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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Clinical Applications and Efficacy of Korean Ginseng
Nam, Ki-Yeul ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 111~131
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.111
Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) received a great deal of attention from the Orient and West as a tonic agent, health food and/or alternative herbal therapeutic agent. However, controversy with respect to scientific evidence on pharmacological effects especially, evaluation of clinical efficacy and the methodological approach still remains to be solved. Author reviewed those articles published since 1980 when pharmacodynamic studies on ginseng have intensively started. Special concern was paid on metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, circulatory disorders, malignant tumor, sexual dysfunction, and physical and mental performance to give clear information to those who are interested in pharmacological study of ginseng and to promote its clinical use. With respect to chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, malignant disorders, and sexual disorders, it seems that ginseng plays preventive and restorative role rather than therapeutics. Particularly, ginseng plays a significant role in ameliorating subjective symptoms and preventing quality of life from deteriorating by long term exposure of chemical therapeutic agents. Also it seems that the potency of ginseng is mild, therefore it could be more effective when used concomitantly with conventional therapy. Clinical studies on the tonic effect of ginseng on work performance demonstrated that physical and mental dysfunction induced by various stresses are improved by increasing adaptability of physical condition. However, the results obtained from clinical studies cannot be mentioned in the indication, which are variable upon the scientist who performed those studies. In this respect, standardized ginseng product and providing planning of the systematic clinical research in double-blind randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the real efficacy for proposing ginseng indication. Pharmacological mode of action of ginseng has not yet been fully elucidated. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic researches reveal that the role of ginseng not seem to be confined to a given single organ. It has been known that ginseng plays a beneficial role in such general organs as central nervous, endocrine, metabolic, immune systems, which means ginseng improves general physical and mental conditons. Such multivalent effect of ginseng can be attributed to the main active component of ginseng,ginsenosides or non-saponin compounds which are also recently suggested to be another active ingredients. As is generally the similar case with other herbal medicines, effects of ginseng cannot be attributed as a given single compound or group of components. Diversified ingredients play synergistic or antagonistic role each other and act in harmonized manner. A few cases of adverse effect in clinical uses are reported, however, it is not observed when standardized ginseng products are used and recommended dose was administered. Unfavorable interaction with other drugs has also been suggested, which the information on the products and administered dosage are not available. However, efficacy, safety, interaction or contraindication with other medicines has to be more intensively investigated in order to promote clinical application of ginseng. For example, daily recommended doses per day are not agreement as 1-2g in the West and 3-6 g in the Orient. Duration of administration also seems variable according to the purpose. Two to three months are generally recommended to feel the benefit but time- and dose-dependent effects of ginseng still need to be solved from now on. Furthermore, the effect of ginsenosides transformed by the intestinal microflora, and differential effect associated with ginsenosides content and its composition also should be clinically evaluated in the future. In conclusion, the more wide-spread use of ginseng as a herbal medicine or nutraceutical supplement warrants the more rigorous investigations to assess its effacy and safety. In addition, a careful quality control of ginseng preparations should be done to ensure an acceptable standardization of commercial products.
Effects of Crude Saponin and Saponin-free Fraction of Korea Red Ginseng on the Skin and Cerebral Blood Flow in the Rats
Kim, Shin-Hee ; Kim, Cuk-Seong ; Park, Jin-Bong ; Han, Chan-Soo ; Kim, Kwang-Jin ; Kim, Shin-Hye ; Kim, Se-Hoon ; Nam, Ki-Yeul ; Jeon, Byeong-Hwa ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 132~138
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.132
To study the effect of Korea red ginseng (KCG) on the skin and cerebral blood flow, we evaluated the change of skin perfusion rate and cerebral perfusion rate after the intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the rats. The change of skin perfusion rate and cerebral perfusion rate was measured laser doppler flowmetry. The intravenous injections of CS or SFF of KRG and intraperitoneal injection of SFF of KRG did not change the relative skin and cerebral blood flow in the rats. When the rats were treated by the intraperitoneal injection of CS of KRG, relative cerebral blood flow was significantly increased with a time-dependent manner, however, relative skin blood flow was not influenced by the them. Oral administration of CS of KRG slightly increased skin blood flow in the rats. Also, the change of cerebral blood flow by transient bilateral carotid arterial clamp in the CS-treated rats was significantly decreased, compared with control groups. From the above results, it was suggested that Korea red ginseng have a increasing property of cerebral blood flow in the rats.
