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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Serum Soluble CD8 in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Cho, Young-Keol ; Sung, Heung-Sup ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 175~180
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.175
To evaluate whether there is a relation between Korean red ginseng (KRG)-intake and the suppression of immune hyperactivation in HIV-1-infected patients, we measured serum soluble CD8 (sCD8) over 31-48 months in 168 patients. They were divided into four groups; HIV-1-infected control (n = 49), zidovudine (ZDV) group (n = 22), KRG group (n = 48), and combination of KRG and ZDV group (n = 49). In control, sCD8 and the ratio of sCD8/CD8+ T cells significantly increased by 33% (paired t-test, P < 0.05) and 54% over
months (P < 0.001), respectively. In ZDV group, sCD8 decreased within first 6 months and then showed steady increase and the ratio also increased over
months. In KRG group, sCD8 and the ratio of sCD/CD8+ T cells continuously decreased by 45% (P < 0.01) and 19% over
months (P < 0.05), respectively. In combination group, sCD8 gradually decreased by 29% (P < 0.01). There was a clear difference in the changes in serum sCD8 over time among 4 groups. There was no rebound phenomenon in KRG group as shown in ZDV group. These results suggest that KRG-intake suppresses immune hyperactivation state by HIV antigen itself in the HIV-infected patients.
Compound K (CK) Rich Fractions from Korean Red Ginseng Inhibit Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4- or TLR9-mediated Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Activation and Pro-inflammatory Responses in Murine Macrophages
Yang, Chul-Su ; Ko, Sung-Ryong ; Cho, Byung-Goo ; Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Ki-Hye ; Shin, Dong-Min ; Yuk, Jae-Min ; Sohn, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Young-Sook ; Wee, Jae-Joon ; Do, Jae-Ho ; Jo, Eun-Kyeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 181~190
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.181
Compound K (CK), a protopanaxadiol ginsenoside metabolite, was previously shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we isolated the CK rich fractions (CKRF) from Korean Red Ginseng and investigated the regulation of CKRF-mediated inflammatory signaling during Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated cellular activation. Among various TLR ligands, CKRF considerably abrogated TLR4- or TLR9-induced inflammatory signaling. Both LPS and CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) stimulation rapidly activates mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPKs; extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38], NF-
, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-
, and interleukin-6 in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Of interest, pre-treatment of CKRF in either LPS/TLR4- or CpG-ODN/TLR9-stimulated macrophages substantially attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and mRNA expressions, as well as MAPK and NF-
activation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the inhibitory roles for CKRF in TLR4- or TLR9-associated signaling in BMDMs. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CKRF specifically modulates distinct TLR4 and TLR9-mediated inflammatory responses, and further studies are urgently needed for their in vivo roles for potential therapeutic uses, such as in systemic inflammatory syndromes.
The Establishment of Optimum Conditions for Saccharification in Manufacturing Red Ginseng Sikhye
Hur, Sang-Sun ; Choi, Suk-Won ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 191~195
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.191
Red ginseng sikhye is one of Korean unique beverages with the addition of effective ingredients of ginseng. Considering economical and mechanical efficiency and quality of sikhye, the optimum conditions for saccharification is to saccharify at 90 degree celsius for 3 hours in the composition of 4% of malt, 20% of steamed rice, and 6% of red ginseng power. The red ginseng sikhye has high soluble solid content over 33% compared with conventional commercial sikhye. On the other hand, ginseng sikhye, which shows low pH, has more or less higher acidity than conventional commercial one. Especially the turbidity of the red ginseng sikhye is much higher than that of commercial sikhye, due to as high amount of rice as 20% compared with 3% in the commercial one. The use of high quantity of rice affected the level of turbidity in red ginseng sikhye. In this study, we wanted to establish optimum conditions for saccharification in manufacturing red ginseng sikhye which contains effective herbal medicinal ingredients maintaining the original taste of traditional sikhye.
Effects of Korean red ginseng and herb extracts mixture (KTNG0345) on procollagen biosynthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity in human dermal fibroblast
So, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Seong-Kye ; Hwang, Eui-Il ; Koo, Bon-Suk ; Han, Gyeong-Ho ; Kim, Na-Mi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 196~202
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.196
Skin wrinkles are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase-I (MMP-1) activity. This study was carried out to select optimum ratio of 3 herbs in skin health food for anti-wrinkle. Human dermal fibroblast cell was incubated with experimental samples, which were Korean red ginseng ethanol extracts (ER), Torilis fructus water extracts (WT), Corni fructus water extracts (WC) and their mixtures (WM1, WM3). And then we determined effects on collagen biosynthesis, MMP-1 activity and SOD activity in human dermal fibroblast cell. In control group, collagen biosynthesis was amounted at 474.8 ng/ml and 533.9 ng/ml, 539.3 ng/ml, 514.1 ng/ml in ER, WT and WC respectively. Furthermore, WM3 (KTNG0345) was increased to 561.45 ng/ml. MMP-1 activity of ER, WT, WC, WM1 were determined to 31.9 ng/ml, 32.85 ng/ml, 32.0 ng/ml, 31.3 ng/ml and WM3 (KTNG0345) was decreased to 28.85 ng/ml. In addition, the experimental samples showed a antioxidative activities. From this results, we conclude that Korean red ginseng ethanol extracts, Torilis fructus water extracts, Corni fructus water extracts and their mixtures have a anti-wrinkle effect and WM3 (KTNG0345) may be regarded as an optimum composition for synergic effect producing. The standardized components of KTNG0345, ginsenoside-
, torilin and loganin were identified at 10.85 mg/g, 0.128 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g respectively.
