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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Oct 2013
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jul 2013
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)
Baeg, In-Ho ; So, Seung-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.1
Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously.
A comprehensive review of the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides in central nervous system
Kim, Hee Jin ; Kim, Pitna ; Shin, Chan Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 8~29
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.8
Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines in human. Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are most widely investigated diseases among all others in respect to the ginseng's therapeutic effects. These include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, depression, and many other neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only the various types of diseases but also the diverse array of target pathways or molecules ginseng exerts its effect on. These range, for example, from neuroprotection to the regulation of synaptic plasticity and from regulation of neuroinflammatory processes to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, too many to mention. In general, ginseng and even a single compound of ginsenoside produce its effects on multiple sites of action, which make it an ideal candidate to develop multi-target drugs. This is most important in CNS diseases where multiple of etiological and pathological targets working together to regulate the final pathophysiology of diseases. In this review, we tried to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on neurodegenerative and other neurological diseases. Side by side comparison of the therapeutic effects in various neurological disorders may widen our understanding of the therapeutic potential of ginseng in CNS diseases and the possibility to develop not only symptomatic drugs but also disease modifying reagents based on ginseng.
Ginseng for managing menopause symptoms: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Kim, Myung-Sunny ; Lim, Hyun-Ja ; Yang, Hye Jeong ; Lee, Myeong Soo ; Shin, Byung-Cheul ; Ernst, Edzard ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.30
The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ginseng as a treatment option for managing menopause symptoms. We searched the literature using ll databases from their inception to 26 September 2012 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of ginseng to a placebo controls in postmenopausal women. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a Cochrane risk of bias tool. Four RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most RCTs had high risk of bias. One RCT showed that Korean red ginseng (KRG) significantly improved sexual arousal and global health compared with placebo. Another RCT reported the superiority of KRG over placebo for treating menopause symptoms on Kupperman's index and menopausal rating score. The third RCT failed to show a significant effect of KRG on hot flash frequency compared to placebo. The fourth RCT found beneficial effects of ginseng compared to placebo on depression and well-being. In conclusion, the evidence on ginseng as an effective treatment for managing menopause symptoms is limited. Most of the RCTs are burdened with a high risk of bias. Thus firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Rigorous studies seem warranted.
Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats
Park, Sook Jahr ; Lee, Jong Rok ; Jo, Mi Jeong ; Park, Sang Mi ; Ku, Sae Kwang ; Kim, Sang Chan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.37
Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously injected with cadmium (
, 4 mg/kg) to induce acute hepatotoxicity. Cadmium caused the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. In contrast, pretreatment with RGE significantly reduced those serum indexes related with liver damage. In histopathological analysis, RGE decreased the centrilobular necrosis around central veins and the peripheral hemorrhage around portal triads. Moreover, RGE restored the deficit in hepatic glutathione level resulting from cadmium treatment. RGE also inhibited the increase in the expression of Bad, a representative apoptosis marker protein, induced by cadmium treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that RGE can reduce the cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity, partly via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic process.
Red ginseng extract protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis
Ki, Sung Hwan ; Yang, Ji Hye ; Ku, Sae Kwang ; Kim, Sang Chan ; Kim, Young Woo ; Cho, Il Je ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.45
Korean red ginseng, the processed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has been frequently used for various therapeutic purposes in oriental medicine. The present study investigated the possible effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) for the treatment of liver fibrosis in mice injected with carbon tetrachloride (
) for 4 wk. Liver injuries were assessed by blood biochemistry and histopathology in mice treated with
+ RGE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg). Concomitant treatment with RGE and
(three times/wk for 4 wk) effectively inhibited liver fibrosis as evidenced by decreases in plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, as well as by the percentages of degenerative regions, numbers of degenerative hepatocytes, and collagen accumulation in hepatic parenchyma. Treatment with
for 4 wk increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor
and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in fibrogenic liver, whereas RGE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the induction of fibrogenic genes by
. Similarly, RGE also prevented transforming growth factor
-mediated induction of fibrogenic genes in human hepatic stellate cell lines. More importantly, RGE markedly reduced the number of
-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in liver tissue. This study implies that RGE efficaciously protects against the liver fibrosis induced by chronic
treatment, and may therefore have potential to treat liver disease.
