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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1980
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1980
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Production of Ginseng Extracts 1. Production of extracts from fresh ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 1~7
In order to establish effective extracting method of ginseng extracts from fresh ginseng, the yield, chemical composition, physical properties and organoleptic quality of the extracts, which are extracted with various concentrations of ethanol, were investigated. The results are as follows : 1. The yield of the extracts was increased with decreasing the concentration of ethanol as solvent. As in case of water as a solvents, the highest yield was achieved when 23.64% of water was used. The yield were 12.3% and 9.05%, when 70% and 90% of ethanol were used, respectively lively. 2. Crude protein content is the highest level and nitrogen·free extracts content is the lowest at the concentration of 50% ethanol. Lipid was increased linerly while ash was decreased as increment of ethanol concentration. 3. Viscosity and residue of the extracts also decreased in accordance with the increament of ethanol concentration and the transmittance value and pH of extract solutions were almost similar except transmittance value of the water extracts. 4. The extracts extracted with 70% ethanol gave the best result of sensory test. The total sensory test score of each extracts (70%, 90%, 50%, 0% and 30%) were 70, 65, 50, 46 and 41, respectively.
A study on talc Production of Ginseng Extracts 2. Production of extracts from tail ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 8~14
In order to establish effective production o( ginseng extracts from tail ginseng, the tail ginseng was soaked in the different concentration and the amount of ethanol, and iii course of the time and duration of the extraction. The yield of ginseng extract, proximate chemical components and its saponin pattern were investigated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The amount of tail ginseng extracts decreased in accordance with the increment of ethanol concentration. The yield of the extracts were 50.86%, 44.42%, 37.82%, 35.52% and 33.42% extracted by water.30%. 50%, 70%, and 90% ethanol, respectively. 2. The reasonable proportion of tail ginseng and solvent (35% ethanol) u·as 1 : 4 (42.68%)∼1 : 6 (45.92%) 3. The yield of tail ginseng extract increased according to the extraction time, but it was the most suitable that the tail ginseng extracted for 5 hour (43.32%)∼10 hour (45.60%). 4. The chemical composition and viscosity of tail ginseng extract was decreased but it's transmittance was increased, and the saponin pattern of T.L.C. showed same tendency in the course of extraction time.
Effect of Cultivation under Forest on thc Growth and Quality of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
Nam, Gi-Yeol ; Son, Seok-Ryong ; Bae, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 16~30
In order to increase the production of ginseng, a cultural experiment was carried out under different types of natural forest condition. Seedlings were transplanted with three spacing (70,90 and plants per 1.62m2) under the broad leaved, needle and mixed forest. The obtained results are as follows. 1 Growth of aerial part of ginseng plant. 1) Vegetative growth under forest condition of very poor as compared with ordinary cultivation, but there was no significant in number of leaf and teasel. 2) Stem diameter and stem length under the different forest types were a little difference. However petiole length and number of leafet showed an increasing trend in broad leaved forest as compared with other forest types. 3) The withering date of aerial part of ginseng plant in the needle forest was later than of others. 2. Fresh weight of ginseng root per plant was decreasing in the order of broad leaved forest, needle and mixed forest, needle and sized forest respectively. However the root weight was much smaller than that of ordinary cultivated one. 3. No big difference was observed in the growth of both aerial and root among the planting density 4. Nitrogen content in ginseng root under forest was lower, but calcium content In root was higher than that of ordinary one. 5. Fat and fiber content of ginseng root under forest showed higher than that of ordinary one. 6. The saponin content of ginseng root grown under forest condition was higher than that of ordinary ginseng root. According to high performance liquid chromatogram of saponin, only difference from ordinary cultivated ginseng root was that ginsenoside Re showed higher peak than ginsenoside Rg1.
Thc Euect of Ginseng Extracts on the Enzyme Activity in the Liver of Swiss Mice
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 31~39
This study was prepared to observe some enzyme activities in the liver of mice treated with extracts of Ginseng anticancer compound, separated from the petroleum ether extracts by silicic acid chromatography, has the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. Swiss mice, 72 heads were used (or this experiment and they were divdied into control, test group I and test group If, that test group I was injected crude extract and test group II was injected anticancer compound, while the control group was injected 0.9% NaCl solution. The injections were carried out 1,2,4 and 8 times once a day for 1-8 day, respectively. The liver was removed carefully from the mice at 24 hours after drugs injected, and homogenized at 4
for enzyme study. The activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT) were determined by Reitmen and Frankel method and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity was determined by Wroblewski methods in vitro. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The GOT activity was increased 26%, crude extract and 16%, anticancer compound than those of control at 1st injected groups and decreased gradually according to increase of injection time, at 8th injected groups, the GOT activity was decresed by 16%, crude extract and 12%, anticancer compound. 2. The GPT activity was not changed significantly at 1st and 2nd injected groups, but, at 4th injected groups, the GPT activity was decreased 20%, crude extract and 14%, anticancer compound. While the GPT activity was recovered to normal value at 8th injected groups. 3. At 1st injected groups, the LDH activity was increased 17%, anticancer compound, while those of crude extract was shown normal value. At 2nd injected groups, the LDH activity increased 35yo:, crude extract while those of anticancer compound was showed normal value. And the LOH activity was recovered gradually at 4th and 8th injected groups.
