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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Dec 1979
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1979
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The Eueet of Ginseng Extract on Physiology of Saccharomuces cereuisiae
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 95~104
The effects of ginseng extracts on carbon dioxide generation, alcohol fermentation, and yeast cell production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. The results are as follows. 1) In the process of fermentation, CO2 generation by yeast is faster in ginseng extracts media of 0.3%, 0. l% than in control. As the concentration of the extracts increases by 0.7% and 1.5%, CO2 generation is decreased. Among all these concentrations, CO2 generation is fastest in 0.3% of the extracts. 2) In the process of fermentation, the production of alcohol is larger in the order of 0.3%, 0.7% and 0.1% than in the control and least in 1.5%. 3) The number of yeast cell rapidly increased from 12 hours to 18 hours after cultivation and conspicuously increased in the order of 0.3%, 0.7%, 0.1%, control and 1.5%. 4) Dried yeast cell weight increased more in all the above concentration than control and among these it increased visibly in 0.3% of the extracts.
Effect of Gibberellin and Kinetin on Bud Dormancy Breaking and Growth of Korean Ginseng Root (Panax ginseng C.A. MEY.)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 105~112
Effect of gibberllin on the breaking of bud dormancy of root and growth of aerial parts were investigated under laboratory and field condition for the prolongation of shoot growth duration, shortening of fruit bearing age and the increase of root yield. Drop application of GA (0.5ml of 50ppm) on rhizome of one year old root broke bud dormancy better than by low temperature. Soaking for one hour of one year old roots which wintered in the field in GA (50-200ppm) greatly accelerated the emergence of new buds while kinetin was only effective at low level (50ppm). GA substantially increased stem length in early stage and petiole length later on while kinetin increased stem diameter. Under the field condition with polythylene film tunnel (PET) in early spring the soaking in GA (50ppm for 1 hour) of rhizome of 4 year old root with replanting and dropping GA (50ppm, 1ml) on rhizome without replanting brought earlier emergence (29days) in comparison with that in the usual field. PET alone caused 14 day-early emergence. GA increased the length of stem and petiole only in early stage and replanting decreased only petiole length in later stage. Soaking in GA with replanting caused the Pronounced decrease in peduncle length, percentage of (ruin set and dry weight of reproductive organ (fruits and peduncle). Dropping without replanting showed significant decrease only in dry weight of reproductive organ. Fruit maturing was 20 days earlier than in usual held with little difference between GA and PET. It is well expected that GA could be used for early emergence of bud, shortening of root dormancy period, thinning of fruit and higher root yield according to application amount and methods.
Studios on the Growth of Lacfobacillus acidophi1us and Streptococcus thermophilus in Milk Added with Ginseng Extracts.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 113~126
This study was undertaken to assess the effect of the Korean red ginseng extracts on the growth of lactic acid bacteria, such as Lac. acidophilus and Str. thermophilus. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The growth of all the lactic acid bacteria tested in this study was not influenced when the skim milk was added with the red ginseng extracts in concentration of less than 4.0%. But the growth was remarkably inhibited in the presence of 8.0% red ginseng extracts in skim milk. 2. Titratable acidity was more or less increased by addition of red ginseng extracts as compared with control except when the amount of 8.0% red ginseng extracts were added into skim milk. 3. No particular effect was observed in the growth of lactic acid bacteria in case of addition of saponins. But the remarkable inhibitory effect was observed in the skim milk with the amount of 1.2mg/ml the fractions extracted by ethyl ether from red ginseng extracts.
Studies on the Colorimetric Determination of Panaxadiol and Panaxatriol
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 127~133
A simple and rapid colorimetric method for determination of panaxadiol and , panaxadiol was developed. 1. After heating with 60% perchloric acid, panaxadiol and panaxadiol yielded red.purple color with absorption maximum at 540 nm and 538 nm, respectively. 2. The maximum colors of the Panaxadiol and panaxadiol were reached when the algycones were treated at 6
, 5 minutes or 7
3 minutes. 3. The absorbance varied linearly with the amount of aglycone in the reaction mixture. And the colorimetric method was sensitive to about 10
of aglycone in 5.5ml of the reaction mixture. 4. The color was stable for about a week at 4
-Sitosterol, oleanolic acid and cholesterol were not yielded red color by treatment with 60% perchloric acid under the conditions described.