Ginsenoside Rd inhibits the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse liver
Kim, Dae Hyun ; Chung, Jae Heun ; Yoon, Ji Sung ; Ha, Young Mi ; Bae, Sungjin ; Lee, Eun Kyeong ; Jung, Kyung Jin ; Kim, Min Sun ; Kim, You Jung ; Kim, Mi Kyung ; Chung, Hae Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 54~63
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.54
Ginsenoside Rd is a primary constituent of the ginseng rhizome and has been shown to participate in the regulation of diabetes and in tumor formation. Reports also show that ginsenoside Rd exerts anti-oxidative effects by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Treatment with ginsenoside Rd decreased nitric oxide and prostaglandin
) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 cells and in ICR mouse livers (5 mg/kg LPS; LPS + ginsenoside Rd [2, 10, and 50 mg/kg]). Furthermore, these decreases were associated with the down-regulations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of nuclear factor (NF)-
activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rd treatment decreases; 1) nitric oxide production (40% inhibition); 2)
synthesis (69% to 93% inhibition); 3) NF-
activity; and 4) the NF-
-regulated expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Taken together, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rd are due to the down-regulation of NF-
and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2.
Korean red ginseng inhibits arginase and contributes to endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation through endothelial nitric oxide synthase coupling
Shin, Woosung ; Yoon, Jeongyeon ; Oh, Goo Taeg ; Ryoo, Sungwoo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 64~73
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.64
Korean red ginseng water extract (KG-WE) has known beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system via inducting nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelium. Endothelial arginase inhibits the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by substrate depletion, thereby reducing NO bioavailability and contributing to vascular diseases including hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that KG-WE inhibits arginase activity and negatively regulates NO production and reactive oxygen species generation in endothelium. This is associated with increased dimerization of eNOS without affecting the protein expression levels of either arginase or eNOS. In a vascular tension assay, when aortas isolated from wild type mice were incubated with KG-WE, NO-dependent enhanced vasorelaxation was observed. Furthermore, KG-WE administered via by drinking water to atherogenic model mice being fed high cholesterol diet improved impaired vascular function. Taken together, these results suggest that KG-WE may exert vasoprotective effects through augmentation of NO signaling by inhibiting arginase. Therefore, KG-WE may be useful in the treatment of vascular diseases derived from endothelial dysfunction, such as atherosclerosis.
Oleanane-triterpenoids from Panax stipuleanatus inhibit NF-κB
Liang, Chun ; Ding, Yan ; Song, Seok Bean ; Kim, Jeong Ah ; Nguyen, Manh Cuong ; Ma, Jin Yeul ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 74~79
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.74
In continuation of our research to find biological components from Panax stipuleanatus, four oleanane-type triterpenes (12 to 15) were isolated successively. Fifteen oleanane-type saponins (1 to 15) were evaluated for nuclear factor (NF)-
activity using a luciferase reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells. Compounds 6 to 11 inhibited NF-
values between 3.1 to 18.9
. The effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by compounds 8, 10, and 11 were also examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Three compounds (8, 10, and 11) inhibited NF-
activity by reducing the concentration of inflammatory factors in HepG2 cells.
