283
It has generally been accepted that quality of ginseng should be determined not by the content of a single component but by composition and balance of total active principles. However, there still can be an exception with a product in which a given ginsenoside is used for the treatment of a specific disease. Although ginsenosides have been regarded to be major active components of ginseng and employed as index components for the quality control, it does not consistent with the traditional concept on ginseng quality creterion; main root has been more highly appreciated than the lateral or fine root. Content of ginsenosides in the lateral or fine root is much higher than that in main root. However, the ratio of protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol (PT) saponins existing in various part of ginseng root is greatly different. The ratio of PD/PT saponins in main root is well balanced but the thinner the root is the higher the ratio. Thus far, a total of 34 different kinds of ginsenosides have been isolated from Korean (red) ginseng, and their pharmacological activities were elucidated partly. Interestingly, different ginsenoside shows similar or contrary effects to each other in biological systems, thus indicating the significance of absolute content of single ginsenoside as well as compositional patterns of each ginsenoside. Therefore, pharmacological activities of ginseng should be determined as a wholly concept. In these regards, standardization of ginseng material (fresh ginseng root) should be preceded to the standardization of ginseng products because ginsenoside content and non-saponin active principles such as polysaccharides and nitrogen (N)-containing compound including proteins are significantly different from part to part of the root. In other words, the main root contains less ginsenosides than other lateral or fine roots. Contents of polysaccharides and N-containing compound in main root is higher. However, the quality control of ginseng products focused on non-saponin compounds has limitation in applying to the analytical method, because of the difficult chemical analysis of these compounds. Content of ginsenosides, and ratios of PD/PT and ginsenoside Rb,/Rg, are inversely proportional to the diameter of ginseng root. Therefore, these can be served as the chemical parameters for the indirect method of evaluating from what part of the root does the material originate. Furthermore, contents of polysaccharides and N-containing compounds show inverse relationship to saponin content. Therefore, it seems that index for analytical chemistry of saponin can be applied to the indirect method of evaluating not only saponin but also non-saponin compounds of ginseng. From these viewpoints, it is strongly recommended that quality of ginseng or ginseng products be judged not only by the absolute content of given ginsenoside but also by varieties and compositional balance of ginsenosides, including contents of non-saponin active principles.
New Efficient Method for Isolation and Purification of Ginsenosides
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 284~288
This study was carried out to establish a new efficient method for isolation and purification of ginsenosides. Silica gel column chromatography, having been used for the isolation of ginsenosides, is advantageous to obtain a large amount of ginsenosides. However, it has a disadvantage to isolate ginsenosides to their highest purity. In addition, normal-or reverse-phase HPLC method thus far reported is confined to quantitative analysis. Especially, it has not been possible to isolate racemic 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg2. In this experiment, isolation and purification of ginsenosides were accomplished by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, recrystalization and Prep. HPLC with or without Prep. TLC. From this study, we could establish a new efficient method for isolation and purification of 9 major and/or minor ginsenosides.
Distribution and Composition of Dietary Fiber in Various Parts of Ginseng Root
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 289~293
Six-year-old ginseng roots were divided into rhizome, main root (epidermis, cortex and xylem) and lateral root (big tail root, mid tail root and fine tail root) and the concentration levels of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) in each part of the ginseng were investigated. The amount ratios of SDF to IDF (SDF/IDF) in various parts of the ginseng root were also compared. The concentration levels of SDF and IDF in the ginseng root were 6.56% and 15.41 %, respectively, where the level of SDF in main root was a little higher than that of lateral root. However the amount of IDF in main root was lower than that of lateral root. The SDF/IDF was highest in main root, 0.513, which was higher than that of lateral root or rhizome. The SDF/IDF was 0.704 in xylem, 0.478 in cortex, and 0.099 in epidermis of the main root and the SDF/IDF was 0.576 in big tail root, 0.463 in mid tail root, and 0.255 in fine tail root of the lateral root. It has been reported that SDF might have preventive effects on diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, colon and rectum cancers, while IDF might have preventive effects on constipation. Therefore, main root of six-year- old ginseng root is thought to have a little different physiological activity from lateral or fine tail roots.
