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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Ginseng as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Postmenopausal Symptoms
Shim, Myeong-Kuk ; Lee, Young-Joo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 89~92
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.089
Ginseng is a popular herbal medicine that has been used for thousands of years. A number of its components have been isolated and characterized, including ginsenosides, polysaccharides, peptides, polyacetylenic alcohols, and fatty acids. The lipophilic characteristics of ginsenosides have raised the possibility of their efficacy as steroid hormones. Several in-vitro studies have reported their pharmacological function as steroid hormones, especially estrogen, but no human study to date has confirmed their efficacy as alternatives to synthetic estrogen.
Compound K, a Metabolite of Ginsenoside Rb1, Inhibits Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice
Bae, Eun-Ah ; Trinh, Hien Trung ; Yoon, Hae-Kyung ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.093
To understand the anti-allergic mechanism of compound K, which is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, a main constituent of the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (family Araliaceae), its inhibitory effect against IgE-antigen complex IAC)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice and mRNA and protein expressions of allergic cytokines in lAC-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells were investigated. Orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 more potently inhibited PCA reaction when administered at 5 h prior to the lAC treatment than when administered at I h before. However, compound K orally administered 1 h before lAC treatment showed a more potent anti-PCA reaction effect than when treated at 5 h before. Orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 more potently inhibited PCA reaction induced by lAC in mice than intraperitoneally treated one, apart from orally administered its metabolite, compound K, which was more potent than the orally administered one. The compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, inhibited mRNA and protein expressions of IL-4 and TNF-
and the activation of their transcription factor NF-
B and MAPK in lAC-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. These findings suggest that orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 may be dependent on its metabolism by intestinal microflora in the intestine and the compound K may improve allergic diseases by the inhibition of IL-4 and TNF-
Immunomodulation of NK Cell Activity by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide (RGAP) in Ovariectomized Rats
Kim, Kyung-Suk ; Pyo, Suh-Kneung ; Sohn, Eun-Hwa ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 99~103
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.099
The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by red-ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was examined in this study. The IL-2-induced NK cell activity was significantly decreased in the OVX rats compared to the sham groups, but the normally induced NK cell activity was not. RGAP, however, increased the NK cell activity in both groups, and this effect involved iNOS expression. The inhibition of iNOS activity did not increase the NK cell cytotoxicity by RGAP in the OVX rats. The data that were obtained also demonstrated that the expression of iNOS was increased in the spleen of the OVX rats. These results indicate that RGAP increases the tumoricidal activity of the NK cell in the OVX rats, which is a primed or activated state of innate immune cells resulting from the changes in cytokine production induced by estrogen-deficient stress. Therefore, RGAP has a synergistic effect on the NK cell activities, which are regulated by the iNOS signals in OVX rats. This suggests that RGAP is useful for potential therapeutic strategies as a nutrient in regulating the NK cells in OVX rats.
The Protective Effect of Orally Ingested Korean Red Ginseng on the Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Mice
Ahn, Joong-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Chung, Hana ; Lee, Na-Young ; Chung, Jong-Woo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 104~110
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.104
It is well known that the saponin of Korean red ginseng (KRG) has an anti-oxidant effect and could suppress the accumulation of lipid peroxidation. The aim of the present study was to observe the inhibitory effect of KRG on mice with noise-induced hearing loss, and to determine its optimal dose. BALB/c mice with a normal hearing level and normal Preyer's reflexes were used in the study. The mice in the permanent-threshold-shift (PTS) group were exposed to noise (120-dB SPL, white noise band) in a noise booth for 3 h a day, for three consecutive days. The mice in the experimental group were given heat-processed red-ginseng extract (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg), and those in the control group were given normal saline alone during their noise exposure. The mice in the temporary-threshold-shift (TTS) group were exposed to noise (120 dBSPL, white noise band) in a noise booth for 3 h. The mice in the experimental group were given heat-processed red-ginseng extract (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg), and those in the control group were given normal saline alone before their noise exposure. The hearing levels of the mice were measured through auditory brainstem response (ABR) immediately and I, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after their noise exposure. Cochleae were removed from the mice 14 days after their noise exposure. lmmunochemical and immunofluorescent staining were performed to observe the expression of 8-oxoG in cochlea. In the PTS group, the hearing function of the mice in all the groups was not recovered after their noise exposure. In the TTS group, however, the hearing function of the mice in all the groups was recovered within 14 days. Reduced hearing impairment and early recovery were observed in the mice that were given 200 mg/kg KRG, and early recovery was observed in the mice that were given 100 mg/kg KRG The immunopositive staining of 8-oxoG was detected in the stria vascularis in the control group but was diminished in the mice that were given 200 mg/kg KRG The ingestion of more than 100 mg/kg KRG demonstrated a protection and recovery effect on the noiseinduced-TTS group. Since KRG has been reported to be a safe compound even up to hundreds of mg/kg, a higher concentration of it may effectively protect and recover TTS.
Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Kong, Yeon-Hee ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 111~114
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.111
The six phenolic-compound (ascorbic acid, maltol, esculetin,p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and quercetin) contents of Panax ginseng c.A. Meyer were determined in this study. The results showed that the ascorbic acid, cinnamic acid, and esculetin contents of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer are higher than those of the other ingredients. Among these compounds, ascorbic acid and cinnamic acid significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production in the RAW 264.7 cells. Cinnamic acid also effectively inhibited the oxidative damages in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Although this study examined the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities using only one kind of cells, its results suggest that cinnarnic acid potently contributes to the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
Efficacy and Safety of Red Ginseng on Women's Health Related Quality of Life and Sexual Function
Kim, Dong-II ; Choi, Min-Sun ; Alm, Hong-Yeop ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 115~126
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.115
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of red ginseng on women's health-related quality of life (QOL) and sexual function. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study was performed. The main efficacy was measured using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFl) and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Twenty-four healthy, married women aged 30-45 years with FSFl scores below 25 were randomly divided into two groups: the red-ginseng group (N=12) and the placebo group (N=12). During the first six-week period (Study 1), each group was given red ginseng or placebo twice a day. Before the start of the second six-week period (Study 2), a crossover design was chosen with a two-week break (washout period). Interchanging the two groups after the washout period, red ginseng and placebo were given to each group. The outcomes were measured before and after each six-week period. Overall, 23 participants completed the study. In Study 1, the changes relative to the baseline in the FSFl total score were 22.50% and 22.99% for red ginseng and placebo, respectively. In Study 2, the relative changes were 8.14% for red ginseng and 6.29% for placebo. The results showed a greater improving trend in Study 1 with respect to all of the participants' sexual functions, but no significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.9567). After taking red ginseng, all the participants exhibited an improving trend in the desire domain of FSFl, but no significant difference was shown. In the measurement of SF-36, no significant difference was likewise shown. After taking red ginseng, though, all the participants exhibited an improving trend in the physical functioning (PF) domain of SF-36, with no significant difference. Moreover, there was no significant adverse event related to red ginseng. The QOL and sexual function of the study participants in the red-ginseng group were mostly improved, but no statistically significant effect of red ginseng was shown. It is supposed that this result was partly due to the affirmative impression of red ginseng in Korea. Thus, it is anticipated that a long-term clinical trial will show a significant effect of red ginseng on the QOL and sexual function.
Relationship between Plant Protection Rate and Coefficient of Variation of Microbial Products for Ginseng Cultivation
Lee, Byung-Dae ; Park, Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 127~131
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.127
The plant protection rate of the marketed microbial products for ginseng cultivation was investigated against Rhizoctoina solani and Pythium sp. in a seedling pot experiment. A significant difference was found among the mean plant protection rates (Pm) of the microbial products, including Tolclofos-methyl (Rhizolex). The best microbial product, C-ISR2, showed a 33% and 33.6% net Pm (total Pm-control Pm) in the two tests against Rhizoctonia solani. In one test with a 58.6% control plot Pm, the total pm was 91.6%, indicating that plant protection can be done only with a microbial product in a well-conditioned field. The net Pm of C-ISR2 against Pythium sp. was 26.4%. The net Pm of a microbial product against a pathogen seems to be fixed. A significant negative linear correlation was found between the Pm and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the protection rate in all the three experiments. This indicates that the protection processes of control, microbial products, and chemical pesticides are in the same system. Pm was only dependent on CV, probably due to each seedling's microenvironment. In the linear correlation equation between the Pm and the CV of the microbial products and the control plot, the intercept of the vertical axis will be the theoretical Pm when CV is zero.
Effect of Red Ginseng on Radiation-induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Mouse
Lee, Hae-June ; Kim, Joong-Sun ; Moon, Chang-Jong ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Jang, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 132~138
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.132
Previous studies suggest that even low-dose irradiation can lead to progressive cognitive decline and memory deficits, which implicates, in part, hippocampal dysfunction in both humans and experimental animals. In this study, whether red ginseng (RG) could attenuate memory impairment was investigated through a passive-avoidance and object recognition memory test, as well as the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis, using the TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical detection with markers of neurogenesis (Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)) in adult mice treated with a relatively low-dose exposure to gamma radiation (0.5 or 2.0 Gy). RG was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight, at 36 and 12 h pre-irradiation and at 30 minutes post-irradiation, or orally at a dosage of 250 mg! kg of body weight/day for seven days before autopsy. In the passive-avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice that were trained for one day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits compared with the sham controls. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 12 h after irradiation. In addition, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased. RG treatment prior to irradiation attenuated the memory defect and blocked apoptotic death as well as a decrease in the Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells. RG may attenuate memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure to radiation in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting the detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.
