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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Isolation and Characterization of Glycolate Oxidase Gene from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Parvin, Shohana ; Pulla, Rama Krishna ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Sathiyaraj, Gayathri ; Jung, Seok-Kyu ; Khorolragchaa, Altanzul ; In, Jun-Gyo ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 249~255
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.249
The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, a key step in plant photorespiration, is carried out by the peroxisomal flavoprotein glycolate oxidase (EC 22.214.171.124). To investigate the altered gene expression and the role of GOX in ginseng plant defense system, a cDNA clone containing a GOX gene designated as PgGOX was isolated and sequenced from Panax ginseng. The cDNA was 692 nucleotides long and have an open reading frame of 552 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence of 183 residues. A GenBank BlastX search revealed that the deduced amino acid of PgGOX shares a high degree homology with the Glycine max (95% identity). In the present study we analyzed the expression of PgGOX under various environmental stresses at different times using real time-PCR. The results showed that the expressions of PgGOX increased after various treatments involving salt, light, cold, ABA, SA, and copper treatment.
The Effect of Benomyl Treatments on Ginsenosides and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Roots of Panax ginseng
Eo, Ju-Kyeong ; Eom, Ahn-Heum ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 256~259
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.256
The effects of benomyl treatment on ginsenoside and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in the roots of Panax ginseng that were collected from two sites in Korea were investigated. The ginseng roots that were treated with benomyl showed different species compositions of AM fungi colonizing the ginseng roots, compared to untreated roots. In the analysis of ginsenoside, Rc was significantly higher in benomyl untreated roots than in benomyl treated roots. The results suggest that AM fungal species composition and ginsenosides in ginseng root could be influenced by the benomyl treatment.
Ginseng Total Saponin Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Homocysteine in Rats
Kim, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 260~267
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.260
Recent studies have shown that Panax ginseng has a variety of beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Homocysteine (Hcy), which is derived from methionine, has been closely associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, whether the in-vivo long-term co-administration of ginseng total saponins (GTS), active ingredients of Panax ginseng, with L-methionine (Met) inhibits methionine-induced hyperhomocysteine (HHcy) and H-Hcy-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions was investigated, and it was found that the plasma Hcy level, which was measured after 30 and 60 days, in the GTS+Met co-administration group was more significantly reduced than in the Metalone-treatment group. The left-ventricle (LV) wall thickness of the heart was likewise examined in each treatment group, and it was found that the co-administration of GTS with Met significantly reduced the Met-induced LV wall thickness. The results of the study indicate that the in-vivo long-term co-administration of GTS with Met not only inhibited H-Hcy induced by long-term Met-alone administration but also attenuated the H-Hcy-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions in rats.
Myocardial Protection of Contractile Function After Global Ischemia by Compound K in the Isolated Heart
Kim, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 268~277
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.268
Ginsenosides are among the most well-known traditional herbal medicines frequently used for the treatment of cardiovascular symptoms in South Korea. The anti-ischemic effects of compound K (CK), a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, on ischemia-induced isolated rat hearts were investigated through the analyses of the changes in the hemodynamics (blood pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output) and the measurement of the infarct region. The subjects in this study were divided into four groups: the normal control, the CK-alone group, the ischemia-induced group without any treatment, and the ischemia-induced group treated with CK. No significant differences in perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output were found between the groups before ischemia was induced. The oxygen and buffer supply was stopped for 30 min to induce ischemia 60 min after reperfusion in the isolated rat hearts, and the CK was administered 5 min before ischemia induction. The CK treatment significantly prevented decreases in perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output under ischemic conditions. In addition, the hemodynamics (except for the heart rate) of the group treated with CK significantly recovered 60 min after reperfusion, unlike in the control group. CK significantly limited the infarct. These results suggest that CK treatment has distinct anti-ischemic effects in an exvivo model of an ischemia-reperfusion-induced rat heart.