A Study on talc Growth Ratc and Bloo4 Glucose of Rats by Feeding of Diet Supplemented with Ginseng Powder
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 40~48
This study was to investigate the feeding effects of diet supplemented with 2% ginseng powder on the growth rate and the blood glucose of rats. The Albino rats (48 heads), weighing 98 to 105g, were divided into two different diet groups, which were subdivided into six subgroups for insulin and epinephrine treatment. They were 1) Co group as control, 2) CG group as control group contained 2% ginseng powder, 3) Io group fed on the diet of Co group and treated with insulin, 4) IG group fed on the diet of CG group and treated with insulin, 5) Eo group fed on the diet of Co group and treated with epinephrine, and 6) EG group fed on the diet of CG group and treated with epinephrine. Each animal group was maintained with the corresponding diet for 27 days, and then they were sacrificed. The growth rate of rats and the diet consumption and efficiency ratio of food and protein were determined during the feeding period. After sacrificing of the animals, the weight of some organs and the blood glucose were analyzed. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The gained body weights of the dietary group supplemented with 2% ginseng powder(CG) were less increased in comparison to the corresponding control group(Co). Those of IG were significantly higher than those of to (p<0.01). Those of EG were significantly lower than those of Eo group (p<0.01). 2. It was found that the variations of the efficiency ratio of food and protein showed the similarity in those of the growth of each group. 3. The final weights of liver kidney spleen. and heart were not significantly different between Co and CG. The weights of the liver, kidney, and heart of IG were significantly greater than those of Co (p<0.05). The weights of the liver and heart of EG were significantly lower than those of Eo(p<0.01) 4. The blood glucose of CG was a little higher than that of Co, but not significant. Also it was found that was little difference between IG and Io. It showed that the blood glucose of EG was significantly lower than that of Eo(p<0.0 1).
Frequency and Distribution of Btomate in Korean Ginseng Plant (Pann ginseng C.A. Meyer)
Lee, Jong-Cheol ; Cheon, Seong-Gi ; Kim, Yo-Tae ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 49~54
This investigation were carrion out to know the frequency, size and distribution of stomata in Korean ginseng, acanthopanax and codonopsis. The results are as follows; 1. Stomatal frequency in ginseng leaf was remarkably less than those of acanthopanax and codonopsis leaf, but size of stomata in ginseng leaf was larger than those of acanthopanax and codonopsis leaf. 2. Stomatal frequency of one year old ginseng plant was higher than those of the older. Two to five years old ginseng plants were not differed in frequency and size of stomata. 3. Frequency and size of stomata were higher and larger in red-berry variant in compare to yellow-berry variant. 4. Stomatal frequency in different leaf Position was not significantly different among those of middle leaf, first side leaf and second side leaf, but in decreasing order of middle Part, upper, lower part and edge in the same ginseng leaf. 5. Stomata was not seen in adaxial surface and petiole of leaf ginseng, acanthopanax and codonopsis. 6. Stomatal frequency was higher in ginseng plant grown under no
shading compared to shading, and that of ginseng plant in rear line was less than that of front line under the same shade roof.
Distribution and Relation of Mineral Nutrients in Various Parts of Korea Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Sim, Sang-Chil ; Park, Hun ; Han, Gang-Wan ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 55~64
The distribution pattern of mineral nutrients, among various Parts of Korea ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was investigated to understand ginseng nutrition by simple correlation analysis. Five·year old ginseng plants grown under four different nutritional environments were sampled and separated into leaf, petiole, stem, rhizome, cortex and epidermis of tap foot, central part of tap root, cortex and epidermis of lateral root, central part of lateral root, fine root in the middle of truly, for chemical analysis. Between mineral nutrients in root, N and P showed highly significant positive correlation each other and with Mg and Cu while all other elements (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) showed highly significant positive correlation each other. In shoot, number of mineral nutrient pairs haying significant relation was much less than in root. (Negative: P with Ca or B, K with N, Fe, Mn or Cu, Positive: N with Mg, Fe, Mn or Cu, K with Zn, Ca with Mg, Zn, or B, Fe Mn Cu each other, Mn with B.) The number of pairs having significant correlation in whole plant was approximately the same as the number in root but three of them showed significant negative correlation. The distribution pattern similarity of mineral contents among various parts was also discussed in relation to physiological significance in Korea ginseng plant.