Effect of Calcium Cyanamide Soil Fumigation on Sterilization of Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp., Soil Microbes and Plant Seed
Lee, Byung-Dae ; Park, Roan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 139~142
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.139
The effect of calcium cyanamide (China-made) soil fumigation on the growth of the ginseng pathogen Rhizoctonia, Pythium), soil microbes, and seed germination of lettuce and radish was investigated. At twice the recommended level (2S0-ppm
), the growth of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, and the seed germination, were not inhibited. Rather, the effective level was 10,000 ppm. The powder form was more effective than the granular form in inhibiting pathogen growth and seed germination. The lettuce seed was also more sensitive than the radish seed. Calcium cyanamide appearedto decrease the fungi population and to increase Actinomycetes in the soil.
Optimization of Submerged Culture Conditions for the Growth Increase of Ginseng Adventitious Root Containing Germanium
Chang, Eun-lung ; Oh, Roon-II ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 143~148
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.143
This study was carried out to detennine the optimal submerged culture conditions for the growth increase of ginseng adventitious roots containing germanium by means of a fractional factorial design with four factors and three levels, using the response surface methodology (RSM). The ginseng (Panax ginseng CA. Meyer) adventitious roots were induced by plant growth regulators and cultured in a liquid SH medium. The effects of various
and phosphoric acid (
) concentrations in the medium,
addition time and the pH of the medium on the fresh weight of the ginseng adventitious roots were investigated. The optimum pH of the medium and the phosphoric acid concentration detennined by the partial differentiation of the model equation were 4.7 and 6.0 roM, respectively. The predicted optimal
concentration was 10 ppm and the
addition time did not affect the growth of ginseng adventitious roots. Under these conditions, the growth of the ginseng adventitious root containing germanium was predicted to be 2.47 g.
Preventive and Inhibitory Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice
Cha, Mi-Ran ; Wang, Yutie ; Jang, Jin-Sun ; Kim, Chae-Kyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 149~154
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.149
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation and progressive cartilage and bone erosion. Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory cytokines like
, IL-1, -6, and -8, and
. In this study, whether KRG extract has an inhibitory effect on the collagen-inducible development of arthritis in DBA/1J mice was investigated. To induce arthritis, type II collagen emulsified in Complete Freund's Adjuvant was intradermally injected into the base of the tails of mice. Three weeks after the initial injection, a booster injection of type II collagen emulsified in Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant was administered. The oral administration of KRG extract for 8
10 weeks at the dose of 300 mg/kg (three days a week) inhibited the development of arthritis in the experimental group, compared to the control group which was given saline. While the administration of KRG extract three times a week demonstrated both preventive and inhibitory effects, the administration of KRG extract once a week had little inhibitory effect. In other studies, the regimen of KRG administration has been shown to decrease the plasma level of inflammatory cytokines like IL-8 and TNF-
, but the plasma levels of these cytokines were not decreased in the present study. The results of the present study suggest that KRG has preventive and inhibitory effects on collagen-induced arthritis.
Beneficial Effect of Ginseng Extract on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Im, Gi-Jung ; Cinn, Young-Gi ; Chang, Ji-Won ; Choi, Joan ; Chae, Sung-Won ; Jung, Hak-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 2, 2009, Pages 155~159
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.2.155
Sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss is a disease that develops within several hours to several days. Its etiology has not yet been verified, but the disturbance of the circulation of blood in the inner ear, inner-ear hydrops, and viral infection are considered possible causes of the disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Panax ginseng extract, which is known to have a vasodilatory effect, on sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Sixty-nine patients suffering from sudden sensorineural hearing loss were admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital from March to December 2008. They were divided into the experimental (30 ears) and control (39 ears) groups. Ginseng extract (2700 mg/day, 4 weeks) was added to the therapeutic regimen in the experimental group. The effect of ginseng extract therapy was analyzed according to the factors relating to the prognosis. A considerable hearing improvement was documented in both groups (32.2 dB in the experimental group and 25.8 dB in the control group). However, there was little beneficial effect of ginseng extract on additional hearing improvement compared with control. The total recovery rate of the experimental group (80.0%) was better than that of the control group (58.9%), and the experimental group's high-tone hearing gain at 3 kHz (29.7 dB) was better than that of the control group (21.7 dB). The results of the study suggest that the effects of ginseng therapy tend to be superior to those of the conventional therapy, but the difference between the two is not statistically significant. The hearing gains tend to be in the higher frequencies and may be due to the promotion of cellular differentiation from the supporting cells.