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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Nov 1981
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1981
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Equilibrium Relative Humidity (ERH) Relationships of Red Ginseng Products
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 1~7
A study was designed to study the sorption characteristics of powder-type products of red ginseng such as red ginseng tea, red ginseng powder and spray 4ried powder of red ginseng extract The sorption rates and equilibrium moisture contents on these products were calculated at ova. a range of relative himidities and two different temperatures (
). Significant differences between these three products were found in water activities, sorption rates and the relationship between the ratio of %H2O/RH and moisture content The red ginseng tea required the most excessive drying to reach aw=0.4, followed by red ginseng power and spray dried powder of red ginseng extract Attempt was made to obtain equations which can predict sorption rate and moisture content of red ginseng products at given relative humidity and temperature after certain period of storage.
The Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Non-enzymatic Browsing Products from Fresh Ginseng Bxtracts and Those with Arginine or Glucose
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 8~23
Color is one of the most important quality factors of red ginseng (Hong-sam) which is processed from fresh ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Therefore, a study of characteristics of browning mixtures of aqueous fresh ginseng extracts, factors which accelerate the browning of the aqueous extracts, and the antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures may contribute to the improvement of the color and other quality of red ginseng and other ginseng products such as ginseng extracts. In the present study, factors which affect the Maillard-type browning reaction of aqueous extracts of fresh ginseng roots were investigated firstly by adding various concentrations (0.001-0.5M) of arginine or glucose solutions, by varying the browning reaction temperatures and durations. Secondly, some characteristics such as brown color intensity, amounts of water-soluble and ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials, pH, viscosity, and reactivity with 2,2'- diphenyl -1 - picrylhydrazyl and antioxidant activity of the browning mixtures of the aqueous fresh ginseng extracts with small amounts of 0.1 M arginine, 0.1 M glucose, and distilled water at various browning temperatures and reaction time were studied. The results of the present study are as follows. 1. Color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures was increased by adding various concentrations of arginine solution to the fresh ginseng extract, but the addition of the same amount of glucose solution did not increase the color intensity. 2 The amounts of water- or ether-soluble extracts, amounts of non-dialyzable materials were slightly greater in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1M arginine solution than in case of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the same amount of 0.1 M glucose solution. In the process of the browning reaction, the pH of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine solution decreased slightly, while that of the browning mixtures with 0. 1 M glucose solution was almost constant. 3. The color intensity (absorbance at 470 nm) of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with 0.1 M arginine or 0.1 M glucose solutions did not correlate well with the reducing power or the antioxidant power of the browning mixtures. The antioxidant activity of 90% ethanol extracts from the earlier stages of the browning mixtures of the fresh ginseng extract with the arginine solution was almost comparable to that of the 90% ethanol extracts from the later stages of the corresponding browning mixtures. The browning mixtures of only the fresh ginseng extract or of the fresh ginseng extract with the glucose solution showed considerable antioxidant activity, although both showed less brown color intensity than the fresh ginseng extract with he arginine solution.
A Bioassay of Ginseng Extract s Based on Yeast Growth Determination
Jung, Noh-Pal ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 24~34
For bioassay of the various extracts of ginseng, the growth determination method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was cultured with various doses of the extracts, was studied The water extract, Powder. and ethanol extract were more effective (about 45∼ 110% increase) than saponins or its fractions (about 20∼35% increase). The cold methanol residue showed a increase effect but it was not significant. The bioassay curves for the water extract, ethanol extract, the butanol extracted saponins and the cold methanol- residue were made from the experimental data. From these curves it is possible to find the relation between dose and effectiveness and the optimal doses of various ginseng extracts, and the amount of extract in a sample can be estimated The .angers of sample amount were 0.01% (100ppm) ∼0.32% (3200ppm) fo. the water extract, 0.025% (150ppm)∼0.1% (1000ppm) for the ethanol extract, and 0.008% (80ppm)∼0.016% (160ppm) for the saponins. It was impossible to determine the range for the cold methanol- residue, The acceleration effects on the cell proliferation by a only 0.0008% (8ppm) of the diol- and triol-saponin were measurable in earlier Period (24 hour treatment).