Enhancement of Murine NK cell Activity in vitro by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide
Choi, Hye-Sook ; Sohn, Eun-Wha ; Rhee, Dong-Kwon ; Pyo, Suh-Kneung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 278~282
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.278
The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of the activity of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by redginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) was examined. RGAP induced the significant enhancement of NK cell activity against the Yac-1 tumor cells. The treatment of splenocytes cultured with RGAP for 16 h resulted in a significant increase in NK activity at the E:T ratio of 100:1, and in a 239 and 250% increase at 10 and
/ml, respectively. We also demonstrate that RGAP treatment increased the production of interferon (IFN)-
(17-125%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
(15-100%), suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. In addition, RGAP had a stimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens. Overall, these results suggest that RGAP has an immunopotentiating effect on NK cells, which can support the development of clinical studies on RGAP.
Protective Roles of Ginseng Saponin in Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury
Kim, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 283~293
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.283
Ginsenosides, one of the most well-known traditional herbal medicines, are used frequently in Korea for the treatment of cardiovascular symptoms. The effects of ginseng saponin on ischemia-induced isolated rat heart were investigated through analyses of hemodynamic changes including perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output. Isolated rat hearts were perfused and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion with modified Kreb's Henseleit solution. Myocardial contractile function was continuously recorded. Ginseng saponin administered before inducing ischemia significantly prevented decreases in perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output. The ginseng saponin administered group significantly recovered all of the hemodynamic parameters, except heart rate, after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) compared with ischemia control. The intracellular calcium (
) content in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes was quantitatively determined. Administration of ginseng saponin significantly prevented
increase that had been induced by simulated I/R in vitro (p<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the cardioprotection of ginseng saponin is mediated by the inhibition of
increase. Overall, we found that the administration of ginseng saponin has cardioprotective effects on the isolated rat heart after I/R injury. These results indicate that ginseng saponin has distinct cardioprotective effects in an I/R-induced rat heart.
Protective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg
against Cholesterol Oxide-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Rat
Kim, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 294~304
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.294
Ginsenosides are among the most well-known traditional herbal medicines frequently used for the treatment of various symptoms in South Korea. The neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside
) on cholesterol-oxide-(CO)-induced neurotoxicity were investigated through the analyses of rat brains. The recently accumulated reports show that ginseng saponins (GTS), the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng, have protective effects against neurotoxin insults. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of G-
on CO-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity were examined in vivo. The in-vitro studies using rat cultured hippocampal neurons revealed that G-
treatment significantly inhibited CO-induced hippocampal cell death. G-
treatment not only significantly reduced CO-induced DNA damage but also attenuated CO-induced apoptosis. The in-vivo studies that were conducted revealed that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pre-administration of G-
significantly reduced i.c.v. CO-induced hippocampal damage in rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the in-vitro and in-vivo neuroprotective effects of G-
against CO-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, the effect of G-
on the CO-induced elevations of the apoptotic cells in cultured hippocampal cells was examined, and it was found that G-
treatment inhibited CO-induced apoptosis. The histopathological evaluation demonstrated that G-
significantly diminished the apoptosis in the hippocampus and also spared the hippocampal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus neurons. G-
also significantly improved the CO-caused behavioral impairment. G-
itself had no effect, however, on the CO-induced inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity (data not shown). These results collectively indicate the G-
-induced neuroprotection against CO in rat hippocampus. With regard to the wide use of G-
, this agent is potentially beneficial in treating CO-induced brain injury.
Enhanced Protective Effect of Ultrafine Particles of Red-Ginseng against Phenanthrene-induced Cell Damage
Seo, Yoo-Na ; Lee, Mi-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 305~310
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.305
Phenanthrene, one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been known to be toxic to the environment. In this investigation, the protective effect of red ginseng on phenanthrene-induced oxidative DNA damage was evaluated using Comet assay in A549 cells. Red ginseng's cytoprotective effect on phenanthrene-induced hemolysis was also investigated. This study's findings show that oxidative DNA damage and hemolysis were significantly prevented by red ginseng treatment. Notably, it was found that pulverizing red ginseng into ultra-fine particles even enhanced its protective effects against DNA damage and hemolysis. The results suggest that particle size reduction seems to effectively enhance red ginseng's pharmacological efficacies.
