Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Oct 2013
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jul 2013
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Heat-processed Panax ginseng and diabetic renal damage: active components and action mechanism
Kang, Ki Sung ; Ham, Jungyeob ; Kim, Young-Joo ; Park, Jeong Hill ; Cho, Eun-Ju ; Yamabe, Noriko ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 379~388
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.379
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the serious complications in patients with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus but current treatments remain unsatisfactory. Results of clinical research studies demonstrate that Panax ginseng can help adjust blood pressure and reduce blood sugar and may be advantageous in the treatment of tuberculosis and kidney damage in people with diabetes. The heat-processing method to strengthen the efficacy of P. ginseng has been well-defined based on a long history of ethnopharmacological evidence. The protective effects of P. ginseng on pathological conditions and renal damage associated with diabetic nephropathy in the animal models were markedly improved by heat-processing. The concentrations of less-polar ginsenosides (20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1) and maltol in P. ginseng were significantly increased in a heat-processing temperature-dependent manner. Based on researches in animal models of diabetes, ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol were evaluated to have therapeutic potential against diabetic renal damage. These effects were achieved through the inhibition of inflammatory pathway activated by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. These findings indicate that ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 and maltol are important bioactive constituents of heat-processed ginseng in the control of pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.
Inhibitory effect of Korean Red Ginseng on melanocyte proliferation and its possible implication in GM-CSF mediated signaling
Oh, Chang Taek ; Park, Jong Il ; Jung, Yi Ra ; Joo, Yeon Ah ; Shin, Dong Ha ; Cho, Hyoung Joo ; Ahn, Soo Mi ; Lim, Young-Ho ; Park, Chae Kyu ; Hwang, Jae Sung ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 389~400
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.389
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been reported to exert anticancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report on the effect of KRG on skin pigmentation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of KRG on melanocyte proliferation. KRG extract (KRGE) at different concentrations had no effect on melanin synthesis in melan-A melanocytes. Saponin of KRG (SKRG) inhibited melanin content to 80% of the control at 100 ppm. Keratinocyte-derived factors induced by UV-irradiation were reported to stimulate melanogenesis, differentiation, proliferation, and dendrite formation. In this study, treatment of melan-A melanocytes with conditioned media from UV-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes increased melanocyte proliferation. When UV-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes were treated with KRGE or SKRG, the increase of melanocyte proliferation by the conditioned media was blocked. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was produced and released from UV-irradiated keratinocytes. This factor has been reported to be involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal melanocytes. In this study, GM-CSF was significantly increased in SP-1 keratinocytes by UVB irradiation (
), and the proliferation of melan-A melanocytes increased significantly by GM-CSF treatment. In addition, the proliferative effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media on melan-A melanocytes was blocked by anti-GM-CSF treatment. KRGE or SKRG treatment decreased the expression of GM-CSF in SP-1 keratinocytes induced by UVB irradiation. These results demonstrate that UV irradiation induced GM-CSF expression in keratinocytes and KRGE or SKRG inhibited its expression. Therefore, KRG could be a good candidate for regulating UV-induced melanocyte proliferation.
Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in cultured rat primary astrocytes
Ko, Hyun Myung ; Joo, So Hyun ; Kim, Pitna ; Park, Jin Hee ; Kim, Hee Jin ; Bahn, Geon Ho ; Kim, Hahn Young ; Lee, Jongmin ; Han, Seol-Heui ; Shin, Chan Young ; Park, Seung Hwa ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 401~412
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.401
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an oriental herbal preparation obtained from Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae). To expand our understanding of the action of KRG on central nervous system (CNS) function, we examined the effects of KRG on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in rat primary astrocytes. KRG extract was treated in cultured rat primary astrocytes and neuron in a concentration range of 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL and the expression of functional tPA/PAI-1 was examined by casein zymography, Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. KRG extracts increased PAI-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes in a concentration dependent manner (0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL) without affecting the expression of tPA itself. Treatment of 1.0 mg/mL KRG increased PAI-1 protein expression in rat primary astrocytes to
as compared with control. The increased PAI-1 expression mediated the overall decrease in tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Due to the lack of PAI-1 expression in neuron, KRG did not affect tPA activity in neuron. KRG treatment induced a concentration dependent activation of PI3K, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK in rat primary astrocytes and treatment of PI3K or MAPK inhibitors such as LY294002, U0126, SB203580, and SP600125 (10
each), significantly inhibited 1.0 mg/mL KRG-induced expression of PAI-1 and down-regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Furthermore, compound K but not other ginsenosides such as Rb1 and Rg1 induced PAI-1 expression. KRG-induced up-regulation of PAI-1 in astrocytes may play important role in the regulation of overall tPA activity in brain, which might underlie some of the beneficial effects of KRG on CNS such as neuroprotection in ischemia and brain damaging condition as well as prevention or recovery from addiction.