Protective effect of ginsenoside-Rb2 from Korean red ginseng on the lethal infection of haemagglutinating virus of Japan in mice
Yoo, Yung Choon ; Lee, Junglim ; Park, Seok Rae ; Nam, Ki Yeul ; Cho, Young Ho ; Choi, Jae Eul ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 80~86
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.80
Korean red ginseng has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. However, little is known about antiviral activity of ginsenosides of Korean red ginseng. Here, we investigated the protective effect by oral administration of various ginsenosides on the lethal infection of haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) in mice. In a lethal infection model in which almost all mice infected with HVJ died within 15 days, the mice were administered orally (per os) with 1 mg/mouse of dammarane-type (ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rb2, -Rd, -Re, and -Rg2) or oleanolic acid-type (ginsenoside-Ro) ginsenosides 3, 2, and 1 d before virus infection. Ginsenoside-Rb2 showed the highest protective activity, although other dammarane-type and oleanolic acid-type ginsenosides also induced a significant protection against HVJ. However, neither the consecutive administration with a lower dosage (300
/mouse) nor the single administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 (1 mg/mouse) was active. In comparison of the protective activity between ginsenoside-Rb2 and its two hydrolytic products [20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3], 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, but not 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3, elicited a partial protection against HVJ. The protective effect of ginsenoside-Rb2 and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3 on HVJ infection was confirmed by the reduction of virus titers in the lungs of HVJ-infected mice. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rb2 is the most effective among ginsenosides from red ginseng to prevent the lethal infection of HVJ, so that this ginsenoside is a promising candidate as a mucosal immunoadjuvant to enhance antiviral activity.
Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats
Kim, Eun Jin ; Oh, Hyun-A ; Choi, Hyuck Jai ; Park, Jeong Hill ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Nam Jae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 87~93
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.87
To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin reduced serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased by adenine. Based on these findings, the ameliorating effect of SG on chronic renal failure may result from its saponin.
Ginseng total saponin modulates podocyte p130Cas in diabetic condition
Ha, Tae-Sun ; Lee, Jin-Seok ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Park, Hye-Young ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 94~99
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.94
Proteinuric conditions demonstrate structural and compositional changes of the foot processes and slit diaphragms between podocytes. p130Cas in podocytes serves as an adapter protein anchoring glomerular basement membrane to actin filaments of podocyte cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte p130Cas induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under: 1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); 2) high glucose (HG, 30 mM); 3) advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE)-added; or 4) HG plus AGE-added conditions and treated with GTS. In confocal imaging, p130Cas colocalized with zonula occludens-1 and synaptopodin connecting to F-actin. However, diabetic conditions relocalized p130Cas molecules at perinuclear cytoplasmic area and reduced the intensity of p130Cas. In Western blotting, diabetic conditions, especially HG plus AGE-added condition, decreased cellular p130Cas protein levels at 24 and 48 h. GTS improved such quantitative and qualitative changes. These findings imply that HG and AGE have an influence on the redistribution and amount of p130Cas of podocytes, which can be reversed by GTS.
Effects of fermented ginseng on memory impairment and β-amyloid reduction in Alzheimer's disease experimental models
Kim, Joonki ; Kim, Sung Hun ; Lee, Deuk-Sik ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Chung, Sungkwon ; Yang, Hyun Ok ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 100~107
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.100
This study examined the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) on memory impairment and
) reduction in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vitro and in vivo. FG extract was prepared by steaming and fermenting ginseng. In vitro assessment measured soluble
levels in HeLa cells, which stably express the Swedish mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. After 8 h incubation with the FG extract, the level of soluble
was reduced. For behavioral assessments, the passive avoidance test was used for the scopolamine-injected ICR mouse model, and the Morris water maze was used for a transgenic (TG) mouse model, which exhibits impaired memory function and increased
level in the brain. FG extract was treated for 2 wk or 4 mo on ICR and TG mice, respectively. FG extract treatment resulted in a significant recovery of memory function in both animal models. Brain soluble
levels measured from the cerebral cortex of TG mice were significantly reduced by the FG extract treatment. These findings suggest that FG extract can protect the brain from increased levels of
protein, which results in enhanced behavioral memory function, thus, suggesting that FG extract may be an effective preventive or treatment for AD.
