Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Oct 2012
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jul 2012
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions
Park, Ho-Jae ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Park, Se-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Min ; Ryu, Jong-Hoon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 225~241
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.225
Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions.
Anti-apoptotic Activity of Ginsenoside Rb
in Hydrogen Peroxide-treated Chondrocytes: Stabilization of Mitochondria and the Inhibition of Caspase-3
Na, Ji-Young ; Kim, Sok-Ho ; Song, Ki-Bbeum ; Lim, Kyu-Hee ; Shin, Gee-Wook ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Bum-Seok ; Kwon, Young-Bae ; Kwon, Jung-Kee ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 242~247
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.242
Chondrocyte apoptosis has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen peroxide (
), which produces reactive oxygen species, reportedly induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. The ginsenoside
) is the principal component in ginseng and has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-arthritis, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of G-
on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and caspase-3 activity of chondrocyte apoptosis induced by
. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were exposed to
with or without G-
and assessed for viability, MPT, Bcl-xL/Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. The co-treatment with G-
showed an inhibition of MPT, caspase-3 activity, and cell death. Additionally, the levels of the apoptotic protein Bax were significantly lower and the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were higher compared with
treatment alone. The results of this study demonstrate that G-
protects chondrocytes against
-induced apoptosis, at least in part via the inhibition of MPT and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that G-
is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA patients.
Processed Panax ginseng, Sun Ginseng, Decreases Oxidative Damage Induced by tert-butyl Hydroperoxide via Regulation of Antioxidant Enzyme and Anti-apoptotic Molecules in HepG2 Cells
Lee, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Lee, Seo-Young ; Park, Jeong-Hill ; Hwang, Gwi-Seo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 248~255
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.248
Potential antioxidant effect of processed ginseng (sun ginseng, SG) on oxidative stress generated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was investigated in HepG2 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage test demonstrated that SG dose-dependently prevents a loss of cell viability against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. Also, SG treatment dose-dependently relieved the increment of activities of hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotrasferase and alanine aminotransferase, and lipid peroxidation mediated by t-BHP treatment in HepG2 cells. SG increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, high dose of SG treatment caused decrease in mRNA level of glutathione peroxidase as compared to low dosage of SG-treated cells. The gene expression of glutathione reductase was found to be slightly increased by SG treatment. In addition, SG extract attributed its hepaprotective effect by inducing the mRNA level of bcl-2 and bcl-xL but reducing that of bax. But, the gene expression of bad showed no significant change in SG-treated HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that SG has hepatoprotective effect by showing reduction of LDH release, activities of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation and regulating the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis-related molecules against oxdative stress caused by t-BHP in HepG2 cells.
Chemical and Free Radical-scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenoside Re by Maillard Reaction and Its Possible Use as a Renoprotective Agent
Yamabe, Noriko ; Song, Kyung-Il ; Lee, Woo-Jung ; Han, Im-Ho ; Lee, Ji-Hwan ; Ham, Jung-Yeob ; Kim, Su-Nam ; Park, Jeong-Hill ; Kang, Ki-Sung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 256~262
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.2.256
Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.
Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Downregulates Proinflammatory Mediators in LPS Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Protects Mice against Endotoxic Shock
Yayeh, Taddessee ; Jung, Kun-Ho ; Jeong, Hye-Yoon ; Park, Ji-Hoon ; Song, Yong-Bum ; Kwak, Yi-Seong ; Kang, Heun-Soo ; Cho, Jae-Youl ; Oh, Jae-Wook ; Kim, Sang-Keun ; Rhee, Man-Hee ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 263~269
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.263
Korean red ginseng has shown therapeutic effects for a number of disease conditions. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF) in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we showed that RGSF containing 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type saponins inhibited nitric oxide production and attenuated the release of tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-
, interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, RGSF down-regulated the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxyginase-2, IL-
, GMCSF, and IL-6. Furthermore, RGSF reduced the level of TNF-
in the serum and protected mice against LPS mediated endotoxic shock. In conclusion, these results indicated that ginsenosides from RGSF and their metabolites could be potential sources of therapeutic agents against inflammation.
Protective Effect of Heat-processed Ginseng (Sun Ginseng) in the Adenine-induced Renal Failure Rats
Choi, Hyuck-Jae ; Kim, Eun-Jin ; Shin, Yong-Wook ; Park, Jeong-Hill ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Nam-Jae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 270~276
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.270
The effect of orally administered sun ginseng (SG), which is a ginseng processed by steaming, was examined in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rat. SG significantly decreased both blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, indicating an improvement of renal function. Also, SG significantly increased the urinary excretion of both urea and creatinine. Furthermore it lowered the blood pressure, and inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. Based on these findings, SG may ameliorate chronic renal failures.
UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis for Steaming Times-dependent Profiling of Steamed Panax quinquefolius and Its Ginsenosides Transformations Induced by Repetitious Steaming
Sun, Bai-Shen ; Xu, Ming-Yang ; Li, Zheng ; Wang, Yi-Bo ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 277~290
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.277
The metabolic profiles of Panax quinquefolius and its associated therapeutic values are critically affected by the repetitious steaming times. The times-dependent steaming effect of P. quinquefolius is not well-characterized and there is also no official guideline on its times of steaming. In this paper, a UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was developed for the qualitative profiling of multi-parametric metabolic changes of raw P. quinquefolius during the repetitious steaming process. Our method was successful in discriminating the differentially multi-steamed herbs. Meantime, the repetitious steaming-inducing chemical transformations in the preparation of black American ginseng (American ginseng that was subjected to 9 cycles of steaming treatment) were evaluated by this UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling method. Under the optimized UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS conditions, 29 major ginsenosides were unambiguously identified and/or tentatively assigned in both raw and multi-steamed P. quinquefolius within 19 min, among them 18 ginsenosides were detected to be newly generated during the preparatory process of black American ginseng. The mechanisms involved were further deduced to be hydrolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation and addition reactions of the original ginsenosides in raw P. quinquefolius through analyzing mimic 9 cycles of steaming extracts of 14 pure reference ginsenosides. Our novel steaming times-dependent metabolic profiling approach represents the paradigm shift in the global quality control of multi-steamed P. quinquefolius products.
Enzymatic Transformation of Ginsenoside Rb1 by Lactobacillus pentosus Strain 6105 from Kimchi
Kim, Se-Hwa ; Min, Jin-Woo ; Quan, Lin-Hu ; Lee, Sung-Young ; Yang, Dong-Uk ; Yang, Deok-Chun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 291~297
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.291
Ginsenoside (ginseng saponin), the principal component of ginseng, is responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi using esculin agar, to produce
-glucosidase. We focused on the bio-transformation of ginsenoside. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the 16S rRNA sequences. We identified the strain as Lactobacillus (strain 6105). In order to determine the optimal conditions for enzyme activity, the crude enzyme was incubated with 1 mM ginsenoside Rb1 to catalyse the reaction. A carbon substrate, such as cellobiose, lactose, and sucrose, resulted in the highest yields of
-glucosidase activity. Biotransformations of ginsenoside Rb1 were analyzed using TLC and HPLC. Our results confirmed that the microbial enzyme of strain 6105 significantly transformed ginsenoside as follows: Rb1
gypenoside XVII, Rd
F2 into compound K. Our results indicate that this is the best possible way to obtain specific ginsenosides using microbial enzymes from 6105 culture.
EST-SSR Marker Sets for Practical Authentication of All Nine Registered Ginseng Cultivars in Korea
Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Choi, Hong-Il ; Ahn, In-Ok ; Yang, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 298~307
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.298
Panax ginseng has been cultivated for centuries, and nine commercial cultivars have been registered in Korea. However, these nine elite cultivars are grown in less than 10% of ginseng fields, and there is no clear authentication system for each cultivar even though their values are higher than those of local landraces. Here, we have developed 19 microsatellite markers using expressed gene sequences and established an authentication system for all nine cultivars. Five cultivars, 'Chunpoong', 'Sunpoong', 'Gumpoong', 'Sunun', and 'Sunone', can each be identified by one cultivar-unique allele, gm47n-a, gm47n-c, gm104-a, gm184-a (or gm129-a), and gm175-c, respectively. 'Yunpoong' can be identified by the co-appearance of gm47n-b and gm129-c. 'Sunhyang' can be distinguished from the other eight cultivars by the co-appearance of gm47n-b, gm129-b, and gm175-a. The two other cultivars, 'Gopoong' and 'Cheongsun', can be identified by their specific combinations of five marker alleles. This marker set was successfully utilized to identify the cultivars among 70 ginseng individuals and to select true F1 hybrid plants between two cultivars. We further analyzed the homogeneity of each cultivar and phylogenetic relationships among cultivars using these markers. This marker system will be useful to the seed industry and for breeding of ginseng.
Investigation of Different Factors Affecting the Electron Spin Resomance-based Characterization of Gamma-irradiated Fresh, White, and Red Ginseng
Ahn, Jae-Jun ; Akram, Kashif ; Jo, Deok-Jo ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 308~313
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.308
Fresh (raw roots), white (dried), and red (steamed-drid) ginseng samples were gamma-irradiated at 0 to 7 kGy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to characterize the irradiation status of the samples, targeting the radiation-induced cellulose radicals after different sample pretreatments. All non-irradiated samples exhibited a single central signal (g=2.006), whose intensity showed significant increase upon irradiation. The ESR spectra from the radiation-induced cellulose radicals, with two side peaks (g=2.0201 and g=1.9851) equally spaced (
) from the central signal, were also observed in the irradiated samples. The core sample analyzed after alcoholic-extraction produced the best results for irradiated fresh ginseng samples. In the case of irradiated white and red ginseng samples, the central (natural) and radiation-induced (two-side peaks corresponding to cellulose radical) signal intensities showed little improvement on alcoholic-extraction. The water-washing step minimized the effect of
, but reduced the intensity of side peaks making them difficult to indentify. The effect of different origins was negligible, however harvesting year showed a clear effect on radiation-induced ESR signals.
Morphological Characteristics of Korean Dried Ginseng Products
Hong, Hee-Do ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Choi, Seung-Hoe ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 314~321
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.314
The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products. Samples of 4-year-old 30 and 50 piece grade curved ginseng and 5-year-old 25 and 15 piece grade straight ginseng products were collected from a market, with 5 to 10 packs of each product being collected annually over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Morphological characteristics, such as weight, length, diameter, and surface color, were measured and statistically analyzed to present a standard quality characteristic value using
, a range that excluded outlier. The 4-year-old curved ginseng samples of 50 and 30 piece grade were 4.80 to 6.12 cm and 5.28 to 7.60 cm long, 0.22 to 1.70 cm and 0.21 to 2.07 cm wide, and weighed 5.28 to 7.40 g and 8.62 to 12.26 g, respectively. The 5-year-old straight ginseng samples of 25 and 15 piece grade were 9.66 to 15.47 cm and 10.66 to 16.80 cm long, 1.32 to 1.94 cm and 1.48 to 2.43 cm wide, and weighed 9.18 to 16.40 g and 15.89 to 24.82 g, respectively. The surface color of the different piece grades in the same type of dried ginseng product was similar, whereas the straight ginseng demonstrated a lower level of brightness, but the relative redness and yellowness were of higher levels, than that of curved ginseng.
Characterization of the Variability of Nucleoli in the Cells of Panax ginseng Meyer In Vivo and In Vitro
Khrolenko, Yuliya A. ; Burundukova, Olga L. ; Lauve, Lyudmila S. ; Muzarok, Tamara I. ; Makhan'kov, Vyacheslav V. ; Zhuravlev, Yuri N. ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 322~326
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.322
Results of karyological study of intact plants and some callus lines of Panax ginseng are presented. In the native plants of P. ginseng the nucleus with 1 nucleolus (90%) dominate, and nucleus with 2 nucleoli is rare. One nucleolar nucleus also dominate in interphase nuclei of cells of cultivated P. ginseng (from 2006), but we also found nucleus with 2 to 3 nucleoli in the same cell lines. Interphase nuclei of P. ginseng in long cultivated lines (from 1988) contain 1 to 9 nucleoli, with a predominance of nuclei containing from 3 to 4 nucleoli. It was shown that long-time cells (cultivated since 1988) had cytogenetic changes such as increase level of polyploid and aneuploid cells, increase of nucleoli number into interphase nucleus and decrease of nuclei/nucleoli ratio. These long-time cultivated cells had very low ginsenoside content.
Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea
Park, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Chang ; Park, Sang-Un ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Kim, Joon-Bum ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Bae, Han-Hong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2012, Pages 327~333
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.3.327
Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-years old were colonized by 2, 6, 8, and 5 species of fungal endophytes, respectively. While Phoma radicina was the most frequent fungal endophyte in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, Fusarium solani was the dominant endophyte in 1-year-old ginseng roots. The colonization frequencies (CF) varied with the host age. The CF were 12%, 40%, 31%, and 40% for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, respectively. We found a variety of fungal endophytes that were distributed depending on the age of ginseng plants.