Korean Red Ginseng protects endothelial cells from serum-deprived apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family protein dynamics and caspase S-nitrosylation
Kim, Young-Mi ; Kim, Jung Hwan ; Kwon, Hyuk Min ; Lee, Dong Heon ; Won, Moo-Ho ; Kwon, Young-Guen ; Kim, Young-Myeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 413~424
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.413
Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) is a traditional herbal medicine utilized to prevent endothelium dysfunction in the cardiovascular system; however, its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. We here examined the pharmacological effect and molecular mechanism of KRGE on apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a serum-deprived apoptosis model. KRGE protected HUVECs from serum-deprived apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9/-3 activation. This protective effect was significantly higher than that of American ginseng extract. KRGE treatment increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-
protein expression and Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, KRGE prevented serum deprivation-induced subcellular redistribution of these proteins between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, resulting in suppression of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. In addition, KRGE increased nitric oxide (NO) production via Akt-dependent activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), as well as inhibited caspase-9/-3 activities. These increases were reversed by co-treatment of cells with inhibitors of eNOS and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and pre-incubation of cell lysates in dithiothreitol, indicating KRGE induces NO-mediated caspase modification. Indeed, KRGE inhibited caspase-3 activity via S-nitrosylation. These findings suggest that KRGE prevents serum deprivation-induced HUVEC apoptosis via increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-
protein expression, PI3K/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation, and eNOS/NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of caspases. The cytoprotective property of KRGE may be valuable for developing new pharmaceutical means that limit endothelial cell death induced during the pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
Enzyme-processed Korean Red Ginseng extracts protects against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in hairless mice
Hwang, Eunson ; Sun, Zheng-Wang ; Lee, Taek Hwan ; Shin, Heon-Sub ; Park, Sang-Yong ; Lee, Don-Gil ; Cho, Byung-Goo ; Sohn, Hyunjoo ; Kwon, Oh Wook ; Kim, Sun Yeou ; Yi, Tae Hoo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 425~434
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.425
UV irradiation is the main factor contributing to skin damages that are associated with an excessive production of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and a deficient expression of collagens. To date, red ginseng has been revealed to possess many biomedical effects, such as anti-aging, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammatory. In this study, we prepared the Korean Red Ginseng extracts treated with enzyme (KRGE) and investigated the effects of dietary KRGE on the formation of wrinkles generated by UVB irradiation in hairless mice. It was found that KRGE inhibited the UVB-induced formation of wrinkles, epidermal thickness, and skin dryness in hairless mice. Further results also showed that KRGE attenuated UVB-induced MMP-
1 level, while accelerated procollagen type I, transforming growth factor-
1 secretion. Interestingly, the expression of profilaggrin and filaggrin in both the epidermis and dermis were decreased due to UVB exposure and reversed by KRGE. The KRGE 0.06% was prior to KRGE 0.24%. In view of these results, which indicated that KRGE protected skin from UVB-induced photodamages, which may not only mediated by regulating of MMP-1 and procollagen type I, but also by increasing the production of profilaggrin and filaggrin. In conclusion, our results suggest that KRGE may be a promising agent for the treatment of skin photodamages. The challenge of KRGE will be expected as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals in order to intervene in aging-related degenerative skin changes.
Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice
Lee, Jin-Hee ; Lee, Hae-June ; Yang, Miyoung ; Moon, Changjong ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Bae, Chun-Sik ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Jang, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 435~441
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.435
This study investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham and irradiation (3 Gy, gamma-ray) groups. The irradiated mice were treated for 12 wk with vehicle, KRG (per os, p.o.) or KRG (intraperitoneal). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, estradiol level, and biomechanical properties were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of KRG (p.o., 250 mg/kg of body weight/d) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, structure model index, and bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. Serum ALP level was slightly reduced by KRG treatment. However, grip strength, mechanical property, and cortical bone architecture did not differ among the experimental groups. The results indicate that KRG can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.
A comparison of antioxidant activity of Korean White and Red Ginsengs on H
-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 hepatoma cells
Sohn, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Si-Kwan ; Kim, Young-Ock ; Kim, Hyung-Don ; Shin, Yu-Su ; Yang, Seung-Ok ; Kim, Seung-Yu ; Lee, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 442~450
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.442
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the preventive effect of Korean White Ginseng and Red Ginseng on oxidative stress in
-treated HepG2 cells. The roots of ginseng were extracted with 70% methanol and partitioned with butanol to obtain saponin fractions, which have been known as bioactive constituents of ginseng. 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured for evaluating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, mRNA expressions and activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed to determine the antioxidant activity of saponin or non-saponin fractions of ginsengs. According to DCF-DA assay,
-induced MDA release and ROS generation were significantly reduced by treatment with saponin fractions of white and red ginseng roots. Also, saponin fractions increased effectively intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in
-treated HepG2 hepatoma cells. In general, red ginseng was more effective than white ginseng for reducing oxidative stress. These results indicate that administration of red ginseng may certainly contribute relatively stronger than white ginseng to prevent from damaging liver function by oxidative stress.
Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolite compound K after oral administration of Korean Red Ginseng extract
Kim, Hyung-Ki ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 451~456
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.451
Compound K is a major metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, which has various pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. However, previous studies have focused on the pharmacokinetics of a single metabolite or the parent compound and have not described the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in humans. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K, we performed an open-label, single-oral dose pharmacokinetic study using Korean Red Ginseng extract. We enrolled 10 healthy Korean male volunteers in this study. Serial blood samples were collected during 36 h after Korean Red Ginseng extract administration to determine plasma concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K. The mean maximum plasma concentration of compound K was
ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that of ginsenoside Rb1 (
ng/mL). The half-life of compound K was 7 times shorter than that of ginsenoside Rb1. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics, especially absorption, of compound K are not influenced by the pharmacokinetics of its parent compound, except the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration The delayed absorption of compound K support the evidence that the intestinal microflora play an important role in the transformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K.
Simultaneous determination of 30 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng preparations using ultra performance liquid chromatography
Park, Hee-Won ; In, Gyo ; Han, Sung-Tai ; Lee, Myoung-Woo ; Kim, So-Young ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Cho, Byung-Goo ; Han, Gyeong-Ho ; Chang, Il-Moo ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 457~467
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.457
A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides.
Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods
Lee, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Cho, Chang-Won ; Choi, Sang-Yoon ; In, Gyo ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 468~474
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.468
Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and
was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at
for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that
-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g.
A new validated analytical method for the quality control of red ginseng products
Kim, Il-Woung ; Cha, Kyu-Min ; Wee, Jae Joon ; Ye, Michael B. ; Kim, Si-Kwan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 475~482
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.475
The main active components of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 are accepted as marker substances for quality control worldwide. The analytical methods currently used to detect these two compounds unfairly penalize steamed and dried (red) P. ginseng preparations, because it has a lower content of those ginsenosides than white ginseng. To manufacture red ginseng products from fresh ginseng, the ginseng roots are exposed to high temperatures for many hours. This heating process converts the naturally occurring ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 into artifact ginsenosides such as ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, and Rh2, among others. This study highlights the absurdity of the current analytical practice by investigating the time-dependent changes in the crude saponin and the major natural and artifact ginsenosides contents during simmering. The results lead us to recommend (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 as new reference materials to complement the current P. ginseng preparation reference materials ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. An attempt has also been made to establish validated qualitative and quantitative analytical procedures for these four compounds that meet International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for specificity, linearity, range, accuracy, precision, detection limit, quantitation limit, robustness and system suitability. Based on these results, we suggest a validated analytical procedure which conforms to ICH guidelines and equally values the contents of ginsenosides in white and red ginseng preparations.
Luminescence properties and compositions of contaminating inorganic minerals separated from gamma-irradiated fresh and white ginsengs from different areas
Ahn, Jae-Jun ; Akram, Kashif ; Jeong, Mi-Seon ; Kwak, Ji-Young ; Park, Eun-Joo ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 483~490
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.483
Gamma-irradiation (0-7 kGy) of ginseng is permitted in Korea for the purpose of microbial decontamination; with strict labeling, traceability and monitoring requirements. An identification study was conducted to determine the photostimulated-luminescence (PSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of gamma-irradiated fresh and white ginsengs cultivated in different areas. Dose- dependent PSL-based screening was possible for white ginseng samples; however, inappropriate results from non-irradiated fresh ginseng samples were obtained, showing intermediate (700 to 5,000) or positive (
>5,000, irradiated) PSL counts due to the abundance of minerals on the surfaces of the samples. TL analysis of separated minerals from all non-irradiated samples gave TL glow curves of low intensity with a maximum peak after
. However, well-defined irradiation-specific (high intensity with a maximum peak at about
) glow curves were observed for all the irradiated samples, regardless of their type and origins. TL ratios (first glow curve /second glow curve) were also determined to confirm the irradiated (>0.1) and non-irradiated (<0.1) results. SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) spectroscopic analyses showed that feldspar and quartz minerals were the main source for the typical radiation-specific luminescence properties.
Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng
Beon, Mu Sup ; Park, Jun Ho ; Kang, Hag Mo ; Cho, Sung Jong ; Kim, Hyun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 37, issue 4, 2013, Pages 491~495
DOI : 10.5142/jgr.2013.37.491
Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.