Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Quality Characteristics of Ginseng Coffee Treated by Coating of White Ginseng Extract
Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Rhee, Young-Kyoung ; Bae, Hye-Min ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.001
The quality attributes of coffee treated with different concentrations of white ginseng extract were examined. Increased concentration of white ginseng extract was associated with higher color values (Hunter L. a, b scale). The crude saponin contents of untreated roasted coffee beans (control) and those coated with
Brix (WGC-1) and
Brix white ginseng extract (WGC-2) were 8.29%, 8.74%, and 8.93%, respectively. The total ginsenoside contents of WGC-1 and WGC-2 were 0.3 mg/g and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. In the case of major ginsenosides, the contents of ginsenosides
increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. Total sugar and acidic polysaccharide contents also increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. The coffee beans coated with ginseng extract scored significantly higher ginseng taste scores than the control (p<0.005) in sensory evaluation. In terms of coffee taste, WGC-2 had significantly lower scores than the commercial coffee bean. In the consumer sensory evaluation, overall preference did not differ significantly among the treatments.
Effects of Red Ginseng on Neonatal Hypoxia-induced Hyperacitivity Phenotype in Rats
Kim, Hee-Jin ; Joo, So-Hyun ; Choi, In-Ha ; Kim, Pitna ; Kim, Min-Kyoung ; Park, Seung-Hwa ; Cheong, Jae-Hoon ; Shin, Chan-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 8~16
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.008
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 4-12% of chool-age children worldwide and is characterized by three core symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Although standard pharmacological treatments, such as methylphenidate and atomoxetine, are available, concerns about drug-induced psychological and cardiovascular problems, as well as growth retardation and sleep disturbances, highlight the continuing need for new therapeutic interventions. Using a neonatal hypoxia-induced hyperactivity model in rats, the potential positive role that oral administration of red ginseng extract may have in relation to the hyperactive phenotype was investigated. Hypoxia was induced in 2-day-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat pups by placing them in a nitrogen chamber for 15 min. The neonatal hypoxia-induced rats showed a significant increase in hyperactivity phenotype, such as increased movement duration, movement distance, and rearing frequency, which was determined by monitoring their spontaneous locomotor activity using the Ethovision video tracking system. One week of oral treatment with red ginseng extract decreased the hyperactivity phenotype of the neonatal hypoxia-induced rats and increased the locomotor activity of the control rats. In the neonatal hypoxia-induced rats, expression of the norepinephrine transporter in the forebrain was increased, and red ginseng treatment partially prevented its up-regulation, while increasing its level in the control rats. Taken together, these results suggest that red ginseng extract decreased the neonatal hypoxia-induced hyperactivity phenotype, although it increased locomotor activity in normal animals.
Isolation of Sesquiterpene Synthase Homolog from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Khorolragchaa, Altanzul ; Parvin, Shohana ; Shim, Ju-Sun ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Ok-Ran ; In, Jun-Gyo ; Kim, Yeon-Ju ; Kim, Se-Young ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.017
Sesquiterpenes are found naturally in plants and insects as defensive agents or pheromones. They are produced in the cytosolic acetate/mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The inducible sesquiterpene synthases (STS), which are responsible for the transformation of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate, appear to generate very few olefinic products that are converted to biologically active metabolites. In this study, we isolated the STS gene from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, designated PgSTS, and investigated the correlation between its expression and various abiotic stresses using real-time PCR. PgSTS cDNA was observed to be 1,883 nucleotides long with an open reading frame of 1,707 bp, encoding a protein of 568 amino acids. The molecular mass of the mature protein was determined to be 65.5 kDa, with a predicted isoelectric point of 5.98. A GenBank BlastX search revealed the deduced amino acid sequence of PgSTS to be homologous to STS from other plants, with the highest similarity to an STS from Lycopersicon hirsutum (55% identity, 51% similarity). Real-time PCR analysis showed that different abiotic stresses triggered significant induction of PgSTS expression at different time points.
