Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Nov 1983
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jun 1983
Selecting the target year
A study on the Influence of Ginseng Components On cAMP-cGMP Regulation Mechanism
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 95~101
The effect of ginsenosides on the adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase of rat brain has been studied. We have found that Rbl, Rc and one unknown ginsenoside (probably Ra) exerted reciprocal effects on adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase. This dual effect of ginsenosides leads us to speculate that some ginsenosides may act as regulatory agents and modulate the activities of these two enzyme systems.
The Effects of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Growth and Siderophore Formation in Eseherichia coli K-12
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 102~107
The effects of saponin, one of major components (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), on the growth of E. coli K-12 and the formation of siderphore was observed The following results were obtained. 1. When E. coli was grown on medium containing 1
10-1% of the saponin, the rate of growth was stimulated at 10-1% of the saponin significantly compared to that of control. 2. When E. coli K-12 was grown on medium containing 1
10-1% of the saponin, the amount of siderphore was two times as much as the control. 3. The growth of E. coli was observed to be dependent on the concentration of siderophore when siderophore was added to medium. 4. The effect of saponin on the formation of siderophore in vitro was observed to reach maximum at 1
10-3% of the saponin. Such results suggest that the growth rate of E. coli K-12 could be enhanced by ginseng saponin fraction through stimulation of siderphore formation. We have described the fast growth of E. coli, K-12 and B. subtilis, rapid uptake of 14C-glucose, and high level of other metabolites such as lipids and proteins of E. coli, and B. subtilis in medium containing saponing fraction compared to that of microorganisms without saponin fraction.1∼3Such differences were claimed to be due to rapid uptake of 14C-glucose by widened periplasmic region throught unknown mechanism in the prescence of saponin fraction in medium3 and have raised a question whether there is another possible factor, siderophore4(Greek for iron bears), since microorganisms must secure a sufficient amount of iron for normal growth. These are known to be synthesized by the cells under iron-deficient condition and in most case, excreted into the medium5, where they can complex and solubilize any iron present there. It is generally believed that these complexes are then taken into the cells presumably by specific transport systems, thus providing iron for cell metabolism. Within the group of enteric bacteria, only three species (E. coli, S. typhimurium, and A. aerogense) have, so far, been studied in a ny detail. The main iron-binding compound produced by these species is enterochelin, and its role in iron transport is now well established. And biosynthesis of enterochelin from 2, 3- dihydroxybenzoate and serine in the prescence of magnesium ions and ATP was reported6. 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate was also shown to involve isochorismate and 2, 3-dihydro-2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate as intermediate.7∼11 The present paper deals with the effect of ginseng saponin fraction on growth, the level of enterochelin formation in vivo and the conversion of 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate and serine into entrochelin in vitro, and entrochelin obtained on the growth in relation to possible explanation of ginseng saponin fraction on the rapid growth of E. coli, K-12.
Biosynthesis of Saponins in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer 1. Probable siteg of the Biosynthesis of ginseng saponin from acetate
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 108~114
1. To know the site of saponin synthesis in this plant, 4-years old Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was administered with 1, 2-l4C-acetate (Na salt, 10 ucilplant) by stem injection and was continued to grow for 3 weeks and the distribution of the radioactivity in leaf, stem and root part was identified. The percentage of radioactivity recovered was about 3.99%. 2. The sliced roots or leaf discs (2g) were bathed in the reaction mixture containing sugar, ATP, NADPH, and the distribution of the radioactivity of the fractions (sugar, saponin, sapogenin) was identified. 3. It seemed that major synthesized saponins in roots and leaves are dial and triol-type, respectively. Although both types of saponins are synthesized in roots, the main saponins seemed to be dial saponins and a significant portion of triol saponins are supplied from leaves through stem.
