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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Antinarcotic Effect of Ginseng
Oh, Sei-Kwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.001
Ginseng saponin has been shown to inhibit the development of dependence on morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, but the antinarcotics effects of ginseng on nalbuphine remains still largely unknown. Ginseng administration attenuated the naloxone-induced jumping behavior on nalbuphine dependent mice. The development of morphine dependence was mediated through
receptor, however, development of nalbuphine dependence was mediated through
receptor. However, it was found that the efficacy of analgesic antagonism of GTS was mediated through the serotonergic mechanism, not mediated through the opioid receptor. In addition, ginseng administration modulated cellular signal transduction in the brain. The increased NMDA receptor subunit (NR1, pNR1), phosphate extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (pERK), phosphate cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression by nalbuphine was decreased by the administration of ginseng powder in cortex, hippocampus, striatum of rat brain. These results suggest that ginseng could be one of the targets of antinarcotic therapies to reduce the development of tolerance and dependence on nalbuphine as well as morphine.
Effects of Panax ginseng on Stress
Lee, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Eun-Hye ; Rhee, Dong-Kwon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.008
Stress activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and subsequently increases the systemic levels of glucocorticoids. It also inhibits the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) has been proven as an anti-stress agent. However, most of the anti-stress effects of ginseng on stresses such as immobilization, electronic foot shock, and cold swim, which subsequently cause oxidative damage in brain, were obtained by using ginseng extract or ginseng total saponin. Moreover, anti-stress and anti-oxidative effects of ginseng were demonstrated by determination of enzyme or hormone levels but not mRNA as well as transcriptome. Further studies on transcriptome, proteomics, and systems biology as well as signal transduction would be required to elucidate molecular action mechanisms of ginseng on stresses.
Comparison of Ginsenoside Contents and Pattern Similarity Between Root Parts of New Cultivars in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Ahn, In-Ok ; Lee, Sung-Sik ; Lee, Jang-Ho ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Jo, Byung-Gu ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 15~18
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.015
This study was carried out to evaluate the basic information on ginsenoside contents and pattern similarity in five cultivars of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Among five cultivars the unit content and total content of ginsenosides were the highest in Gopoong cultivar as 18.9 mg/g and 596 mg/root, respectively. The unit content and total content of ginsenosides decreased in the order of Yunpoong, Gumpoong, Seonpoong and Chunpoong cultivar. Ginsenoside pattern similarity between tap root and lateral root was high as 0.95 but that between tap root and fine root was low as 0.72. Correlation of ginsenoside contents between tap root and lateral root exhibited the highest value as 0.843 and decreased in the order of main root, fine root, and rhizome. And the correlation value between unit content and total content of ginsenoside was very high as 0.933.
Effects of Lipid Soluble Ginseng Extract on Immune Response
Kim, Dong-Chung ; Hwang, Woo-Ik ; In, Man-Jin ; Lee, Sung-Dong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.019
Lipid soluble ginseng extract was administered by oral route in doses of 600 mg/patient daily in cancer patients over 2 months and 6 months. The administration of ginseng extract in cancer patients maintained the ratio of CD4/CD8 and number of the natural killer cell in the normal range during the administration period. Also its administration showed a positive effect on tumor values in 87.5% of patients in 2 month-group and in 50% of patients in 6 month-group, as determined by various cancer markers. Liver and kidney functions maintained normal condition during administration period of 6 months. Although there was no statistical significance, these data suggest that lipid soluble ginseng extract may be useful as an adjuvant therapeutic agent and nutritional supplement for the improvement of immune function and health in cancer patients. This study would provide the basis for the research in which the antitumor and immunopotential activity of lipid soluble ginseng extract for cancer patients are evaluated in formal clinical trial with statistically significant patient number.
Mycological Characteristics of Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Ginseng in Korea
Cho, Hye-Sun ; Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Do, Gyung-Ran ; Cho, Dae-Hui ; Yu, Yun-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 26~32
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.026
A total of 29 Botrytis were isolated from ginseng gray mold at 8 locations in Korea from June to July, 2004 and 2005. The causative agent of them was identified as Botrytis cinerea based on morphological characteristics of conidia and RPB2 gene sequence analysis. In inoculation experiments with sclerotia, one isolate was pathogenic to ginseng plant whereas two isolates were non-pathogenic. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sclerotia of pathogenic isolate has rough surface and that of non-pathogenic isolate very smooth surface. Optimum temperature and culture conditions for sclerotia production were
and darkness, respectively. The number of sclerotia was increased tenfold on media added with 0.5% old stem fragment of ginseng.
