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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Extraction Characteristics of Saponin and Acidic Polysaccharide Based on the Red Ginseng Particle Size
Cho, Chang-Won ; Kim, Sang-Wook ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 179~186
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.179
Effect of pulverization on total solid, crude saponin, and acidic polysaccharide contents of dried red ginseng main root were tested. Several particle size samples, including red ginseng main root (non pulverized),
mesh powder, and >100 mesh powder were used in the extraction. The sequential solvent extraction method (1st: 70% EtOH at
for 12 hr, 2nd: 70% EtOH at
for 12 hr, 3rd: water at
for 12 hr) was applied to extract the saponins and acidic polysaccharide. Extraction yield of total solid of pulverized red ginseng (
mesh size) was increased to 20% compared with that of non-pulverized. Especially, the crude saponin content of pulverized red ginseng (
mesh size) showed an increase of 47% over non-pulverized. No difference in the component ratio was observed by pulverization, when the individual ginsenosides were quantified by HPLC. Also, extraction yield of acidic polysaccharide of pulverized red ginseng (
mesh size) was increased 57% compared with that of non-pulverized. The results suggested that pulverization might be useful for increasing the extraction yield of red ginseng components.
Anti-diabetic Effect and Mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng in C57BL/KsJ db/db Mice
Yuan, Hai-Dan ; Shin, Eun-Jung ; Chung, Sung-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 187~193
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.187
The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of Korean red ginseng in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. The db/db mice were divided into three groups: diabetic control group (DC), Korean red ginseng group (KRG, 100 mg/kg) and metformin group (MET, 300 mg/kg), and treated with drugs once per day for 10 weeks. Compared to the DC group, fasting blood glucose levels were decreased by 19.8% in KRG-, 67.7% in MET-treated group. With decreased plasma glucose and insulin levels, the insulin resistance index of the KRG-treated group was reduced by 27.6% compared to the DC group. The HbA1c levels in KRG and MET-treated groups were also decreased by 11.0% and 18.9% compared to that of DC group, respectively. Plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were decreased by 18.8% and 16.8%, respectively, and plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were increased by 20.6% and 12.1%, respectively, in the KRG-treated group compared to those in DC group. Histological analyses of the liver and fat tissue of mice treated with KRG revealed significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and decreased size of adipocytes compared to the DC group. From the pancreatic islet double-immunofluorescence staining, we observed KRG has increased insulin contents, but decreased glucagon production. To elucidate action mechanism of KRG, effects on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target proteins responsible for fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis were explored in the liver. KRG activated AMPK and acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylations, resulting in stimulation of fatty acid oxidation. KRG also caused to down regulation of SREBP1a and its target gene expressions such as FAS, SCD1 and GPAT. In summary, our results suggest that KRG exerted the anti-diabetic effect through AMPK activation in the liver of db/db mice.
Comparisons of the major element contents for the Korean ginsengs from various soils of Keumsan
Song, Suck-Hwan ; Min, Ell-Sik ; Chang, Gyu-Sick ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 194~209
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.194
This study is for major element relationships between ginsengs and soils from three representative soil types from Keumsan, shale, phyllite and granite. In the weathered soils, the granite and phylllite are high while the shale are low. The granite show distinctive positive and negative relationships rather than the phyllite and shale. In the field soils, the granite and phyllite are high while the shale are low. Positive relationships are distinctive with the increasing ages, and in the granite. In the ginsengs, high element contents are shown in K and Na of the shale, Mg and Ca of the phyllite, and Al, Mn and Ti of the granite. In the same regions, the 2 and 3 years are mainly low, but high in the 4 year. Positive correlations are distinctive in the 2 and 4 year of the shale, and 3 year of the granite. Comparisons with ginsengs of the same ages from the different areas suggest that the granite show high element contents with the ages. It also suggests that the 2 year of the granite, and 3 and 4 year of the shale and phyllite are high. Relative ratios(weathered/field soils) among the soils suggest that the weathered are generally high, especially in the granite rather than the shale. Relative ratios between field soils and ginsengs(field soils/ginseng) suggest that the soils are higher than the ginsengs, and differences of several hundred times in the Al and Ti, and of several ten times in the Mn are shown between two. Comparisons among the different ages from the same areas suggest that differences of several hundred times in the Al and Ti are shown. It suggests that ginseng contents are significantly different from the field soils in the Al and Ti contents. Comparisons among from the same ages of the different areas suggest that high element differences are shown in Na of the shale, and Mn of the phyllite, while low element differences are found in Mg of the shale, and Al, Mn, and Na of the granite.