Root and Shoot Formation in Explant and Callus Derived from Root and Cotyledon of GinBeng(Panun ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Choe, Gwang-Tae ; Kim, Myeong-Won ; Sin, Hui-Seok ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 35~40
Explants of mature root tissues and calli derived from root and cotyledon of Panax ginseng were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid(3,4-D), naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA), benzyladenine, and gibberellic acid to assess their capacity to regenerate organs. Root formation at high percentage (46.2-61.1%) was obtained 20-30 days after culturing on media supplemented with combinations of NAA(5 mg/l) and kinetin (1 mg/l), And calli derived from cotyledon produced numerous embryoids in media(
MS) containing 2,4-D(0.5 mg/l) and kinetin (0.5 mg/l). Reculture of these embryoids in media(
MS) enriched with 1 mg/l of benzyladenine and 1 mg/l of gibberellic acid resulted in more plantlet regeneration.
Comparative Studies on the Effects of Total, Protopanaxadiol and Protopanaxatriol saponins of Ginseng 1. Their Effects on Lipid and Glucose Content in Rat Serum
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 41~48
Total saponin, protopanaxadiol-saponin and protopanaxatriol-saponin were isolated and purified from the side roots of red ginseng. After we administered them orally into rats during 5 weeks, we observed their effects on lipid and glucose content in rat serum. The change in body weight of protopanaxatriol- saponin treated group was slightly larger than those of other groups. Total lipid content in total saponin treated group showed an increase of about 20 % over that in control group. However, protopanaxadiol-saponin and protopanaxatriol- saponin treated groups showed no change. While triglyceride content in total saponin treated group decreased 29oyo compared to it s content in control group, its content in protopanaxatriol-saponin treated group increased 45%. Three saponin treated groups showed lower value than control group in total ant free cholesterol levels. While glucose content in total saponin treated group decreased slightly, that in Protopanaxadiol-saponin treated group decreased slightly compared to that in control group. And protopanaxatriol- saponin trented group showed the significant decrease of 25%. From these results, it is supposed that total saponin accelerates the conversion of lipid into glucose and that protopanaxatriol- saponin accelerates the conversion of glucose into lipid.
Comparative Studies on the Effects of Total, Protopanaxadiol and ProtoBanaxatriol saponins of Ginseng 2. Their Effects on Blood Enzyme Activities in Rats
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 49~55
The effects of total, protopanaxadiol-and protopanaxatriol-saponins on the in vitro activities of several enzymes in rat serum were observed Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased 61 % by total saponin and 46% by protopanaxatriol-saponin, compared to control group. While SCOT activity was slightly decreased by total saponin and protopanaxatriol- saponin, it was slightly increased by Protopanaxadiol-saponin And while SCPT activity was slightly decreased by total saponin, it was increased by protopanaxadiol-saponin and protopanaxatriol-saponin. Creatine phosphokinase activity had a tendency to be increased by protopanaxatriol-saponin. Lactate dehydrogenase activities were increased in three saponin treated groups, but those were nonignificant. Compared to the control group, lipase activity was increased by all saponin samples. It was increased 157% by total saponin The increase in lipase activity by total saponin corresponded with the decrease in serum t total lipid by total saponin .