Relationships Between Growth Characteristics as well as Mineral Consents of Ginseng Seedlings and Yield of Ginseng Roots
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 294~298
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of growth characteristics and mineral contents of ginseng seedling grown in different locations on ginseng growth and root yield. Ginseng seedling produced in 16 farmers' field at the semi-Yangjik seedbed were planted and cultivated in a field with same cultural practices. Missing plant was increased with increased year of ginseng age, especially severe at 5-year-old ginseng. Rate of missing plant was different among the origins of the seedling, even with the same weights. Negative correlation was noted between the missing rate of 3-year-old ginseng plants and NH4-N content of the seedling, but positive correlation between the missing rate and K2O and Ca contents of the seedling. Root yield of 6-year-old ginseng was also affected by the origins of ginseng seedlings. Root yield was high in ginseng plant from 0.6∼0.9 g see dings compared to those from over 0.9 g seedlings.
Effect of Seeding Rate on Growth and Yield of Ginseng Plant in Direct-Sowing Culture
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 299~303
To know possibility of raw ginseng production for white- and red-ginseng by direct-sowing culture, seeds were directly sowed or seedlings were transplanted at soil condition of sandy loam in ginseng field. After cultivation, the characters of 5-year-old ginseng were investigated. Number of survived plants was increased with increase the seeding quantity in direct-sowing culture, the survived plants in direct-sowing culture was higher than that of transplanting one. Rate of the numbers of survived plants to numbers of seeds sowed in plots of 134 or 90 seeds sowed per tan, 180 x 90cm area, inspire of high number of survived plant was high compared to that of transplanting culture. Occurrence rate of rusty root of ginseng in direct-sowing culture was low significantly compared to that of transplanting culture. Root yield showed in the order of 134, 268, 90 seeds sowed, the values of yield in direct-sowing culture were high obviously compared to that of transplanting one. Individual root weight was increased with decrease the seeding quantity, however, the root weight in plot of 90 seeds sowed showed almost equal the weight in transplanting culture. The number of usable raw ginseng for white- and red-ginseng was increased with decrease of the seeding quantity; the numbers were higher than that of transplanting culture remarkably. We concluded that optimum seedling rate in direct-sowing culture of ginseng was 90 to 134 seeds per tan considering the yield per area and production rate of large root.
Production and Isolation of Chlamydospores in Cylindrocaupon destructans Causing Root Rot of Panax quinquefolium
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 304~309
Incubation condition affecting the chlamydospore formation and isolation from mycelia and conidia of Cylindrocarpon destructanse (isolate ACY-9701), isolated from the root rot lesion of the American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) was investigated. Chlamydospores were formed from mycilia but not from conidia on the Czapek-Dox agar without carbon or nitrogen source after 20 days incubation at 2
. In the medium added with nitrogen and carbon sources, immatured chlamy-dospore-like cells were formed from microconidia and mycelia as well. Immatured chlamydospore-like cells were formed from mycelia as well as microconidia In corn, kidney bean, and pea root extracts after 20 days incubation at 20"C, while typical chlamydospores were formed from both of them in the root extract of Panax quinquefolium. The 3.6 log chlamydospore/mm" was converted from microconidia in the medium, which was equal to 2.5% conidia formed. Under the light condition (251.1 pmol/m" sec, 12 hrs dark and light cycle), 4.2 log/mm" of chlamydospores were converted from interracially or terminal cells of macroconidia, which was 4.0% of macroconidia produced on Potato dextrose agar (PDA). When mycelia and microconidia were stored at -7
for 32 days and incubated on PDA after thawing at room temperature to isolate chlamydospores from them, microconidia and mycelia were still alive. Meanwhile, microconidial lysis was found after heating them at 32
for 7 days, but the chlamydospores converted from macroconidia were not lysed up to 13 days at 32"C. to 13 days at 32"C.ot;C.