Inhibitory Effect of Fermented Red Ginseng against Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction and Scratching behaviors in Mice
Bae, Eun-Ah ; Trinh, Hien-Trung ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Kim, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.033
To evaluate the antiatopic effect of Korea red ginseng (RG, steamed root of Panax ginseng CA Meyer, Family Araliaceae) fermented by Bifidobacterium longum H-1 (FRG), its inhibitory effect on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction and itching in mice was measured. FRG and its ingredient saponin fraction (FSF) potently inhibited PCA reaction and scratching behaviors. FRG at a dose of 200 mg/kg and FSF at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly inhibited the scratching frequency by 45% and 47%, respectively. FRG and FSF also inhibited the degranulation and protein expression of tumor-necrosis
and interleukin-4 of RBL-2H3 cells induced by IgE-complex. However, polysaccharide fraction of FRG (FPF) weakly inhibited it, compared with FSF. The inhibitory effect of FRG against PCA reaction and scratching behaviors more potently inhibited than that of RG. Based on these findings, FRG can improve allergic skin disorders atopic dermatitis by the regulation of
, and IL-4 produced by mast cells and basophils and its degranulation.
Mechanisms of Korean red ginseng and herb extracts(KTNG0345) for anti-wrinkle activity
So, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Seong-Kye ; Hwang, Eui-Il ; Koo, Bon-Suk ; Han, Gyeong-Ho ; Chung, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Min-Jung ; Kim, Na-Mi ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 39~47
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.039
UV irradiation causes skin-aging involving coarse wrinkles, thickening, dyspigmentation, and rough skin surface. These phenomena in complex skin tissue is controlled with receptor of cell surface growth factor and cytokine receptors. The activation of receptors induces multiple downstream signaling pathways including expression of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases). This study was aimed to elucidate the mechanism for anti-wrinkle activity of Korean red ginseng, Torilis fructus and Corni fructus mixture (KTNG0345). In this animal study, we have investigated decreasing effects of Korean red ginseng mixture on MMP-3 synthesis through diminishing
signaling that express MMP-1, -3, and -9. c-Jun and c-fos as a component of transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1) were analyzed the expression level using real time PCR and western blotting. c-Jun was decreased dose dependent manner both gene and protein level where as cfos was not changed. In upstream, JNK and PAK was not changed, but p38 was decreased in down stream. MMP-3, final product in this pathway was significantly decreased in dose dependent manner. These results suggest that Korean red ginseng mixture have a anti-wrinkle activity through
mediated MMPs expression pathway.
Oral Administration of KTNG0345 Prepared from Red Ginseng Extracts Reduces UVB-induced Skin Wrinkle Formation in Hairless Mice
Lee, Min-Jung ; Won, Chong-Hyun ; Lee, Se-Rah ; Kim, Ji-Sook ; Oh, Inn-Gyung ; Hwang, Eui-Il ; Kim, Na-mi ; Kang, Byeong-Choel ; Chung, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 48~56
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.048
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the major cause of photoaging that causes skin wrinkling, roughness, dryness, laxity, and pigmentation. Recently, increasing efforts are being made to understand the relationship between foods and skin health. Ginsenosides are present in ginseng (Ginseng Radix Rubra) extract, and are known to have biomedical properties, such as, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether KTNG0345 prepared from red ginseng extracts delivered orally reduces skin wrinkling and ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced wrinkle formation in hairless mouse skin. KTNG0345 was administrated orally to the mice (5 times a week) during the period of UVB-irradiation (3 times a week) for 8 weeks at three different doses of 300 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg (w/v). UV doses were increased weekly by 1 MED (1MED = 75
up to 4 MED and then maintained at this level. After the 8-week administration period, it was found that orally administered KTNG0345 significantly inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation in a dose-dependent manner. Increases in skin thickness caused by UVB were prevented by KTNG0345. Moreover, it also significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -13 and MMP-9 expressional inductions by UVB. In addition, KTNG0345 was observed to prevent UVB-induced water loss of epidermis in hairless mouse skin. Our results demonstrate that orally administered KTNG0345 has anti-wrinkling effects in hairless mouse skin, and suggest that dietary red ginseng and herbal mixture may be considered a functional beauty food for preventing UVB-induced skin wrinkles.