Effects of Ginseng Saponin on the Metabolites and Enzymes of Normal and Alloxan-intoxicated Rats
Lee, Dong-Gwon ; Im, Chang-Jin ; Hong, Sun-Geun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 56~64
In order to evaluate the mode of action of ginseng saponin. metabolic changes in the plasma of normal and aloxan-intoxicated rats were compared Normal groups were administered only ginseng saponin 0, 5, 50mg/kg for 16 days, but alloxan-intoxicated groups were administered alloxan 25mg/kg for 3 days in addition to ginseng saponin. (1) No significant change in the concentration of glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) was observed in normal rats but great inhibitory effect, except elevation of TG, was observed in alloxan-intoxicated rats. However, blood urea nitrogen was elevated in both normal and alloxan- intoxicated rats by administration of ginseng saponin 50mg/kg, and it was considered to be due to the impaired kidney function caused by overdose toxicity. (2) In normal rats, COT and ALP actIn,its were not changed by administration of ginseng saponin but GPT activity was decreased significantly. In alloxan-intoxicated rats, ginseng saponin exerted inhibitory action on the elevation of COT, CPT and ALP activity. But administration of ginseng saponin Smghg was much more effective than administration of 50mg/kg. (3) There fore, we concluded that ginseng saponin has the adaptogenic activity showing little effect on normal metabolism but great preventive action on alloxan-intoxicated rats.
A Study on The Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Cell Wall
Jo, Yeong-Dong ; Kim, Tae-U ; Choe, Hae-Gil ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 65~72
In this experiment, observations were made on the effects of ginseng saponin, one of the major components of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng, C. A. Meyer) root, on the membranes of microorganism (E. coli K-12), the concentration of intracelluar and extracellular cycle AMP therein, and uptake of U-14C-glucose. When the E. coli were grown on media containing 0.1% ginseng saponin, the growth was faster than for that of the control by about 30 minutes. The lysis of E. coli grown on the ginseng saponin medium increased to about double that of the control in the stationary phase. And the amount of protein and lipopolysaccharides in the outer cell meberances increased 25% and 80% respectively in comparison with the control. By electron microscope observation, it was shown that the periplasmic region of the E. coli grown on the ginseng saponin medium was widened it was observed that the cellular cyclic AMP content of the E. coli increased significantly to the hightest levels between the late exponential phase and early stationary phase. The total cyclic AMP content of E. coli grown on the ginseng saponin medium decreased about 50% when compared to that of the control.
Diseases of Ginseng: Environmental and host effect on disease outbreak and growth of pathogens.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 5, issue 1, 1981, Pages 73~84
Effect of environmental factors and host on the growth and outbreak of various ginseng diseases was reviewed Environmental lectors included hydrogen ion concentration, moisture content, temperature, nutrition, and microbiol populations. Age of the ginseng plants in relation to several ginseng disease occurrence was also included in order to formulate the effective control measure for ginseng diseases. Damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Phytophthora, greymold by Botrytis, sclerotinia by Scleretinia, and phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora were usually prevalent during the early growing season of ginseng when temperature is below 20
, while anthrac se caused by Colletotrichum, alternaria blight by Alternaria, and bacterial soft rot by Erwinia were so during the latter growing season when temperature is above 25
. However, the root rot incited by Fnarium and Cylindrocarpon caused severe damages throughout the growing season. Growth range of the temperature for a pathogen was highly related to the corresponding disease outbreak. Hydrogen ion concentration was highly related to the outbreak of sclerotinia, root rot, and red rot. Most severe outbreak of those diseases where the soil acidity was pH 4.7, pH 6.5- 7.5, and pH6.0-6.5, respectively. Nitrogen content in the soil was also related to outbreak of root rot and red rot. More red rot occurred where NH,-nitrogen is above 30 ppm and more root rot obtained when excessive nitrogen fertilizer applied. Yellow necrosis apparently was related to magnesium especially its ratio with potassium or calcium content in a soil. Fusarium Population showed significant .relations to missing rate of ginseng Plants in a Implanting ginseng field, while that of total bacteria showed similar relations in all ginseng field, However, in six year old ginseng fields, the more the Streptomyces population was, the less the Fusarium obtained. Consequently, less missing rate observed in a field where Streptomyces population was high. Damping-off, root rot, Rhytophthor a blight were mose severe on the nursery and on 2-3 years old ginseng plants, whereas sclerotinia, and grey cod, alteraria blight, anthracnose were severe on 4-6 years old ginseng plants. Root rot caused by Fusarium and Erwinia, however, was also severe regardless of the age of the plants when the roots were injured. Therefore, for the effective control of ginseng root rot most careful control of the disease during the early year should be rendered.