Control of Phytophthora Blight of Panax ginseng Caused by Phytophthora cactorum using Phosphonate under the Controlled Condition
Lee, Byung-Dae ; Park, Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 311~315
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.311
Potassium phosphonate inhibited less mycelial growth of Phytophthora cactorum in vitro than metalaxyl-M. But the net protection rate in leaflet test and whole plant pot test was greater in potassium phosphonate than metalaxyl-M. P. ginseng appeared to have an induced resistance against P. cactorum with phosphonate around 50~100 ppm.
Effects of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol on the Inflammatory Mediators Release from the Activated Mast Cells
Ro, Jai-Youl ; Han, Yong-Nam ; Choi, Kwang-Tae ; Lee, Chang-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 316~323
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.316
Ginseng saponins have various pharmacological effects on the immune system. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) are the species of ginseng saponin metabolites that are formed by human intestinal bacteria and detected in circulation. The effects of PPD and PPT on the inflammatory mediator release from the activated mast cells were tested. Histamine release was evaluated in activated guinea pig lung mast cells, and the secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and the tumor necrosis factor-
) was assessed in an HMC-1 cell after treating it with ginseng saponin metabolites. The results are as follows. PPT, at its maximum concentration of
, completely abolished the secretion of IL-4 from the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell. It also inhibited IL-8 secretion from the same cells by about 40-50% of the PMA-treated DMSO control. PPD, at its maximum concentration of
, showed a tendency to induce histamine release from the guinea pig lung mast cells. It inhibited the secretion of IL-4 (by 89% of the PMA-treated DMSO control) in the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell, but did have a significant effect on the IL-8 release from the same cell. Both PPD and PPT showed no effects, however, on the release of TNF-
from the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell. These results suggest that PPD and PPT are from the ginseng metabolites that are responsible for the immunomodulating activity of ginseng extracts when they are taken orally.
Regulatory Effect of Ginsenosides Rh1 on Monocytic U937 Cell Adhesion
Kim, Byung-Hun ; Cho, Jae-Youl ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 324~329
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.324
Cell-cell adhesion managed by various adhesion molecules is known to be one of pathophysiological phenomena found in numerous immunological diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and allergic diseases. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of ginsenosides (G)- Rh1, reported to display anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, on CD29-mediated cell adhesion. G-Rh1 significantly suppressed U937 cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD29 but not CD43. It also blocked U937 cell-fibronectin adhesion, mediated by activated CD29, up to 30%. In agreement, this compound also significantly decreased the surface level of CD29 but not CD43 as well as other costimulatory molecules such as CD69, CD80, and CD86. Therefore, these results suggest that G-Rh1 may have inhibitory function on CD29-mediated cell adhesion events, probably contributing to its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities.
Effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Cell Adhesion, Surface Molecule Expression and Morphological Changes
Kim, Byung-Hun ; Cho, Jae-Youl ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 330~336
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.330
Cell-cell adhesion managed by various adhesion molecules is known to be one of important phenomena found in numerous immunological responses or diseases such as immunostimulation, rheumatoid arthritis and allergic diseases. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of ginsenosides (G)-Rb1, reported to display immunostimulatory and anticancer effects, on cell adhesion, the up-regulation of surface adhesion molecules and morphological changes using monocytic U937 and macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. G-Rb1 significantly up-regulated U937 cell-cell adhesion mediated by both CD29 and CD43. It also enhanced U937 cell-fibronectin adhesion, while CD29 blocking antibody P5D2 strongly suppressed it. In agreement, this compound also significantly increased the surface level of CD29 as well as CD43. Furthermore, this compound differentially modulated CD82 up-regulation and morphological changes triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Therefore, these results suggest that G-Rb1 may have differential modulatory function on cell adhesion events, surface molecule expression and morphological changes responsible for immune responses.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Polysaccharide using Red Ginseng Marc
Tark, Keun-Man ; Cho, Kyung-Lae ; Park, Keun-Hyoung ; Son, Seok-Min ; Chae, Hee-Jeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 337~342
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.337
The extraction conditions for the production of red ginseng polysaccharide were proposed. The crude fiber content of red ginseng marc (RGM) (15.3%) was much higher than that of white ginseng (WG) (2.1%) and red ginseng (RG) (0.5%). Thus, RGM was selected as the raw material for polysaccharide production. The correlation between the particle size of RGM and the polysaccharide extraction was investigated with a correlation analysis using the SPSS package. The two parameters were found to have a significant correlation (p<0.01). The polysaccharide extraction increased as the particle size of RGM decreased. The optimal concentration of RGM was 6.66% (w/v). The extraction yield increased as both the extraction temperature and the extraction time increased. Finally, the extraction temperature and time were selected as
and 5 hrs, respectively. Consequently, the extraction conditions for polysaccharide production were optimized and statistically confirmed.
Characteristics of Acid Pre-treated Red Ginseng and Its Decoction
Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 343~348
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.343
This study was conducted to produce a new red ginseng by steaming ginseng using a new pre-treatment method, so as to develop ginseng products with improved flavor and thereby expand ginseng's consumer base. The color parameters (Hunter value), free sugar contents, and ginsenoside contents of the powder from the dried red ginseng, and the sensory test of the semi-dried red ginseng and the decoction from the dried red ginseng, were measured to investigate the effect of acid (ascorbic acid or citric acid) impregnation pre-treatment on red ginseng. The powder from the acid-pretreated red ginseng became lighter and more yellow than the red ginseng that was not pre-treated, but the redness (avalue) of the powder from the acid-pre-treated red ginseng increased. The ginsenoside contents of
increased with the acid treatment. There was a significant difference in the color and sweetness of the semi-dried acidtreated and non-treated red ginsengs in the sensory test. As the results of the sensory test were expressed in the hedonic scale, however, there were significant differences in the degrees of bitterness, astringency, sourness, odor, and color of the red ginseng decollation. Especially, the acid-treated red ginseng extract tasted less bitter, which shows the potential of new red ginseng products with improved ginseng flavor.
Change of Ginsenoside Rg
and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Black Ginseng Manufactured by Grape Juice Soaking
Lee, Mi-Ra ; Yun, Beom-Sik ; Sun, Bai-Shen ; Liu, Lei ; Zhang, Dong-Liang ; Wang, Chun-Yan ; Wang, Zhen ; Ly, Sun-Young ; Mo, Eun-Kyung ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 349~354
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.349
This study was conducted to develop a new method for enhancing ginsenoside
, which is abundant in black ginseng. The cognition-enhancing effect of black ginseng extract was investigated via the assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Black ginseng I was prepared through the traditional method (by steaming and drying nine times repetitions). Black ginseng II, on the other hand, was prepared by steaming the ginseng three times at
for 30 min after soaking it in grape juice for 24 h. The ginsenosides of white, red, and black ginseng I, and II were investigated using the HPLC method, respectively. In black ginseng II, the ginsenoside
contents, which cannot be found in white ginseng, amounted to 10.91 mg/g, approximately 18 times more than that in red ginseng. In the in-vivo study, black ginseng extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the AChE activity after 24 h by a single administration in the brain. Thus, the new manufacturing method for black ginseng was found to more effective in the conversion of ginsenoside
compared to the traditional method. Black ginseng may also have the effect of preventing the cognitive impairment induced by cholinergic dysfunction.