Biological Characteristics of the Ginseng Stem Fungus Gnat (Phytosciara procera) and Its Environmental-friendly Control Using Modified Topping of Ginseng Peduncles
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Shin, Jung-Sup ; Hong, Tae-Gyun ; Ahn, Young-Joon ; Cho, Dae-Hui ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.023
This study examined the biological characteristics of the insect and examined potential cultural controls using peduncle topping methods. Ginseng stem fungus gnat eggs hatched after 5 days; ecdysis lasted 3-4 weeks, and after 5 days pupation, adults emerged. Adults deposited eggs 1-2 days after emerging, and the entire life cycle lasted 32-40 days. The fungus gnats laid eggs
in size on cut planes of stems, but not on intact stem parts that had not been topped or wounded. Analyses of major weather data for the experimental areas and weather data for the past 30 years acquired from the Korea Meteorological Administration revealed that fungus gnat dispersion was prevalent under highly humid conditions and in areas with thick and frequent fogging. Among the topping times examined, fungus gnat damage to ginseng was lowest when topping occurred in late May. Among the five different topping methods evaluated on experimental ginseng farms, the cumulative fungus gnat damage to ginseng was low (0.8%) under partial peduncle topping (removal of peduncle with lateral fruit remaining) and removal of only flower buds (0.6%), with fungus gnat control effects of 82% and 86%, respectively, compared to conventional topping (removal of peduncle about 5 cm above its base). No fungus gnat damage to ginseng was observed under the no-topping treatment. These results suggest that partial topping of peduncles, while letting lateral fruits remain, is a potentially environmentally friendly method of controlling the ginseng stem fungus gnat.
Ginseng Extract Regulates the Alterations of Sleep Architecture and EEG Power Spectra in Restraint Stressed Rats
Ma, Yuan ; Eun, Jae-Soon ; Yang, Shulong ; Lee, Kwang-Seung ; Lee, Eun-Sil ; Kim, Chung-Soo ; Oh, Ki-Wan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 30~40
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.030
The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the regulation of sleep architecture by the red ginseng water extract (RGE) in acutely and chronically restraint stressed rats. Adult rats were fitted with sleep.wake recording electrodes. Following post-surgical recovery, rats were extensively habituated for freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Polygraphic signs of sleep-wake activities were recorded for 24 h after RGE administration and induction of stress and were analyzed to understand the regulation of sleep architecture. Acute stress decreased wakefulness and increased total sleep, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in both the daytime and nighttime recording. RGE shortened the daytime NREM and REM sleep, without changing the wakefulness and total sleep. RGE increased nighttime wakefulness, and decreased total, NREM and REM sleep. Chronic stress increased wakefulness and decreased total sleep in the daytime recording, and increased REM and decreased NREM sleep in both the day and night time recording. RGE ameliorated chronic stress and induced alterations of REM and NREM sleep in the day and night time sleep architecture. Acute and chronic stress could also induce alternations in cortex electroencephalogram (EEG) recording during NREM, REM sleep and wakefulness. These findings suggest that RGE may modulate the sleep behavior in acutely and chronically stressed rats and the ameliorating effect of RGE on the sleep architecture may involve in modulation of
- wave activities of the cortical EEG.
Molecular Identification of Korean Mountain Ginseng Using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)
In, Jun-Gyo ; Kim, Min-Kyeoung ; Lee, Ok-Ran ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Beom-Soo ; Kim, Se-Young ; Kwon, Woo-Seang ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 41~46
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.041
Expensive herbs such as ginseng are always a possible target for fraudulent labeling. New mountain ginseng strains have occasionally been found deep within mountain areas and commercially traded at exorbitant prices. However, until now, no scientific basis has existed to distinguish such ginseng from commonly cultivated ginseng species other than by virtue of being found within deep mountain areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer has been shown to be an appropriate method for the identification of the most popular species (Panax ginseng) in the Panax ginseng genus. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified between three newly found mountain ginseng (KGD4, KGD5, and KW1) and already established Panax species. Specific PCR primers were designed from this SNP site within the sequence data and used to detect the mountain ginseng strains via multiplex PCR. The established multiplex-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of newly found mountain ginseng strains, Korean ginseng, and foreign ginseng in a single reaction was determined to be effective. This study is the first report of scientific discrimination of "mountain ginsengs" and describes an effective method of identification for fraud prevention and for uncovering the possible presence of other, cheaper ginseng species on the market.