Antioxidant activity of white ginseng extracts prepared by enzyme treatment on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress
Kim, Young-Chan ; Yim, Joo-Hyuk ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 203~209
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.203
This study examined the extraction yields, total phenolic compounds content and the antioxidant activities on V79-4 cells of white ginseng extracts prepared by enzyme treatment. Yields of crude extract were 29.5-76%, and total phenolic compounds content showed 0.45-2.2% according to enzyme treatments. Pectinase treatment group showed the highest values of extraction yields and total phenolic compounds content. Pectinase and a-amylase treatment groups protected V79-4 cell viability(above 50%) against
-induced oxidative damage. In the result of antioxidant enzyme activity evaluation in cells, enzyme treatments did not show the significant difference of SOD activity (p>0.05). However, pectinase treatment group exhibited increased CAT and GPx activities (p>0.05). Also, pectinase and protease treatment group inhibited MDA formation (>50%) in the lipid peroxidation protection experiment.
Study on life span extension efficacy by Korean Red Ginseng
Lee, Joon-Hee ; Choi, Sun-Hye ; Nah, Seung-Yeol ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 210~216
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.210
The backbone structure of ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, is similar with that of sterol, especially cholesterol. Caenorhabditis elegans (c. elegans) is one of free living nematodes and is well-established animal model for biochemical and genetic studies. C. elegans cannot synthesize de novo cholesterol, although cholesterol is essential requirement for its growth and development. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng total extract (KRGE), ginseng total saponins (GTS) on life span of C. elegans in cholesterol-deprived and -fed medium. Cholesterol deprivation caused damages on life span of worms throughout F1 to F3 generations. KRGE or GTS supplement to cholesterol-deprived medium restored the life span of worms as much as cholesterol alone-fed medium. In study to identify which ginsenosides are responsible for life span restoring effects of KRGE, we found that ginsenoside Rc supplement not only restored life span of worms grown in cholesterol-deprived medium but also prolonged life span of worms grown in cholesterol-fed medium. These results show a possibility that ginsenosides could be utilized by C. elegans as a sterol substitute and further indicate that ginsenoside Rc is the effective component of Korean red ginseng that prolongs the life span of C. elegans.
Anxiolytic-like Effects of Saponin and Polysaccharide Fractions Extracted from White and Red Ginsengs in the Elevated Plus-Maze Model
Kim, Tae-Woo ; Choi, Hyuck-Jai ; Kim, Nam-Jae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 217~221
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.217
Ginseng has been widely used for the management of anxiety and emotional instability, but there is little experimental evidence supporting these clinical applications. The anxiolytic-like effect of ginseng saponin and polysaccharide fractions of white (WG) and red ginsengs (RG) was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. The saponin (SF) and polysaccharide (PF) fractions were orally administered to male ICR mice for 3 days and behavioral test for the anxiolytic activity were performed. SF significantly increased the time-spent open arms and number into the in the open arm entries. However, PF weakly increased the time-spent in the open arms, but did not increase number into the open ann entries. The WG showed more potent anxiolytic-like effect than that of RG. The anxiolytic-like activities were antagonized by flumazenil, but not by esmolol. These findings suggest the saponin fractions of WG and RG promote the anxiolytic-like activity by antagonizing GABN/benzodiazepine receptors in mice.
Changes on Physicochemical Properties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer during Repeated Steaming Process
Hong, Hee-Do ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Lee, Young-Chul ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 222~229
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.222
Changes on physicochemical properties of fresh Korean ginseng during repeated 9 times steaming processes, steaming
followed by hot air-drying at
, were investigated. The water contents decreased from 73.4% of fresh ginseng to 13.7% finally. The final yields in bases of total weights and dry matter were 21.0% and 79.0%, respectively. As the times of steaming processes increased, lightness (L value) decreased and redness (a value) increased in color of ginseng powder. Browning index also rapidly increased after 3 times of steaming process in particular. Total water soluble sugar contents decreased from 55.4% in fresh to 38.6% in final processed ginseng, but acidic polysaccharide contents increased by about 50% with increasing times of steaming process. Total phenolic compound contents significantly increased with repeated steaming processes especially after 5 times of steaming processes and crude saponin contents also increased in some degree. In the case of major ginsenosides, the contents of
, Re (representative ginsenosides in fresh ginseng) decreased, but those of
(unique ginsenosides in red ginseng) increased after especially 5 times of steaming processes.
Changes of phenolic acid contents and radical scavenging activities of ginseng according to steaming times
Kim, Young-Chan ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Yim, Joo-Hyuk ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 31, issue 4, 2007, Pages 230~236
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2007.31.4.230
This study was conducted to investigate the contents of the total phenolic compounds, and DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities of phenolic acid fractions of ginseng according to steaming times. Also the individual phenolic acid compositions and contents were analyzed by GC. The contents of the total phenolic compounds proportionally increased from 0.530 to 2.893% according to steaming times. Phenolic acid fractions were separated according to bound types, and the insoluble bound form fraction showed the highest contents followed by ester form fraction and free form fraction. The total contents of these three fractions (1.031-1.416%) were not significantly influenced by steaming times. Salicylic, cinamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, caffeic, ferolic acid were found in each fraction, and gentisic and ferolic acid were the major phenolic acid. Each phenolic acid fraction showed over 50% of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. There were no differences between the phenolic acid fractions according to binding types. Free radical scavenging activities were affected by a number of steaming times and augmented as steaming times increased.