Phenanthrene-induced Oxidative DNA Damage of Lymphocytes and the Suppression by Ginseng Extract
Yoo, Ah-Reum ; Lee, Mi-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 355~360
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.355
) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three aromatic rings, and it can be produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Comet assay was used to examine the oxidative DNA damage of lymphocytes by phenanthrene and to measure the suppressive effects of ginseng extract on the DNA damage in this investigation. The in vitro oxidative DNA damage by phenanthrene increased in a dose-dependent manner in the lymphocyte. However, the DNA damage was significantly inhibited by ascorbate. Moreover, pretreatment, cotreatment and posttreatment with ginseng extract enhanced lymphocyte resistance to the phenanthrene-induced DNA damage. Phenanthrene enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the elevated reactive oxygen species level was reduced by treatment with ginseng extract.
Quality Characteristics of Ginseng Treated by Hot Air Drying after Being Dried using Super-heated Steam
Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Kim, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 361~366
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.361
This research aims to develop a new drying technology using super-heated steam to reduce the time required for drying ginseng and to enhance its quality. The drying rate of ginseng powder treated with hot-air drying after drying with super-heated steam was about 40% faster than the drying rate of ginseng powder treated with hot-air drying. Minimal difference was found between hot-air drying and hot-air drying after drying with super-heated steam in the general composition of the ginseng powder, such as its crude lipid, crude protein, crude fiber, and ash. Moreover, no difference was found between hot-air drying and hot-air drying after drying with super-heated steam in terms of the ginseng powder's mineral and free sugar contents. The crude saponin contents was 5.43% in the ginseng treated with hot-air drying and 5.4% in the ginseng treated with hot-air drying after drying with super-heated steam. The ginseng powder that was treated with hot-air drying after drying with super-heated steam had a slightly higher redness compared to the ginseng powder that was treated with hot-air drying alone. The number of microorganisms of the ginseng powder treated with hotair drying after drying with super-heated steam showed a reduction of one log cycle in the total bacteria and two log cycles in the yeast molds compared to the ginseng powder treated with hot-air drying alone.
Beneficial Effect of Korea Red Ginseng on Halitosis; Attenuation of H
S Induced Inflammatory Mediators and cystathionine γ-lyase Expression
Choi, Ki-Seok ; Lee, So-Jung ; Lee, Jeong-Sang ; Hong, Kyung-Sook ; Kim, Jeong-Gon ; Kim, Yoon-Jae ; Hahm, Ki-Baik ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 33, issue 4, 2009, Pages 367~377
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2009.33.4.367
Halitosis is a generally accepted marker of diseases in the oral cavity and of systemic and gastrointestinal disorders. Based on these authors' previous findings (that (1) there is a close association between H. pylori infection and halitosis; (2) Korea red ginseng may suppress the colonization of H. pylori, fight H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity, and impose significant anti-inflammatory actions in patients with chronic gastritis; and (3) H. pylori infection is linked with the generation of significant levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), and the levels of VSCs correlate significantly with H. pylori-associated mucosal damages), in the current study, the authors documented the molecular mechanisms of Korea red ginseng's efficacy in ameliorating halitosis. When the RAW 264.7 cells were treated with the
releasing compound NaHS, the mRNA expression of cystathionine
-lyase (CSE), IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS were more significantly induced compared with the vehicle-treated group. The cytoskeletal components of ezrin's and moesin's mRNA expressions were elevated by NaHS treatment accompanied by the activation of MAPK, p38, and ERK. Korea red ginseng pretreatment reduced both the NaHS-induced CSE expression and the proinflammatory genes (e.g., IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS) in a concentration-dependent manner. The ERM expression and the phosphorylation of p38 were also significantly reduced by Korea-red-ginseng pretreatment. Overall, Korea red ginseng pretreatment imposed significant anti-inflammatory effects through the downregulation of the NaHS-triggered proinflammatory gene expression, CSE, and ERM mRNA expression. Korea red ginseng could thus be said to be a key remedy of halitosis and to be effective in relieving gastric inflammation.