Effects of red ginseng supplementation on aerobic.anaerobic performance, central and peripheral fatigue
Yoon, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Hyung ; Kim, Chang-Ju ; Park, Hae-Chan ; Kang, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Moo-Jung ; Kang, Sung-Mok ; Kwak, Uk-Heon ; Kim, Hyung-Joon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 210~219
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.210
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of red ginseng on the performance of aerobics anaerobics exercise and peripheral central fatigue. For this purpose, we measured
at recovery, anaerobic power, blood lactate, Branched-Chain Amino Acid(BCAA) etc in thirty male subjects. They were divided into three group; EGG: endurance training + red ginseng supplementation group(n=7), EPG: endurance training + placebo supplementation group(n=7), GG: only red ginseng supplementation group(n=10). 6 subjects were excepted because they were intermediate test absence(test at four week : EGG=1, EPG=2; test at eight week : EGG=1). EGG and GG took red ginseng twice a day for total 8weeks. Moreover, EGG and EPG were exercised during 45 minutes, three times a week for 12 weeks. The result of this study are shown as follow: In case of
and plasma BCAA concentration, no statistically significant change were found among three groups. But, it was showed that three groups tended to increased slightly in
and plasma BCAA concentration. For conclusion, the present data provide a new evidence that ingestion of ergogenic aids contained with red ginseng may improve aerobic exercise performance and central fatigue.
Korea Red Ginseng Alters Electroencephalogram Spectra of Sleep-Wake Stage in Rats
Ma, Yuan ; Eun, Jae-Soon ; Cheong, Jae-Hoon ; Rhee, Dong-Kwon ; Hong, Jin-Tae ; Oh, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.220
The present investigation was performed to evaluate the homeostatic regulation of sleep architecture by the ethanol extract of Korea red ginseng (KRG), since the available data were often controversial. In addition, it was also interested in whether the sleep-wake stages were differently affected by low and high doses of KRG. Each adult Wistar male rat was implanted with a transmitter for recording EEG and activity via telemetry. After one week of surgery, polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep-wake activities were recorded for 12 h (between 9:00 am and 9:00 pm) after KRG administration. KRG (10 and 100 mg/kg) increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep as well as total sleep. The total percentages of wakefulness were decreased comparably. KRG (10 mg/kg) decreased the power density of the
(0.75-4.5 Hz) and increased
(8.0-13.0 Hz) in the NREM and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. KRG also decreased
power density in wake time. However, KRG (100 mg/kg) increased
(5.0-9.0 Hz) power density in wake time, while showed little effect on the power density in NREM and REM sleep. In conclusion, low and high doses of KRG increase spontaneous sleep and NREM sleep and differently regulate the EEG spectra in REM and NREM sleep.
Conversion of Ginsenoside Rd to Compound K by Crude Enzymes Extracted from Lactobacillus brevis LH8
Quan, Lin-Hu ; Liang, Zhiqi ; Kim, Ho-Bin ; Kim, Se-Hwa ; Kim, Se-Young ; Noh, Yeong-Deok ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 226~231
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.226
Ginsenosides have been regarded as the principal components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng. Absorption of major ginsenosides from the gastrointestinal tract is extremely low, when ginseng is orally administered. In order to improve absorption and its bioavailability, conversion of major ginsenosides into more active minor ginsenoside is very much required. Here, we isolated lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus brevis LH8) having
activity from Kimchi. Bioconversion ginsenoside Rd by this bacterium in different temperatures was investigated. The maximum activities of crude enzymes precipitated by ethanol were shown in
and then gradually decreased. In order to compare the effect of pH, the crude enzymes of L. brevis LH8 were mixed in 20mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.5 to pH 8.0) and reacted ginsenoside Rd. Ginsenoside Rd was almost hydrolyzed between pH 6.0 and pH 12.0, but not hydrolyzed under pH 5.0 and above pH 13.0. Ginsenoside Rd was hydrolyzed after 48 h incubation, whereas ginsenoside F2 appeared from 48 h to 72 h, and ginsenoside Rd was almost converted into compound K after 72 h.
Isolation and Characterization of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase Gene from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Parvin, Shohana ; Pulla, Rama Krishna ; Shim, Ju-Sun ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Jung, Dea-Yeoung ; Kim, Se-Hwa ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 232~237
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.232
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, EC 22.214.171.124) catalyses the reduction of cinnamic acid CoA esters into their corresponding aldehydes, the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway specially dedicated to monolignol biosynthesis. A cDNA clones encoding CCR have been isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its expression was investigated in response to abiotic stresses. The cDNA, designated PgCCR which is 865 nucleotides long and has an open reading frame of 590 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence of 176 residues. The PgCCR encoded protein possesses substantial homology with CCRs isolated and cloned from other sources; the highest identity (51.8%) was observed with CCR from Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Under various stress conditions, expression patterns of the PgCCR were highly induced in adventitious and hairy roots by several abiotic stresses. These results indicated that PgCCR plays protective role against diverse environmental stresses.
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of White, Fermented and Red Ginseng Extracts
Kong, Byoung-Man ; Park, Min-Ju ; Min, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Ho-Bin ; Kim, Se-Hwa ; Kim, Se-Young ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 238~243
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.238
Comparison of the physico-chemical characteristics were investigated among white (WG), fermented (FG) and red ginseng (RG) extracts. We observed maximum contents of extractable solids in FG, but viscosity was lower than other ginseng extracts. The contents of ash and crude protein of FG were higher than those of other ginseng extracts. The contents of carbohydrate were similar, but component Na and cruid lipids were maximum in RG. we extended our study on comparison of the calories among WG, FG and RG. We noticed that comparison of the calories among WG, FG and RG showed insignificant difference.
Korean Red Ginseng Extract inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-induced Monocyte Adhesion in the Human Endothelial Cells
Joo, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Sang-Ki ; Kim, Hyo-Shin ; Song, Yun-Jeong ; Kang, Gun ; Park, Jin-Bong ; Lee, Kwon-Ho ; Cho, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Jae-Hwan ; Seong, In-Whan ; Kim, Se-Hoon ; Cho, Chung-Hyun ; Jeon, Byeong-Hwa ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 244~249
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.244
Vascular inflammation is an important step in the development of cardiovascular disorder. Since it has not been known whether Korean red ginseng has a role to play on the vascular inflammation, we investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on monocyte adhesion and its underlying signaling mechanism. Monocyte adhesion assay and Western blot were conducted on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells to study monocyte adhesion and the expression of adhesion molecules. Intracellular calcium was measured with Fura-2 fluorescent staining, and superoxide production was measured with lucigenin chemiluminescence in the endothelial cells. KRGE inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion on the endothelial cells at the range of
mg/ml. TNF-alpha-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were inhibited by the pretreatment of KRGE in the endothelial cells. KRGE also inhibits TNF-alpha-induced intracellular calcium and the superoxide production in the endothelial cells. This study first demonstrated that KRGE inhibits TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion by inhibiting the adhesion molecule expression, intracellular calcium and superoxide production in the endothelial cells. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory function of KRGE may be contributed to protecting the endothelial dysfunction in the vascular inflammatory disorders.
Comparison study of Korean and Chinese ginsengs on the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production
Lee, Beom-Joon ; Heo, Hong ; Oh, Se-Choon ; Lew, Jae-Hwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 250~256
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.250
Red ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in East-Asia for a long time. Recently there have been a lot of studies about the effect of red ginseng on the immune responses. We investigated the differences between Korean red ginseng and Chinese red ginseng in the lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. The rats were divided into 3 groups, KRG(Korean Red Ginseng) group, CRG(Chinese Red Ginseng) group, and the Control group. Experimental groups were administered with Korean and Chinese red ginsengs for three months respectively. Then we obtained the lymphatic cells from spleen and compared the ability of KRG on the lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine production after mitogen-stimulated culture to CRG. The proliferation of lymphocyte and level of
were significantly increased only in KRG group. There were significant increases in the level of
in both KRG and CRG groups. There were no significant differences in the level of IL-2 and
. These results indicate that KRG can induce infection-relevant immune responses much faster and higher than CRG. Furthermore, functional activation of CD8+ T-cell may be activated by red ginsengs.
Effect of Seed Size and Cultivars on the Ratio of Seed Coat Dehiscence and Seedling Performance in Panax ginseng
Lee, Joon-Soo ; Lee, Sung-Sik ; Lee, Jang-Ho ; Ahn, In-Ok ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 257~263
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.257
This study was carried out to obtained the basic information for seed coat dehiscence and seedling performance according to seed size of eight ginseng cultivars. Seed size was separated into four grade(upper 5.0, 5.0-4.7, 4.7-4.0, and under 4.0mm in diameter). Seed coat dehiscence and survival ratio of seedling were not affected by seed size. Aerial parts growth of seedling such as stem length, stem diameter, and leaf area of seedling were larger seed(upper 5.0 mm) better than those of small seeds(4.7-4.0, and under 4.0 mm in diameter). Also root part growths such as root diameter, and fresh weight were larger seed(upper 5.0 mm) higher than those of small seeds(4.7-4.0, and under 4.0 mm in diameter). However, root length was not affected by seed size. Growth status of aerial and root parts of 'unpoong' 'umpoong' and 'opoong' were better than those of other cultivars in each grade of seed sizes. The growth of characteristics of 'hunpoong' and 'hungsun' were less than those of other cultivars.
Inhibitory Effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 and its derivative Ginsenoside Rg3-2H on NO production and lymphocyte proliferation
Cho, Jae-Youl ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 264~269
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.264
Ginsenosides are major components in Panax ginseng and known to have numerous pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-viral and anti-atherosclerosis effects. In this study, the regulatory activities of G-Rg3 and its derivative 25-hydroxy Rg3 (G-Rg3-2H) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages and the proliferation of lymphocytes prepared from spleen and bone marrow under treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin (Con) A were examined. G-Rg3 and G-Rg3-2H dose-dependently inhibited NO production from LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and in agreement, these compounds protected RAW264.7 cells from LPS-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, G-Rg3-2H dose-dependently inhibited lymphocyte proliferation induced by both LPS and Con A, while there was no inhibition by G-Rg3. Therefore, our data suggest that these compounds may be applied for NO-mediated or lymphocyte-mediated immunological diseases.
Inhibition Effect of Ginseng Saponin on the Growth of Citrobacterer sp. Isolated from Contaminated Ginseng
Park, Chae-Kyu ; Kwak, Yi-Seong ; Hong, Soon-Gi ; Lee, Hoon-Sang ; Hwang, Mi-Sun ; Rhee, Man-Hee ; Won, Jun-Yeon ; Han, Gyeong-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2008, Pages 270~274
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.270
A bacterium isolated from contaminated white ginseng was identified using API kit and electron microscope. This isolate was determined as rod shaped bacterium having about 1.0
in diameter and 2.0 to 6.0
in length. It had motility by peritrichous flagellum. The isolate had
, arginine dihydrolase and ornithin decarboxylase. It did not have ability not only to use citrate as sole carbon source and but also to produce
. However, it could ferment glucose, manitol, sorbitol, rhamnose, arabinose and amygdalin. From these obserbations, the isolate was identified as Citrobacter sp. Ginseng saponin was added to culture of Citrobacter sp. in order to investigate saponin's influence on its growth. The strain was incubated at
for 3 days after addition of 0.05, 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0% (w/v) of saponin, respectively and the growth rates was investigated. The relative bacterial growth inhibition rates showed 28.6, 66.7, 92.4 and 97.7%, respectively, when compared with saponin non-treated group. These results suggest that the growth of Citrobacter sp. is inhibited by saponin in a concentration-dependent manner.