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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010
Kim, Si-Kwan ; Park, Jeong-Hill ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 389~398
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.389
A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng.
Development of Reproducible EST-derived SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Panax ginseng Cultivars and Related Species
Choi, Hong-Il ; Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Kim, Jun-Ha ; Choi, Beom-Soon ; Ahn, In-Ok ; Lee, Joon-Soo ; Yang, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 399~412
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.399
Little is known about the genetics or genomics of Panax ginseng. In this study, we developed 70 expressed sequence tagderived polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers by trials of 140 primer pairs. All of the 70 markers showed reproducible polymorphism among four Panax species and 19 of them were polymorphic in six P. ginseng cultivars. These markers segregated 1:2:1 manner of Mendelian inheritance in an
population of a cross between two P. ginseng cultivars, 'Yunpoong' and 'Chunpoong', indicating that these are reproducible and inheritable mappable markers. A phylogenetic analysis using the genotype data showed three distinctive groups: a P. ginseng-P. japonicus clade, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, with similarity coefficients of 0.70. P. japonicus was intermingled with P. ginseng cultivars, indicating that both species have similar genetic backgrounds. P. ginseng cultivars were subdivided into three minor groups: an independent cultivar 'Chunpoong', a subgroup with three accessions including two cultivars, 'Gumpoong' and 'Yunpoong' and one landrace 'Hwangsook' and another subgroup with two accessions including one cultivar, 'Gopoong' and one landrace 'Jakyung'. Each primer pair produced 1 to 4 bands, indicating that the ginseng genome has a highly replicated paleopolyploid genome structure.
Frequent Genetic Defects in the HIV-1 5'LTR/gag Gene in Hemophiliacs Treated with Korean Red Ginseng: Decreased Detection of Genetic Defects by Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Cho, Young-Keol ; Jung, You-Sun ; Sung, Heung-Sup ; Joo, Chul-Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 413~420
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.413
We investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) affect the frequency of gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag in 20 hemophiliacs. This study is a prospective study in 20 hemophiliacs who were infected with Korean subclade B of HIV-1 from two cash-paid plasma donors in 1990. Over a 13-year period, we obtained 436 amplicons of 5'LTR/gag genes by nested polymerase chain reaction using 147 peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of the 436 amplicons, 92 (21.1%) showed gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag. Despite of a 2.3-fold higher monthly dose of KRG intake, the frequency of gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag (16.4%) was significantly decreased during HAART compared with 28.1% prior to HAART (p<0.01). Gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag was 10% more detected on KRG-therapy than prior to KRG-therapy (p<0.05). In addition, we also obtained 28 amplicons containing premature stop codon or isoleucine at initiation codon of 254 amplicons sequenced on KRG intake (7.5%) or HAART (13.6%) compared with 0% before KRG intake. These findings indicate that high frequency of gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag and genetic defects prior to HAART are significantly associated with KRG intake and the detection of gross deletion in 5'LTR/gag is decreased by HAART.
Comparative Study of Korean White, Red, and Black Ginseng Extract on Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity and Cholinergic Function
Lee, Mi-Ra ; Yun, Beom-Sik ; In, Oh-Hyun ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 421~428
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.421
This study evaluated cholineresterase inhibitory activity of Korean white ginseng extract (WGE), red ginseng extract (RGE), and black ginseng extract (BGE) and the cholinergic effect on scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesic mice. WGE, RGE, and BGE inhibited acetylcholineserase (AChE), as well as butyrylcholineserase (BuChE) in a concentration-dependent manner. BGE presented strong inhibition of AChE with an
value of 1.72 mg/mL, followed by WGE (5.89 mg/mL), RGE (6.30 mg/mL), respectively. The inhibitory activity of the three ginseng extracts on BuChE showed similar values among the groups. To better understand the mechanisms of the possible effect of ginseng extract on the cholinergic function, this study assessed the expression of the cholinergic markers of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and AChE using western blot and RT-PCR analysis in the brains of amnesic mice. Treatment with ginseng extracts led to inhibition of AChE expression and, the activation of ChAT expression in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of amnesic mice as induced by SCOP. The results suggest that ginseng extracts including BGE, appear to modulate the metabolism of acetylchoine (ACh), which would greatly increase synaptic ACh levels and most potently revert SCOP-induced amnesia.