Antiallergic effect of ginseng fermented with Ganoderma lucidum
Bae, Eun-Ah ; Trinh, Hien-Trung ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 57~61
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.057
Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng CA Meyer, family Araliacease), which is used in Korea, China and Japan as a herbal medicine, was fermented with Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and their antiallergic effects were investigated. Of GLs used for fermentation, KCTC 6283 potently produced ginsenoside Rh2, followed by KFRI M101. KCTC 6532, and ginsenoside Rd, followed by KFRI M101. Oral administration of these fermented ginseng extracts inhibited allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by IgE and scratching behaviors induced by compound 48/80. Of them, the ginseng extract fermented by KCTC 6532 and KFRI M101 potently inhibited allergic reactions compared to that fermented by KCTC 6283. These findings suggest that the fermentation of ginseng with GL can increase its antiallergic activity and the increment of its antiallergic effect may be due to the biotransformation of ginseng saponins to ginsenosides Rd and Rh2.
Effects of Non-saponin Red Ginseng Components on the Function of Brain Cells
Sohn, Eun-Hwa ; Do, Hang ; Kang, Nam-Sung ; Jang, Seon-A ; Park, Sul-Kyung ; Lee, Hye-Rim ; Rhee, Dong-Kwon ; Pyo, Suhk-Neung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 62~66
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.062
Non-saponin gingseng fraction components (NSRG) have been known to have a variety of biological activity. However, the effects of these components on the function of brain cell have not been characterized in detail. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of non-saponin red ginseng components on acrylamide (ACR)-induced suppression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is highly expressed in neuronal cells. The data showed that NSRG blocked the suppression of NCAM expression by ACR in neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH). In addition, NSRG significantly increased NCAM expression in ACR-nontreated neuroblastoma cells. NSRG treatment resulted in the increase of cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. We also examined whether NSRG could modulate the NO production of astrocytes. When glioma cells (C6) were treated with various concentrations of NSRG (100-300 ug/ml) in the presence or absence of
for 24 hours, NO production was suppressed in
stimulated C6 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that treatment of brain cells with NSRG results in the enhancement of proliferation, the suppression of NO production and the protective effect on NCAM expression impaired by ACR. Thus, the present data suggest that NSRG has proliferative and neuroprotective effects and these effects could be useful in neuronal diseases.
Immunomodulatory Effects of Non-saponin Red Ginseng Components on Innate Immune Cells
Sohn, Eun-Hwa ; Kim, Ji-Hye ; Choi, Hye-Sook ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Byung-Oh ; Rhee, Dong-Kwon ; Pyo, Suhk-Neung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.067
for 4 h, tumoricidal activity was significantly increased. However, NSRG had effects on tumoricidal activity of macrophages at low concentration (1 ug/ml), which was not related to the production of nitric oxide. The mitogen response of lymphocytes to LPS and ConA in the spleen did not show significant differences between the control and NSRG-treated cells, whereas LPS-induced blastogenesis was slightly increased at 100
(p < 0.05). These results suggest that NSRG has differential effects on innate immune response and could be useful as immunotherapy for cancer treatment.
Inhibitory Activities of Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide in Platelet Aggregation
Lee, Whi-Min ; Kamruzzaman, S.M. ; Song, Yong-Bum ; Cho, Jae-Youl ; Park, Hwa-Jin ; Rhee, Man-Hee ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 1, 2008, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.1.073
Red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), has been shown to have a variety of biological functions such as immunostimulating and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we investigated whether RGAP inhibited ligand-induced platelet aggregation. The washed platelet-rich plasma was prepared from male SD rats with successive centrifugation. The platelets
were preincubated with 1 mM of
for 2 min either in the presence or in the absence of RGAP
and were stimulated with collagen (2.5
) and thrombin (0.1 U/ml). RGAP dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with
. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, RGAP inhibited the reaction with an
. RGAP potently suppressed the intracellular calcium ion, which was stimulated by thrombin (0.1 U/ ml). Among mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subtypes, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 MAPK were analyzed in the present study. RGAP inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK2 and p38 MAPK, which was activated by collagen (2.5
). Finally, these results suggested that besides saponin fraction, RGAP take an important role in the preventive effect of Korean red ginseng against cardiovascular disease such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis.