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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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A Report on the Damage Caused by Phytosciara procera, Ginseng Stem Fungus Gnat
Shin, Jung-Sup ; Cho, Dae-Hui ; Cho, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Lee, Hung-Sik ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 275~278
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.275
Ginseng stem fungus gnat, Phytosciara procera, is reported as a ginseng pest for the first time. It is new to science that a member of the family Sciaridae is a ginseng pest. In our observation, larvae of the gnat can penetrate the stem of ginseng, and then they make a shaft in shoot and root. Number of adults captured by yellow sticky traps were peaked in twice, from late July to early August and from late August to early September. In a ginseng field, 29.7% of ginseng damaged by Phytosciara procera is also infected by bacterial disease caused by Erwinia carotobora. However, there is a possibility on environmental-friendly control, as a result of decreasing effect of damage over 85% when remaining a part of berry on peduncle than tatally remove.
Effect of Furrow Irrigation on the Growth and Quality of Panax Ginseng Plant in a Loam
Park, Chol-Soo ; Kang, Je-Yong ; Lee, Dong-Yun ; Ahn, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 279~282
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.279
This study was conducted to compare the aerial parts growth, yield of fresh ginseng roots, quality of red ginseng roots, and photosynthesis (Fv/Fm, PSII) in leaves between non-irrigation plot and furrow irrigation plot during the ginseng growing seasons. The aerial part growth in furrow irrigation plot was higher than non-irrigation plot in all including the emergency rate, leafing rate and relatively growth rate. Root yield per 10a in irrigation plot was increased about 50% as compared with that of non-irrigation, also heaven and earth grade of red ginseng roots yield in irrigation plot was higher (40.3%) compared with that (30.6%) of non-irrigation plot in 6-years-old ginseng plant. Furrow irrigation markedly improved the ginseng quality and yield in comparison to non irrigation condition. Therefore it needs to control the soil moisture during the growing season for high yield and good qualities of ginseng roots.
Influence of Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract on Recovery of Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Mice Fed High Cholesterol Diet
Song, Yong-Bum ; Kyung, Jong-Soo ; Park, Sung-Bum ; Wee, Jae-Joon ; Do, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Young-Sook ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 283~290
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.283
Hypercholesterolemia is associated with many pathological states such as fat deposit in the tendon and skin, hepatomegaly, pancreatitis and heart attack. The present study was focused on the effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (RGWE) on the recovery of hepatic function that was deteriorated in high-cholesterol diet fed mice. Mice were divided into 6 groups ; normal diet group (AIN-2WK), 4 week-high-cholesterol diet group (CHOL-4WK), 2 week-high-cholesterol + 2 week-normal diet group (CHOL-2WK), 2 week-high-cholesterol + 2 week-normal diet + RGWE treated group (R100, R300, R500). RGWE treated group received normal diet and RGWE at daily doses of 100, 300, 500 mg/kg b.w. for 2 weeks after the 2 weeks feeding of high-cholesterol diet. The results are as follows : 1. The hepatic weight and total hepatic lipid weight were markedly lower in RGWE treated group than those in the CHOL-4WK or CHOL-2WK group, indicating that ginseng inhibited hepatic hypertrophy. 2. Total hepatic cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in normal diet conversion group (CHOL-2WK) were significantly reduced compared with the high cholesterol group (CHOL-4WK). The lowering effect was significantly reinforced by RGWE administration. 3. Hepatic triglyceride level of CHOL-4WK group was markedly lower than that of the normal group (AIN-2WK). However, the level was significantly increased in CHOL-2WK and RGWE treated group. The result indicated that ginseng administration and diet conversion exert normalizing effects of hepatic function. 4. The lipid peroxide levels in RGWE treated groups were markedly lower than CHOL-2WK group. These results suggest that Korean red ginseng water extract can be useful as a dietary supplement for the treatment of obesity or hypercholesterolemia by improving lipid metabolism and hepatic function.
Identification of NMR Data for ginsenoside Rg
Lee, Dae-Young ; Cho, Jin-Gyeong ; Lee, Min-Kyung ; Lee, Jae-Woong ; Park, Hee-Jeong ; Lee, Youn-Hyung ; Yang, Deok-Chun ; Baek, Nam-In ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 291~299
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.291
The fresh ginseng roots were extracted in aqueous methanol (MeOH), and the obtained extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate (EtOA), n-butanol (n-BuOH), and water, successively. The repeated silica gel column chromatography for n-BuOH fraction afforded a purified ginsenoside
. The physico-chemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic data of ginsenoside
, such as crystallization characteristics, melting point, specific rotation, infrared spectrometry (IR) data, fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry (FAB/MS) data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, retention factor (Rf) in thin layer chromatography (TLC) experiment, and retention time (r.t.) in HPLC analysis, were measured and compared with those reported in literatures. Especially, the previous literatures reported different data for ginsenoside
-NMR experiments. This paper gives the exactly assigned NMR data through 2D-NMR experiments, such as
correlation spectroscopy (COSY), hetero nuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), and hetero nuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC).
Isolation of Cysteine Proteinase Gene (PgCysP1) from Panax ginseng and Response of This Gene to Abiotic Stresses
Jeong, Dae-Young ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Shim, Ju-Sun ; Lee, Jung-Hye ; In, Jun-Gyo ; Lee, Bum-Soo ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 300~304
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.300
Cysteine proteinases play an essential role in plant growth and development but also in senescence and programmed cell death. They participate in both anabolic and catabolic processes. In addition, they are involved in signalling pathways and in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A cDNA clone encoding cysteine proteinase (CP) gene, designated PgCysP1, was isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR results showed that PgCysP1 expressed at different level in P. ginseng hairy root. Different stresses such as biotic as well as abiotic stresses triggered a significant induction of PgCysP1. The positive responses of PgCysP1 to the various stimuli suggested that PgCysP1 may help to protect the plant against reactive environmental stresses.
Volatile Constituents by Treatment of Artificial Saliva in Fresh Ginseng Root
In, Jun-Gyo ; Kwon, Woo-Sup ; Min, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Bum-Soo ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 305~310
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.305
The volatile constituents of the fresh roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer have been investigated after treatment with artificial saliva and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. Twenty peaks were detected in fresh ginseng, 5 of them were unknown peak, and mainly hydrocarbon components (
-pinene, myrcene, limonene,
-selinene, bicyclogermacrene) were detected. It's area percentage was increased about 10% in the fresh ginseng added artificial saliva during 40 minutes.
Changes of Volatile Component Contents in a Red Ginseng Tail Root by Puffing
Han, Chan-Kyu ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Sim, Gun-Sub ; Shin, Dong-Bin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 311~314
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.311
This study evaluated changes in concentrations of volatile compounds contained in red ginseng tail roots through puffing treatment. The results showed that 59 out of 63 volatile compounds were detected from the puffing treated roots. While most terpene and furan compounds seem to be increased by puffing treatment, most alcoholic, aldehyde and acid compounds seem to be decreased, and terpene compounds content accounted for 70% of the 63 volatile components in the puffed red ginseng tail roots.
Compound K Rich Fractions Regulate NF-κ
-dependent Inflammatory Responses and Protect Mice from Endotoxin-induced Lethal Shock
Yang, Chul-Su ; Yuk, Jae-Min ; Ko, Sung-Ryong ; Cho, Byung-Goo ; Sohn, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Young-Sook ; Wee, Jae-Joon ; Do, Jae-Ho ; Jo, Eun-Kyeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 315~323
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.315
In the previous studies, we isolated the compound K rich fractions (CKRF) and showed that CKRF inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4- or TLR9-induced inflammatory signaling. To extend our previous studies,1) we investigated the molecular mechanisms of CKRF in the TLR4-associated signaling via nuclear factor (NF)-
, and in vivo role of CKRF for induction of tolerance in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. In murine bone marrow-dervied macrophages, CKRF significantly inhibited the induction of mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-
, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, CKRF significantly attenuated the transcriptional activities of TLR4/LPS-induced NF-
. Nuclear translocation of NF-
in response to LPS stimulation was significantly abrogated by pre-treatment with CKRF. Furthermore, CKRF inhibited the recruitment of p65 to the interferon-sensitive response element flanking region in response to LPS. Finally, oral administration of CKRF significantly protected mice from Gram-negative bacterial LPS-induced lethal shock and inhibited systemic inflammatory cytokine levels. Together, these results demonstrate that CKRF modulates the TLR4-dependent NF-
activation, and suggest a therapeutic role for Gram-negative septic shock.
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Blood Pressure and Aortic Vascular(endothelial) Histological Changes in Rats
Joo, Il-Woo ; Sung, Kyung-Hwa ; Park, Jung-Min ; Lew, Jae-Hwan ; Oh, Han-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 324~331
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.324
Introduction : Korean red ginseng has been shown to have an preventive effect on atheroma formation and enhancing effect on nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cell inducing vasodilatation. However, there are few studies showing the effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and vascular(endothelial) pathologic changes together. We designed this study to show changes of blood pressure and vascular pathologic findings with Korean red ginseng administration compared with Chinese red ginseng and control for 3 months in rats. Materials and methods : We studied the in vitro hypotensive effect and effect on vascular pathologic changes of Korean red ginseng compared with Chinese red ginseng and control. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups(Korean red ginseng, Chinese red ginseng and control) and evaluated by blood pressure and aortic vascular(endothelial) pathologic changes monthly during 3-month administration. All results were analyzed by paired T-test, ANOVA and post-hoc. Results : Blood pressure lowering effect was noted on Korean red ginseng and Chinese red ginseng compared to control. Especially, in Korean red ginseng group, hypotensive effect was showed in first and second month, but, in Chinese red ginseng group, it was just noted in first month. In case of vascular(aortic endothelial) pathologic finding, endothelial wall thickening and elastic fiber tearing were noted in Chinese red ginseng group compared with Korean red ginseng group and control with statistical significance.(p<0.05) Discussion : These results suggested Korean red ginseng could have more hypotensive effect and maintenance rather than Chinese red ginseng. And the difference of hypotensive effect between Korean red ginseng and Chinese red ginseng might has some association with difference of vascular pathologic findings in each group. However, further evaluation and research of other mechanism will be needed to convince this hypothesis.
Distinction of Internal Tissue of Red Ginseng Using Magnetic Resonance Image
Kim, Chun-Suk ; Jung, In-Chan ; Kim, Se-Bong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 332~336
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.332
Red ginseng is classified according to outer form and the quality of internal tissue, and red ginseng below third grade can't be sold. Also there are many differences in price according to grade. So if inferior Red ginseng is sold, economic loss and claim take place. This research is done conducted to investigate the possibility of the non-destruction internal tissue investigation of red ginseng. It is observed and compared that MR image after getting MR image agrees with real cutting side in 10-13% water content of red ginseng. The MR image can be obtained to see the internal section of red ginseng with equal condition of time, temperature and slice thickness in spin echo pulse sequence. The MR signal of red ginseng is very weak, because it contains low water density. So it takes about 30 minutes with the measurement of single point image (SPI). But the suitable time to distinguish internal tissues is about 9 seconds in TE (Echo Time) 2.23 ms, TR (Repetition Time) 150ms. The image to discriminate internal tissues in 9 seconds can be obtained when slice thickness is 10 mm with changes of 3, 5, 10 mm. The image obtained after 30 minutes' boiling of 55 degrees has clearer image than that of normal temperature. It is thought that MR signal is stronger through active motion of water particles as temperature increases. With this method MR image of red ginseng can be obtained and characteristics of internal tissues can be observed in such a short time.
Source-Sink Relations in North American Ginseng Seedlings as Influenced by Leaflet Removal
T. A., John ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 337~340
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.337
Seedlings of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) were grown to full canopy establishment and then leaflet or leaf removal at different times applied to determine the effects on plant growth and performance. Leaf removal at 47, 57, 69 and 78 days after seeding resulted in 82.1, 59.8, 41.3 and 29.8% reduction, respectively, in root dry matter (economic yield) ; this indicates that leaf removal during the early root growth period causes greatest reduction in root yield. Removal of 1, 2, and 3 leaflets at 42, 52, 62 and 70 days from seeding reduced root weight at harvest (80 days from seeding) linearly, particularly at earlier removal dates. The perennating bud formed on all roots and was not influenced by treatment. This would suggest that if leaf loss occurs after canopy establishment the plant will re-grow the next year after the obligatory dormancy period.
Effects of white ginseng and red ginseng extract on learning performance and acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition
Lee, Mi-Ra ; Sun, Bai-Shen ; Gu, Li-Juan ; Wang, Chun-Yan ; Mo, Eun-Kyoung ; Yang, Sun-Ah ; Ly, Sun-Young ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.341
In the present study, we assessed the effects of white ginseng and red ginseng extract on the learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. The cognition-enhancing effect of ginseng extracts was investigated using the Morris water maze and Y-maze test. Drug-induced amnesia was induced by treating animals with scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.), an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor. Tacrine was used a positive control. Ginseng extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.), tacrine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly reduced the escape latency during training in the Morris water maze (p<0.05). At the probe trial session, scopolamine significantly increased the escape latency on day 5 in comparison with control (p<0.01). The effect of ginseng extracts on spontaneous alternation in Y-maze was similar to that of scopolamine treated group. In addition, numbers of arm entries were similar in all experimental groups. Moreover, red ginseng extract significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and serum (p<0.05). Brain ACh contents of ginseng extract treated groups increased more than that of scopolamine group, which did not show statistically significant. These results suggest that ginseng extract may be useful for the treatment of cognitive impairment.
Acclimation of maximum quantum yield of PSII and photosynthetic pigments of Panax quinquefolius L. to understory light
Fournier, Anick R. ; T.A., John ; Khanizadeh, Shahrokh ; Gosselin, Andre ; Dorais, Martine ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 347~356
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.347
Forest-grown American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is exposed to daily and seasonal light variations. Our goal was to determine the effect of understory light changes on the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, expressed as
, and photosynthetic pigment composition of two-year-old plants. Understory light photon flux density and sunfleck durations were characterized using hemispherical canopy photography. Our results showed that understory light significantly affected the
of American ginseng, especially during the initial development of the plants when light levels were the highest, averaging 28 mol
. Associated with low
during its initial development, American ginseng had the lowest levels of epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle of the season, suggesting an active dissipation of excess light energy absorbed by the chlorophyll pigments. As photon flux density decreased after the deployment of the forest canopy to less than 10 mol
, chlorophyll a/b decreased suggesting a greater investment in light harvesting pigments to reaction centers in order to absorb the fleeting light energy.
REE(rare earth element) contents for the Korean ginsengs from three different soils
Song, Suck-Hwan ; Min, Ell-Sik ; Chan, Song-Chae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 357~381
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.357
REEs of ginsengs(2, 3, 4 years) from the granite, phyllite and shale areas, Keumsan, are analysed and compared with the their soils. In the weathered soils, high element contents are shown in the LREE of the granite and in the HREE of the phyllite. The granite dominantly show positive correlation relationships. In the field soils, the phyllite are high while the granite are low. Relationships of the contents and correlation relationships can be explained with mineral assemblages and contents within soils, and their solubilities. In the host rocks, high contents are found in the LREE of the granite and HREE of the phyllite. The rocks dominantly show positive relationships. In the ginseng, high contents are shown in the 2 year for the shale and granite, and the 4 year for the phyllite. Element pairs mainly show positive relationships. Comparing of the same ages, the granite are mainly high. In the ratios between the soils and the ginsengs, differences of the several hundred to ten times are found, but dominantly, of the several hundred times in the shale and phyllite, and of the several ten times in the granite. The differences are big in the 3 year, and small in all REE of the 2 year from the shale and granite. while, in the phyllite, big in the LREE of the 2 year and HREE of the 3 year. Based on the absorption of the leachate by the ginsengs within soils, contents and correlation relationships of the ginsengs from the different soils can be explained with mineral assemblages, solubilities of the constitutional minerals and phyio-chemical affects influenced on the solubility. Of the three different soils, the ginsengs of the granites are chemically more similar to their soils.
Protective Effects of Korean Panax Ginseng Extracts against TCDD-induced Toxicities in Rat
Choi, Soo-Jin ; Sohn, Hyung-Ok ; Shin, Han-Jae ; Hyun, Hak-Cheol ; Lee, Dong-Wook ; Song, Yong-Bum ; Lee, Soo-Hyun ; Gang, Dong-Ho ; Lim, Hak-Seob ; Lee, Cheol-Won ; Moon, Ja-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 382~389
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.382
To achieve a better understanding of protective effects of water extracts of Panax ginseng against TCDD-induced toxicities, we monitored physiological and clinical changes in rat for 4 weeks after administrations of each Panax Ginseng extract or TCDD, and co-administration of the two materials. For this study, 120 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 190-210 g each (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: TCDD-administered, co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extract, ginseng extract-administered, and control group. The TCDD-administered group received single dose of TCDD in a corn oil vehicle (
body weight) by intraperitoneal administration on Day 1. The Panax ginseng extracts-administered group received intraperitoneally 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month. For the co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extracts, Panax ginseng extracts were intraperitoneally administered to rats at 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month after a single intraperitoneal dose of
of TCDD/kg body weight on Day 1. Panax ginseng extracts attenuated the mortality induced by TCDD administration. The extracts also slightly attenuated the TCDD-induced body weight loss. Administration of TCDD alone increased liver weight at 2, 5, and 16 days after administration of TCDD. Administration of Panax ginseng extracts rather decreased liver weight through whole the experimental period, but which was statistically insignificant. Administration of TCDD alone at
body weight increased both serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at 32 days, indicating that liver damage occurred maximally at that time. Ginseng extract administration caused insignificant changes in serum ALT, but gradually decreased in AST as the exposure time increased. Coadministration of TCDD and ginseng extracts caused serum AST activity to significant recovery to normal value at 16 days and 32 days after exposure to TCDD. The extracts also significantly decreased the TCDD-induced ALT activity after 16 days of TCDD administration. These results suggest that Panax ginseng extracts may possess a protective effect against TCDD-induced toxicities including hepatotoxicity in rats.
Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Re in Korean Red Ginseng Extract by HPLC using Mass/Mass Spectrometry and UV Detection
Kwon, Young-Min ; Lee, Sung-Dong ; Kang, Hyun-Sook ; Cho, Mu-Gung ; Hong, Soon-Sun ; Park, Chae-Kyu ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Jeon, Byeong-Seon ; Ko, Sung-Ryong ; Shon, Hyun-Joo ; Choi, Dal-Woong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 32, issue 4, 2008, Pages 390~396
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2008.32.4.390
For evaluating the quality of ginseng, simple and fast analysis methods are needed to determine the ginsenoside content of the ginseng products. The aim of this study was therefore to optimize conditions for fast analysis of the ginsenosides, the active ingredients in extracts of Korean red ginseng. When tandem HPLC mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used, four forms of ginsenoside, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Re, were readily separated in seven minutes using a gradient mobile phase (acetonitrile and water containing acetic acid). This is the shortest separation time reported among the studies of major ginsenoside analysis. When gradient HPLC with UV detection was used, the detection limit was high, but separation of these four ginsenosides required 25 minutes using acetonitrile and water containing formic acid as a mobile phase. HPLC-MS/MS was able to separate ginsenoside Rg1 easily regardless of the mobile phase condition, but the HPLC-UV could not separate Rg1 because acetonitrile concentration in the mobile phase had to be maintained below 20%. Ginsenoside peaks were clearer and had more sensitive detection limits when Korean red ginseng extract was analyzed by the HPLC-MS/MS, but the UV detection was useful for chromatographic fingerprinting of all four major ginsenosides of the extract: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Re. Extracts were found to contain 2.17 mg, 1.51 mg, 1.29 mg, and 0.46 mg of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, respectively, per gram weight. The ratios of each ginsenoside in the extracts were 1.0 : 0.7 : 0.6 : 0.2, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that HPLC-MS/MS spectrometry could be the most useful method for rapid analysis of even small amounts of major ginsenosides, while HPLC with UV detection could also be used for rapid analysis of major ginsenosides and for quality control of ginseng products.