Antiviral Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides on Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus as Surrogates for Human Norovirus
Lee, Min-Hwa ; Lee, Bog-Hieu ; Jung, Ji-Youn ; Cheon, Doo-Sung ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Choi, Chang-Sun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 429~435
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.429
Korean red ginseng has been studied various biological activities such as immune, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anticancer activities but antiviral mechanism needs further studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the antiviral effects of Korea red ginseng extract and ginsenosides on norovirus surrogate, including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). We evaluated the pre-, co-, and post-treatment effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), ginsenosides
. To measure the antiviral effect and cytotoxicity of KRG extract, and ginsenosides
, we treated Crandell-Reese Feline Kidney for FCV or RAW264.7 cells for MNV with concentrations of 0, 5, 6.7, 10, 20 ug/mL total saponin. There was cytotoxic effect in the highest concentration 20 ug/mL of KRG extract so this concentration was excluded in this study. The FCV titer was significantly reduced to 0.23-0.83
50% tissue culture infectious dose (
)/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. The titer of MNV was significantly reduced to 0.37-1.48
/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. However, there was no observed antiviral effect in groups co-treated or post-treated with KRG and its constituents. Our data suggest that KRG extract has an antiviral effect against norovirus surrogates. The antiviral mechanisms of KRG and ginsenosides should be addressed in future studies.
Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract
Choi, Sang-Yoon ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Bae, Hye-Min ; Choi, Chang-Sun ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 436~441
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.436
The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract.
Ethyl Acetate Extract from Tissue-Cultured Mountain Ginseng Adventitious Roots Inhibits In Vitro Platelet Aggregation in Whole Human Blood and Augments Peripheral Blood Flow in Mice
Lee, In-Sun ; Kim, Seul-Ki ; Jeon, Min-Hwa ; Jeon, Won-Kyung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 442~448
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.442
We previously reported that in vitro anti-platelet activity of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (TCMG) ethanol extracts show improved efficacy when compared with commercial ginseng products such as Korean red ginseng and Panax ginseng. However, information on the anti-platelet activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from TCMG adventitious roots is limited. Therefore, in this study, we further investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of TCMG (EA-TCMG) adventitious roots on in vitro antiplatelet activity in whole human blood and its effect on peripheral blood flow in mice. We found that EA-TCMG inhibited platelet aggregation with
values of 271, 180, and 147
/mL induced by collagen, adenosine-5'-diphosphate, and arachidonic acid, respectively. Among the three agonists used, thromboxane
formation induced by arachidonic acid was markedly suppressed. Furthermore, EA-TCMG improved the peripheral circulatory disturbance by improving vascular blood flow. In conclusion, these results suggest that ethyl acetate extracts from TCMG adventitious roots might inhibit vascular platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.
Morphological Characteristics of Ginseng Leaves in High-Temperature Injury Resistant and Susceptible Lines of Panax ginseng Meyer
Lee, Joon-Soo ; Lee, Kyung-Hwan ; Lee, Sung-Sik ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Ahn, In-Ok ; In, Jun-Gyo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 449~456
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.449
Plant leaf cuticle is related to the prevention of moisture loss, transpiration, and diffusion of light reflection. The purpose of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics of ginseng leaves in ginseng plants resistant and susceptible to hightemperature injury (HTI) to be related with the leaf-burning. For the HTI resistant lines Yunpoong, high-temperature injury resistance (HTIR) 1, HTIR 2, and HTIR 3, and the HTI-susceptible line Chunpoong, the cuticle densities were 53.0%, 46.2%, 44.9%, 48.0%, and 17.0%; the adaxial leaf cuticle layers were 141.3, 119.7, 119.7, 159.4, and 85.0 nm in thickness; the abaxial leaf cuticle layers were 153.6, 165.8, 157.9, 199.6, and 119.4 nm in thickness; and the stomtal lengths were 21.7, 32.4, 29.4, 30.9, and
, respectively. All of these aspects suggest that HTI resistant lines have higher cuticle density, thickicker adaxial and abaxial leaf cuticle layers, and longer of stomta length than the HTI-susceptible line, protecting leaves from moisture loss and excessive transpiration under high temperatures to be resistant against the leaf-burning.