The Studies on the Production of Ginseng Extract by Amylase
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 134~143
It order to extract the soluble organic substances of Korean ginseng effectively, the ginseng extract have been made by using amylase. The investigation on the optimum condition of enzyme reaction was carried out, and the amounts of gained extract and its saponin pattern were compared among the ethanol extract, water extract and enzyme extract. The results obtained are summerized as follows. 1. The gaining ratio or ginseng extract was the highest value when the raw ginseng and dried ginseng were extracted in the concentration of 7.5% and 5% with 0.3%∼0.6% enzyme for 25 hour. 2. The amounts of ethanol extract, water extract and enzyme extract were 9.14%, 17.23% and 23.73% in case of raw ginseng and 64.09%, 72.52% and 74.36% in case of dried ginseng, respectively. The amount of enzyme extract was increased as much as 6∼14% in case of raw ginseng, and 2∼10% in case of dried ginseng compared with that of ethanol and water extract. 3. The absolute content of saponin was nearly constant in spite of the different extraction method and all of the ginseng saponin pattern of thin-layer chromatograms were almost same.
The Effect of Gingseng Saponins on Microbial Enzyme Activity
Jo, Seong-Hwan ; Jo, Han-Ok ; Park, Hong-Gu ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 144~155
In order to investigate biochemical effects of ginseng saponin on microbial enzyme activity, Aspergillus oryxae-143 and Aspergillus niger-40, which were selected from various sources of samples and were the highest enzyme producing mold strains, were grown in the medium containing various saponin concentration (0mg%, l0mg%, 50mg%, l00mg%, 150mg% and 300mg%). The enzyme activity (amylase, protease) was found most active when the saponin was added in the culture media with the concentration of l0mg%∼l00mg%. But it seemed that the action of microbial enzyme was inhibited by adding more than 300mg% of saponin.
Physiological Response of Panax ginseng to Temperature I. Old experience, distribution, germination, photosynthesis and respiration
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 156~167
Physiological characteristics of Panax ginseng were reviewed in relation to temperature. According to the old literatures and records of cultivator's experiences it was elucidated that ginseng plants require light but hate high temperature and that the cultural methods were developed to content two characteristics in contradiction. Low temperature (cool climate) during growing season seems (or ginseng to be essential and to escape from the extreme coldness according to air and soil temperature of natural habitat and cultivated area. Optimum temperature of dehiscence (15∼below 20
) is a little higher than that of germination (10∼15
). Optimum temperature for growing of new buds (18∼20
) is similar to that for growing after emergence (17∼21
). Dormancy of both matured embryo and new buds is broken at the same temperature (2∼3
). It seems reasonable that optimum temperature of photosynthesis (22
) is similar to that of growth. Respiration quotients of various organs or of whole plant ranged from 1.7 to 3 incrased with high temperature. Respiratory consumption and oxygen limitation seem to be potential factors to induce decay during dehiscence and germination of seeds and root rot in fields. Research on organ differentiation. photosynthesis, respiration and growth with age is needed for the development of cultivation methods.
Influence of Panax Ginseng on the Responce of Btressful Stimuli in the Experimental Animal exposed to Various Stress
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 3, issue 2, 1979, Pages 168~186
Three hundred gram of Korean ginseng root was extracted with 95% ethanol on a boiling water bath for about 300 hr. Evaporation of alcohol yieled 50.2g of dark brown residue which was used by dissolving 4 mg of the residue in 1 ml of physiological saline. The ginseng group and the saline group received each day 0.5 ml per 100 g body weight of ginseng extract and physiological saline, respectively. Both the ginseng and saline group with stress were exposed to positive radial acceleration (1∼29g), cold (5
) and heat (35
) environment, and surgical stress. After termination of the last stress, the tolerance, body weight, visceral organ weight, basal metabolism rate, rectal temperature, the number of erythrocyte and leucocyte, hemoglobin level, hematocrit ratio, total serum protein content and it's fraction and the content of adrenal ascorbic acid in the experimental animal exposed to stress were measured and at the corresponding periods, the same measurements were also carried out with the ginseng and the saline groups without stress exposure (serving as control). Results obtained were as follows. 1. Administration of ginseng does depressed the decrease of the tolerance, body weight, visceral organ weight, basal metabolism rate, the number of erythrocyte, hemoglobin value, hematocrit ratio and the A/G ratio in the mice and rats exposed to various stress. 2. The change of the rectal temperature, eosinophile counts, total serum protein content and the content of adrenal ascorbic acid of ginseng group that exposured to various stress facilitates the reaction to, and accelerates the recovery from the stress. 3. Even after hypophysectomy which served the link between the central and the peripheral portion of the stress mechanism, the adrenal ascorbic acid content of ginseng group decreased significantly more than that of the saline group 30 min. after administration of ACTH, while the value approached the normal level significantly closer in the ginseng group than in the saline group 1 and 2 hr after ACTH administration. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that administration of ginseng extract tolerated the experimental animals under the environment of stressfu1 stmuli, although the ginseng has no significant influence upon the stress mechanism in the absence of stressful stimuli. The site of action of the ginseng appears to be in the peripheral portion of the stress mechanism.