The bioavailability of red ginseng extract fermented by Phellinus linteus
Ryu, Jae Sik ; Lee, Hyun Jung ; Bae, Song Hwan ; Kim, Sun Young ; Park, Yooheon ; Suh, Hyung Joo ; Jeong, Yoon Hwa ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 108~116
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.108
For the improvement of ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng by Phellinus linteus (FRG) were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The polyphenol content of FRG (
mg/g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with that of non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG,
mg/g). The antioxidant activities in FRG, such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in NFRG. The HPLC analysis results showed that the FRG had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in NFRG and FRG were
mg/g, respectively. However, FRG had a significantly higher content (
mg/g) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared with NFRG (
mg/g). The skin permeability of FRG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cell models. In particular, after 3 h, the skin permeability of FRG was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of NFRG. Using a rat everted intestinal sac model, FRG showed a high transport level compared with NFRG after 1 h. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared with NFRG as indicated by skin permeation and intestinal permeability. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites).
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from fresh ginseng
Kim, Jae-Joon ; Kim, Woo-Yeon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.117
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was purified from fresh ginseng roots using acetone precipitation, carboxymethyl (CM)-Sepharose chromatography, and phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. Two isoenzymes (PPO 1 and PPO 2) were separated using an ion-exchange column with CM-Sepharose. PPO 1 was purified up to 13.2-fold with a 22.6% yield. PPO 2 bound to CM-Sepharose, eluted with NaCl, and was purified up to 22.5-fold with a 17.4% yield. PPO 2 was further chromatographed on phenyl-Sepharose. The molecular weight of the purified PPO 2 from fresh ginseng was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was about 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were
and 7.0, respectively, using catechol as a substrate. Pyrogallol showed the highest substrate specificity. The effect of a PPO inhibitor showed that its activity increased slightly in the presence of a low concentration of citric acid. High concentrations of acidic compounds and sulfite agents significantly inhibited purified ginseng PPO 2.
Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of (20S)-and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 to be proposed as standard reference materials
Kim, Il-Woung ; Sun, Won Suk ; Yun, Bong-Sik ; Kim, Na-Ri ; Min, Dongsun ; Kim, Si-Kwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 124~134
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.124
The authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides reference materials as well as qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures is a prerequisite for certifying good manufacturing practice (GMP). Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, representing protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides, respectively, are accepted as marker substances in quality control standards worldwide. However, the current analytical methods for these two compounds recommended by Korean, Chinese, European, and Japanese pharmacopoeia do not apply to red ginseng preparations, particularly the extract, because of the relatively low content of the two agents in red ginseng compared to white ginseng. In manufacturing fresh ginseng into red ginseng products, ginseng roots are exposed to a high temperature for many hours, and the naturally occurring ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 are converted to artifact ginsenosides such as Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, and Rh2 during the heating process. The analysis of ginsenosides in commercially available ginseng products in Korea led us to propose the inclusion of the (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3, including ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, as additional reference materials for ginseng preparations. (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of those isolated ginsenosides was achieved according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantification, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides showed 100% purity when determined by the three HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.534% for (20S)-Rg3 and 0.920% for (20R)-Rg3, meaning that the net mass balances for (20S)-Rg3 and (20R)-Rg3 were 99.466% and 99.080%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.
Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determination of compound K in human plasma and clinical application
Kim, Jung Soo ; Kim, Yunjeong ; Han, Song-Hee ; Jeon, Ji-Young ; Hwang, Minho ; Im, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Jung Hyun ; Lee, Sun Young ; Chae, Soo-Wan ; Kim, Min-Gul ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 1, 2013, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.135
A rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of compound K, a major intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginsenosides in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation and analysis, followed by liquid chromatography tandem spectrometric analysis and an electrospray-ionization interface. Compound K was analyzed on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (
) with the mobile phase run isocratically with 10 mM ammonium acetate-methanol-acetonitrile (5:47.5:47.5, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method was validated for accuracy (relative error <12.63%), precision (coefficient of variation <9.14%), linearity, and recovery. The assay was linear over the entire range of calibration standards i.e., a concentration range of 1 ng/mL to 1,000 ng/mL (
>0.9968). The recoveries of compound K after liquid-liquid extraction at 1, 2, 400, and 800 ng/mL were
for intra-day and
for inter-day, respectively. The lower limit of quantification of the analytical method of compound K was 1 ng/mL in human plasma. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of compound K after oral administration in ten of healthy human subjects.