Identification of 'Chunpoong' among Panax ginseng Cultivars Using Real Time PCR and SNP Marker
Sun, Hua ; Lee, Ok-Ran ; Kim, Yu-Jin ; Jeong, Seok-Kyu ; In, Jun-Gyo ; Kwon, Woo-Saeng ; Kim, Se-Young ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 47~50
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.047
The common DNA extraction methods are indispensable for genotyping by molecular marker analysis. However, genotyping a large number of plants is painstaking. A modified 'NaOH-Tris' method used in this study reduces the extraction time while keeping the cost low and avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. The endpoint analysis by realtime PCR tends to be fast and effective for the development of SNP markers linked to the 'Chunpoong' cultivar of Panax ginseng. The 'Chunpoong' marker was developed by a major latex-like protein gene sequence. From our results, we suggest that this method is successful in distinguishing 'Chunpoong' from a large number of ginseng cultivars.
Effect of Black Ginseng on Memory Improvement in the Amnesic Mice Induced by Scopolamine
Lee, Mi-Ra ; Yun, Beom-Sik ; Liu, Lei ; Zhang, Dong-Liang ; Wang, Zhen ; Wang, Chun-Ling ; Gu, Li-Juan ; Wang, Chun-Yan ; Mo, Eun-Kyung ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.051
This study compared the effects of black, white, and red ginseng extracts (WGE, RGE, BGE, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) on learning and memory deficits associated with scopolamine treatment (SCOP, 2 mg/kg, i.p.). Tacrine (THA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control. Ginseng significantly reversed SCOP-induced memory impairment in the passiveavoidance test and also reduced escape latency in training trials of the Morris water maze test. The increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity produced by SCOP was significantly inhibited by WGE and RGE (p<0.001). SCOP administration had no effect on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, but RGE and BGE significantly increased ChAT activity (p<0.05). SCOP administration increased oxidative damage in the brain. Treatment of amnesic mice with ginseng extracts decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity to control levels. These results suggest that black ginseng enhances cognitive activity by regulation of cholinergic enzymes and antioxidant systems.
Monitoring of Chemical Changes in Explosively Puffed Ginsengvand the Optimization of Puffing Conditions
Yoon, Sung-Ran ; Lee, Gee-Dong ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.059
Response surface methodology was used to predict the optimum conditions of explosive puffing process for ginseng. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of moisture content and puffing pressure on dependent variables such as functional compounds (extract yield, crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content) and sensory properties. Correlation coefficients
of models for crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content were 0.9176 (p<0.05), 0.9494 (p<0.05), and 0.9878 (p<0.001), respectively. Functional compounds increased with decreasing moisture content and increasing puffing pressure. Overall palatability was high at 15-20% moisture content and 98-294 kPa of puffing pressure. On the basis of superimposed contour maps for functional compounds and overall palatability of puffed ginseng, the optimum ranges of puffing conditions were 10-17% moisture content and 294-392 kPa puffing pressure.
Optimization of Enzymatic Pretreatment for the Production of Fermented Ginseng using Leaves, Stems and Roots of Ginseng
Cho, Kyung-Lae ; Woo, Hye-Jin ; Lee, In-Sook ; Lee, Jun-Won ; Cho, Young-Cheol ; Lee, Il-Nam ; Chae, Hee-Jeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 34, issue 1, 2010, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.5142/JGR.2010.34.1.068
This study sought to optimize the extraction and enzymatic treatment conditions of Panax ginseng leaves, stems, and roots for the production of fermented ginseng. The optimization enhanced the extraction of total saccharide, a nutrient and growth-activating factor for Lactobacillus bacteria. The hydrolysis of ginseng leaves, stems, and roots was tested with eight enzymes (Pentopan, Promozyme, Celluclast, Ultraflo, Pectinex, Ceremix, Viscozyme, and Tunicase). The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were statistically optimized by the experimental design. Optimal particle size of ginseng raw material was <0.15 mm, and optimal hydrolysis occurred at a pH of 5.0-5.5, a reaction temperature of 55-
, a Ceremix concentration of 1%, and a reaction time of 2 hr. Ceremix produced the highest dry matter yield and total saccharide extraction. Ginseng leaves were found to be the most suitable raw material for the production of fermented ginseng because they have higher carbohydrate and crude saponin contents than ginseng roots.