Improvement of Cognitive Deficit in Alzheimer's Disease Patients by Long Term Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng
Heo, Jae-Hyeok ; Lee, Soon-Tae ; Oh, Min-Jung ; Park, Hyun-Jung ; Shim, Ji-Young ; Chu, Kon ; Kim, Man-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 457~461
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.457
A 24-week randomized open-label study with Korean red ginseng (KRG) showed cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To further determine long-term effect of KRG, the subjects were recruited to be followed up to 2 yr. Cognitive function was evaluated every 12 wk using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) with the maintaining dose of 4.5 g or 9.0 g KRG per d. At 24 wk, there had been a significant improvement in KRG-treated groups. In the long-term evaluation of the efficacy of KRG after 24 wk, the improved MMSE score remained without significant decline at the 48th and 96th wk. ADAS-cog showed similar findings. Maximum improvement was found around week 24. In conclusion, the effect of KRG on cognitive functions was sustained for 2 yr follow-up, indicating feasible efficacies of long-term follow-up for Alzheimer's disease.
T Cell Stimulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng through Modulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Jeon, Chan-Oh ; Kang, Soo-Won ; Park, Seung-Beom ; Lim, Kyung-Taek ; Hwang, Kwang-Woo ; Min, Hye-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 462~470
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.462
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) actively suppress immune cells and have been considered as an impediment to successful cancer immunotherapy. Many approaches have been made to overcome such immunosuppressive factors and to exert effective anti-tumor effects, but the possibility of using medicinal plants for this purpose has been overlooked. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is widely known to possess a variety of pharmacological properties, including immunoboosting and anti-tumor activities. However, little has been done to assess the anti-tumor activity of KRG on MDSCs. Therefore, we examined the effects of KRG on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and evaluated immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities of KRG through MDSC modulation. The data show that intraperitoneal administration of KRG compromises MDSC function and induces T cell proliferation and the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-
, while it does not exhibit direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells and reduced MDSC accumulation. MDSCs isolated from KRG-treated mice also express significantly lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-10 accompanied by a decrease in nitric oxide production compared with control. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that KRG enhances T cell function by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs and suggests that although KRG alone does not exhibit direct anti-tumor effects, the use of KRG together with conventional chemo- or immunotherapy may provide better outcomes to cancer patients through MDSC modulation.
An Edible Gintonin Preparation from Ginseng
Choi, Sun-Hye ; Shin, Tae-Joon ; Lee, Byung-Hwan ; Hwang, Sung-Hee ; Kang, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Park, Chan-Woo ; Nah, Seung-Yeol ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 471~478
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.471
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is one of the oldest herbal medicines. It has a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. Recently, we isolated a subset of glycolipoproteins that we designated gintonin, and demonstrated that it induced transient change in intracellular calcium concentration
in cells via G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway(s). The previous method for gintonin isolation included multiple steps using methanol, butanol, and other organic solvents. In the present study, we developed a much simple method for the preparation of gintonin from ginseng root using 80% ethanol extraction. The extracted fraction was designated edible gintonin. This method produced a high yield of gintonin (0.20%). The chemical characteristics of gintonin such as molecular weight and the composition of the extract product were almost identical as the gintonin prepared using the previous extraction regimen involving various organic solvents. We also examined the physiological effects of edible gintonin on endogenous
channel activity of Xenopus oocytes. The 50% effective dose was
/mL. Finally, since gintonin preparation through ethanol extraction is easily reproducible, gintonin could be commercially applied for ginseng-derived functional health food and/or drug following the confirmations of in vitro and in vivo physiological and pharmacological effects of gintonin.
Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice
Sohn, Eun-Hwa ; Jang, Seon-A ; Lee, Chul-Hoon ; Jang, Ki-Hyo ; Kang, Se-Chan ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Pyo, Suhk-Neung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.479
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by chronic eczema and mechanical injury to the skin, caused by scratching. Korean red ginseng (RG) has diverse biological activities, but the molecular effects of RG on allergic diseases, like AD, are unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether RG inhibits 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD in a mouse model. DNCB was applied topically on the dorsal surface of Balb/c mice to induce AD-like skin lesions. We observed the scratching behavior and examined the serum IgE level and interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in splenocytes compared with dexamethasone. We also evaluated the DNCB-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), NF-
, and Ikaros activities after RG treatment using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and ELISA. Our data showed that the topical application of RG significantly improved the AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. RG decreased not only the mRNA expression of IL-4 and IL-10, but also the secretion of IL-4 protein and serum IgE in mice. Additionally, RG treatment decreased the DNCB-induced MAPKs activity and subsequent Ikaros translocation irrespective of NF-
. We suggest that RG may be useful as a therapeutic nutrition for the treatment of AD.
Characterizing a Full Spectrum of Physico-Chemical Properties of Ginsenosides Rb
to Be Proposed as Standard Reference Materials
Kim, Il-Woung ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ; Hwang, Da-Hye ; Her, Youl ; Kim, Si-Kwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 487~496
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.487
Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides
as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside
were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for
and 0.485% for
, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside
were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides
as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.
The Changes of Ginsenoside Patterns in Red Ginseng Processed by Organic Acid Impregnation Pretreatment
Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 497~503
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.497
In order to enhance bioactive functionalities of ginseng, an acid impregnation processing was applied as a pre-treatment in producing red ginseng. Acid impregnation studies were conducted, and acids (ascorbic, malic, and citric acid) were selected. The optimal concentration of each acid was investigated in this study in terms of ginsenoside contents. The most concerned ginsenoside,
was increased by ascorbic, malic, and citric acid pre-treated red ginseng up to 1 M acid concentration. In the case of ascorbic acid pre-treated red ginseng,
concentration was increased depending on acid concentrations. Citric acid pre-treatment enhanced
formation in red ginseng. Therefore, ginsenoside patterns in red ginseng could be changed by acid impregnation pre-treatment depending on acid concentration and acid types. This research is expected to contribute to the development of the ginseng industry via new red ginseng products with selective and intensified functionality.
Rapid Identification of Ginseng Cultivars (Panax ginseng Meyer) Using Novel SNP-Based Probes
Jo, Ick-Hyun ; Bang, Kyong-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Chang ; Lee, Jei-Wan ; Seo, A-Yeon ; Seong, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Cha, Seon-Woo ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Kim, Hong-Sig ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 35, issue 4, 2011, Pages 504~513
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2011.35.4.504
In order to develop a novel system for the discrimination of five ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng Meyer), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays with real-time polymerase chain reaction were conducted. Nucleotide substitution in gDNA library clones of P. ginseng cv. Yunpoong was targeted for the SNP genotyping assay. From these SNP sites, a set of modified SNP specific fluorescence probes (PGP74, PGP110, and PGP130) and novel primer sets have been developed to distinguish among five ginseng cultivars. The combination of the SNP type of the five cultivars, Chungpoong, Yunpoong, Gopoong, Kumpoong, and Sunpoong, was identified as 'ATA', 'GCC', 'GTA', 'GCA', and 'ACC', respectively. This study represents the first report of the identification of ginseng cultivars by fluorescence probes. An SNP genotyping assay using fluorescence probes could prove useful for the identification of ginseng cultivars and ginseng seed management systems and guarantee the purity of ginseng seed.