Effect of Tota1 Saponin from Red Ginseng on Acvtivities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Pregnant Rats
Song, Yong-Bum ; Kwak, Yi-Seong ; Park, Ki-Hyun ; Chang, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 139~144
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.139
Pregnancy is a physiological state accompained by a high energy demand of many bodily functions and an increased oxygen requirement. Because of the increased intake and utilization of oxygen, increased levels of oxidative stress would be expected. So we observed the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes from rat treated with total saponin from the red ginseng against free raicals produced in pregnant rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the control group was slightly decreased during pregnancy, and SOD activity in total saponin treated group was not observed any siginificant change compared with the control group. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD) and catalase in the control group have shown the decreasing tendency during pregnancy, whereas the activities of GRD and catalase in total saponin treated group showed significant increased tendency compared with the control group. GPX activity in total saponin treated group was slightly decreased tendnency compared with the control group. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the control group was increased to keep the state of homaeostasis tendency in pregnant rats. On the other hand, the activity of GST after total saponin treatment was increased than control group. Activity of all enzymes in the control group and total saponin treated group recovered the normal level after delivery of rats. In spite of the physiological changes in vivo, the inflaunce of total saponin on activaties of hepatic antioxidant enzyme in pregnant rats seems to be regulated the biological homeostatic adaptation mechanism which protects the maternal liver aganist oxygen induced toxicity
Changes in Sensory Characteristics and Chemical Constituents of Raw Ginseng Roots Individually Packaged in a Soft Film During Storage
Kim, Ji-Hye ; Koo, Nan-Sook ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Sohn, Hyun-Joo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 145~150
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.145
The changes in sensory characteristics, physical and chemical properties of raw ginseng (4-year-root, 50 g/root) were investigated when they were packaged individually in a soft film bag (ONY/LDPE/L-LDPE ; 200
300 ㎜, 90 ㎛) and stored at 25
for twenty days. Seventy-five percentages of sixty raw ginseng samples were adulterated and the most phenomenon of adulterating the raw ginseng was softening. Softened ginsengs were softer and stickier and they had stronger pungent and sour odors, stronger sour and sweet tastes than normal ginseng but had weaker ginseng and fresh odors. In addition, softened ginsengs exhibited lower hardness and pH, lower contents of diol-type ginsenosides, lower ratios of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and higher contents of water-soluble pectins than normal ginseng while contents of moisture, crude protein, ether-soluble materials and crude ash of the softened ginsengs were similar to those of normal ginseng.
Seed and Root Rots of Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) Caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium spp.
Reeleder, R.D. ; Roy, R. ; Capell, B. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 151~158
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.151
Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has become one of the most valuable herb crops grown in North America. However, traditional cropping practices are favourable to disease and significant losses due to root disease are common, despite frequent use of fungicides. Seedlots are often contaminated with pathogens, however, little is known about the causes of seed decay and the role of seed pathogens as incitants of root rots. It was shown that both Fusarium spp. and Cylindrocarpon destructans were able to rot seeds and that C. destructans was more virulent than Fusarium spp. on seedling roots. A modified rose bengal agar MRBA) medium (1 g KH
; 0.5 g MgSO
; 50 mg rose bengal; 10 g dextrose; 5 g Bacto peptone; 15 g Bacto agar; 30 mg streptomycin sulfate; 250 mg ampicillin; 10 mg rifampicin; 500mg pentachloronitrobenzene; 500 mg dicloran; and 1 L distilled water) was superior to potato dextrose agar in detecting C. destuctans in diseased roots. Isolation of C. destructans from diseased seedlings arising from seeds sown in replant soil supported the hypothesis that this pathogen is a cause of ginseng replant failure in North America.
Mineral Nutrition Contents of Rusty-Root To1erance Ginseng Lines in 6-Year Old Root
Lee, Sung-Sik ; Lee, Kyoung-Hwan ; Kim, Eun-Soo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.159
Experiments were carried out to select the rusty tolerance lines in 39 inbred lines of ginseng cultivated in field, among them, 7 lines showed low degree of rusty root while 7 lines showed high degree of rusty root. In order to select marker elements among mineral nutrients for rusty ginseng root, we combined 5 groups as follows : Ⅰ (healthy-root of low rusty degree lines vs. rusty-root of high rusty degree lines), II (healthy-root vs. rusty-root in low rusty degree lines), Ⅲ (healthy-root vs. rusty-root in high rusty degree lines), Ⅳ (low rusty degree lines vs. high rusty degree lines in rusty-root), Ⅴ (low rusty degree lines vs. high rusty degree lines in healthy-root), and analyzed mineral nutrition at different root parts. The contents of mineral nutritions in stele and cortex were not different between healthy lines and rusty lines, and between healthy roots and rusty roots, but that in branch and fine roots were not a tendency. The contents of Fe, Na and Al in epidermis were higher in rusty-root than healthy-root. Also, the contents of Fe and Al in epidermis of high rusty degree lines (HRL) were higher than those of low rusty degree lines (LRL) in healthy-roots and rusty-roots, and so we suggest Fe and Al as markers to select low rusty degree ginseng lines.
Phenolic Compounds Contents of Rusty-Root Tolerance Ginseng Lines in 6-Year Old Root
Lee, Sung-Sik ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 26, issue 3, 2002, Pages 165~169
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2002.26.3.165
Experiments were carried out to select marker for rusty tolerance ginseng root using high rusty degree lines(HRL) and low rusty degree lines (LRL) in ginseng plant. A strong positive correlation was detected between degree of rusty-root in 4-year-root and that in 6-year-root. The contents of phenolic compounds among samples were not different in stele and branch & fine roots. The contents of phenolic compounds of rusty-roots was higher than that of healthy-roots in cortex, but those of high 겨sty degree lines (HRL) were not different compared with low rusty degree lines (LRL) in cortex using same rusty-degree samples. These suggest that phenolic compounds in cortex tissue were not adequate as a marker to select rusty tolerance ginseng roots. The contents of phenolic compounds of rusty-roots were higher than that of healthy-roots in epidermis, and those of HRL were higher than LRL in epidermis using same rusty-degree samples. These suggested that the contents of phenolic compounds in epidermis tissue might be a potent marker to select rusty tolerance ginseng roots.