Effect of Seedling Characters on talc Growth of Ginseng Plant in Fie1d I. Relationship between some seedling characters and growth of two-year-old ginseng plant
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 65~71
Twin-bud seedlings and four-leaflet seedlings of ginseng were found and transplanted to field and their growth characteristics were investigated. 1. Appearance frequencies of twin-bud and four-leaflet seedlings were 0.3 and 0.4 percent, respectively, in common nursery bed: and were 6.6 and 28.4 percent, respectively, in polystem line. 2. Generally, the growth of twin.bud and four-leaflet seedlings were better than those of common seedlings both in aerial part and in root. Root weights of both type seedlings exceeded the common ones by 66 and 38 percent, respectively. 3. When they became two-year-old plants, leafiet number of common plant was 11.6, and those of twin-bud and four-leaflet-seedling plants were 18.1 and 13.8, respectively. There were no inflorescence in twin-bud-seedling plant, but the ratios of in florescent Plant in four-leaflet.seedling and common plant were 44.0 and 12.5 percent, respectively. 4. In two-year-old plant, root weights of twin-bud and four-leaflet-seedling plants were heavier than those of common ones by 27 and 20 percent, respectively.
Studies on the Manufacturing of Soft Ginseng Drink Part I. Purification procedure of raw ginseng extracts
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 72~87
Red ginseng tails were extracted with ethanol solutions over a range of concentrations and temperature conditions. Investigations were carried out to study the effects of treatments on yields, soluble solids, saponin and precipitate occured in red ginseng extract beverage during storage. It was found that: (1) Higher concentration of ethanol at low temperature resulted in less yield of crude extract (2) The amount of precipitate in the non-purified extract beverage were less with decrease in ethanol concentration used (3) The treatment for purification of extracts and storage of purified extract at 37
for 6 months had no effect on HPLC chromatogram pattern of saponins (4) The amount of purified extract decreased by purification treatment and more decrease was found as the temperature and concentration of ethanol increased. For Preparation of red ginseng extract beverage, the treatment of extracts with ethanol at low temperature was found to be more effective to minimize precipitation in tile beverage.
Effect of Extraction on Chemical Composition of Rcd Ginseng Extract
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 88~95
Red ginseng was extracted with water and analyzed for yield, saponin, pectin and other chemical composition. It was found that: (1) The total solid content in extract after 6 times of extraction was 46.8%,: including 13.6% of centrifugal residue; (2) 83.7% of total extractable solids and 86% total saponin was extracted after the initial three runs of extraction. (3) No significant changes were observed in HPLC pattern of extracted saponins over a range of extractions; (4) The ratio of centrifugal residue to total solids increased as the number of extractions increased; (5) The ratios of fat, protein, reducing sugar and pectin contents decreased with repeating extraction while those of crude fiber, total sugar and 35% alcohol insoluble residue increased when they were compared with total solids.
Effect of Granule Size on Physical Characteristics of Ginseng Tablet
Park, Myeong-Han ; Seong, Hyeon-Sun ; Kim, U-Jeong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 96~103
The effect of granule size of dried red ginseng extract on physical characteristics on tablet such as hardness, color, yield and disintegration time was studied. A moisture proofing agent was found to be necessary to form granules without serious absorption of moisture. The result showed that decrease in particle size resulted increase of values in weight, hardness and disintegration time. The granule size of 60∼80 mesh was found to be optimum for proper color uniformity and other physical characteristics of tables.
Physiological Response of Panax Ginseng to Tcmpcrature II. Leaf physiology, soil temperature, air temperature, growth of pathogene
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 4, issue 1, 1980, Pages 104~120
The effects of temperature on transpiration, chlorophyll content, frequency and aperture of stomata, and leaf temperature of Panax ginseng were reviewed. Temperature changes of soil and air under spade roof were also reviewed. Growth responses of responses of ginseng plant at various temperature were assessed in relation to suseptibillity of ginseng plants. Reasonable management of ginseng fields was suggested based on the response of ginseng to various temperatures. Stomata frequency may be increased under high temperature during leaf
growing stage. Stomata aperture increased by high temperature but the increase of both frequency and aperture appears not enough for transpiration to overcome high temperature encountered during summer in most fields. Serial high temperature disorder, i.e high leaf temperature, chlorophyll loss, inhibition of photosynthesis, increased respiration and wilting might be alleviated by high humidity and abundant water supply to leaf. High air temperature which limits light transmission rate inside the shade roof, induces high soil temperature(optimum soil temperature 16∼18
) and both(especially the latter) are the principal factors to increase alternaria blight, anthracnose, early leaf fall, root rot and high missing rate of plant resulting in poor yield. High temperature disorder was lessen by abundant soil water(optimum 17∼21%) and could be decreased by lowering the content of availability of phosphorus and nitrogen in soil consequently resulting in less activity of microorganisms. Repeated plowing of fields during preparation seems to be effective for sterilization of pathogenic microoganisms by high soil temperature only on surface of soils. Low temperature damage appeared at thowing of soils and emergence stage of ginseng but reports were limited. Most limiting factor of yield appeared as physiological disorder and high pathogen activity due to high temperature during summer(about three months).