Effect of ginseng saponins on the induction of
-galactosidase in yeast
Lee, Hee-Bong ; Kim, Kyung-Hoon ; Han, Byoung-Dong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 310~315
The effect of red ginseng saponins (total saponins, Rbl- and Rgl- fraction of saponins) on the induction of
-galactosidase in yeast, hccharomyces cereuisiae, was investigated to see that ginseng saponins would penetrate the cell membrane and have a function in a nucleus as steroid hormones do. To attain such a kind of purpose, a DNA fragment (685bp) containing GALI promoter was inserted into the sites of EcoRl and BamHl of polylinker region, upstream of lace gene of the plasmid YEp356 (7.966 Kb), and thus the resulting plasmid pGALl-lacZ is supposed to express
- galactosidase only in the presence of galactose. The plasmid pGALl -lacZ was introduced into yeast, Ky106 (a leu2 ura3 his3 trp 1 Iys2), and the growth of the transformed cells was much slower in the presence of galactose than glucose. The effects of saponins on the specific activity of P-galactosidase from transformed yeast cells were detected. No significant increase was observed in case of total saponins, but the Rbl- or Rgl- fraction of saponins gave much higher increase in the activity. Maximum increase was observed as 35% in 10-3% of Rbl and as 75% in 10-1% of Rgl. These data suggest that ginseng saponins might be able to enter the nucleus and stimulate transcription. However, further studies to find out the putative saponin receptor are needed to confirm this possibility. Key words : Red ginseng saponin,
-galactosidase induction, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Effects of Korean Ginseng Saponin Fraction on the Biosynthesis of Spermidine and Spermine from Bat Prostate and Testis
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 316~323
To study e(feces of Korean Binseng (Parfax ginseff C. A. hfeyer) total saponin fraction on spermidine and spermine metabolism in rat reproductive systems, we administrated the saponin fractation to rats for 2 years. Then, we determined the activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), the quantitation of the enzyme protein and the amounts of spermidine and spermine contents In prostate and testis. In young sexually immature stage, administration of Korean ginseng saponin fraction showed no effect on SAMDC activities. The stimulatory effect on the activities of SAMDC gradually increased and reached maximal activities in test groups of prostate and testis at sexually mature stage. The amounts of SAMDC protein in test groups were paralleled by the changes of SAMDC activities in test groups, indicating that all of the increased activity occurring in administration of ginseng saponin fraction was not due to the activation of SAMDC activity but to the Increase in enzyme protein. However, the spermidine and spermine contents of test groups showed small increase in compared to that of control groups. From these results, we suggest that administration of ginseng saponin fraction alter the spermidine and spermine metabolism in sexually mature and aged reproductive systems in rats.
The Pattern of Cytokine myNA Expression Induced by Polysaccharide from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 22, issue 4, 1998, Pages 324~330
We Previously reported that Polysaccharide Isolated from panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, stimulates murine splenocytes to proliferate and to be cytotoxic against a wide range of tumor cells in MHC non-restricted manner:) Therefore, we examined the cytokine mRNA expression induced by the ginseng polysaccharide in this paper. This study demonstrates that the ginseng polysaccharide stimulates Thl type cytosine expression such as IL-2 and IFNY, and macrophage type cytokine expression such as IL-lc and GM-CSF in a dose-dependent manner at different time: IL-2 mRNA was induced at 30 min, IL-la, GM-CSF mRNA at 3 hr, IFNY at 6 hr after the ginseng polysaccharide treatment. In contrast with these, Th2 type cytokine expression such as IL-4 and IL-5 was not induced. The generation of the ginseng polysaccharide-activated killer cells which was induced at the optimal doses of 50 pEyml was neutralized in the presence of anti-lL-2, anti-lFNy, anti-IL-l
antibodies, showing the importance of these cytokines produced by the ginseng polysaccharide. In flow cytometry analysis, the blastogenesis of IgM+ cells was induced on day 3 and the number of Thy 1.21 cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells was increased on day 5. The ginseng polysaccharide also induced blastogenesis of T cells. In conclusion, the ginseng polysaccharide may have considerable antitumor immunotherapeutic modality by stimulating the cytokine production from Thl cells and macrophage and by proliferating lymphocytes.