Clinical Study on the efficacy of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on Acute viral(B) Hepatitis- (1)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 115~124
The effect of ginseng administration on the patients of acute viral (B type) hepatitis has been oberved and the results were as follows. The albumin/globulin ratio of the ginseng administered group has significantly improved 4 weeks after admission while that of control group has not been improved suggesting that the ginseng might be effective in improving the protein metabolism. The thymol turbidity test again gave a similar result. Recovery of the disorder of bilirubin metabolism was also accelerated in the ginseng administered group compared with control group. The raised bilirubin value of the former returnedto the normal value 2 week after admission while that of the latter reached to normal 4-5 weeks after admission. However no significant difference of the bilirubin level between ginseng treated and non-treated groups could be observed. Cholesterol metabolism is also stimulated in ginseng administered group. The lowered cholesterol level of the ginseng group returned to normal 3-4 weeks after admission while that of latter reached to normal 5-6 weeks after admission. The raised S-GOT and S-GPT levels of the ginseng treated group returned to the normal value 3-4 weeks after admission while those of control group rehimed to normal in 5 weeks after admission suggesting that the ginseng improved impaired liver function. The improvement of the raised transaminase level seemed to be accelerate6 by the ginseng administration, however, no significant difference of the transaminase level between the ginseng treated and non-treated group could be observed. A significant effect of ginseng on the raised alkaline phosphatase level was observed. From the above results, it seemed that ginseng might stimulate the improvement of the disturbance of liver function, particularly at the early phase of its development of acute liver disease suggesting that panax ginseng might play a significant role in preventing the disease developing to be chronic.
Clinical Study on the efficacy of Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer on Acute viral(B) Hepatitis- (II)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 125~132
It was attempted in the present study to determind the effect of Korean ginseng on acute viral(B type) hepatitis by double blind test clinically and the results were as follows. 1. The double blind test of 4 week period showed no statistical significance of the effect of ginseng on the disease. 2. The double blind test of 2 week period, however, showed a significant effect in such clinical symptoms as appetite, stomach ache, headache, chillness dizziness, nausea and vomitting, stool habit change and jaundice. Improvement of the blood serum level of transaminases, bilirubin. alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol Chillness feeding period was observed.
The Characteristics and Correlation Coefficients of Characters in Panax ginseng, Violet-stem Variant and Yellow. berry Variant, and Panax quinquefolium.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 133~147
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for the development of new ginseng varieties. The two variants (violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant) of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) of one to four-year were used for this study. All of the characteristics, such as leaf length, leaf width, petiol length, number of leaves per plant, number of leaflets per plants, stem diameter, stem length, number of stems per plant, root length, primary root length, root diameter, root weight were determined and correlations among them were estimated. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Leaf length, petiol length, number of leaves per plant, and number of leaflets per plant of Panax ginseng, violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant, were larger than those of Panax quinquefolium at all of the plant ages, while leaf width was wider in Panax quinquefolium. 2. The length of stem of Panax quinquefolium was shorter than that of Panax ginseng, and the frequency of multi-stem plants at 4-year-old ginseng was larger in violet-stem variant than in Panax quinquefolium and yellow-berry variant. 3. In the characteristics of ginseng root, the primary root length of Panax ginseng, violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant, were less than that of Panax quinquefolium, while root weight, root diameter, and umber of secondary root related to yield were larger in Panax ginseng. 4. The root weight per plant related to the yield had positive and highly significant correlations with stem diameter, leaf length, leaf length, leaf width, number of compound leaves and leaflets in Panax ginseng and Panax quinguefolium. 5. The root weight related to the wield of ginseng had been influenced to stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width directly, and number of compound leaves and leaflets indirectly. 6. The number, total area and activity of stomate per mm2 of Panax quinquefolium were more, larger and stronger than those of Panax ginseng.
The Action Mechanism of several Ginsenosides in their Regulatory Action on the ACtivities of Adenylate Cyclase and Guanylate Cyclase
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 148~155
The effects of the five ginsenosides on the activities of particulate adenylate cyclase and particulate guanylate cylase of rat brain have been studied. The range of concentrations of ginsenosides were between 10
reaction mixture, Also, the effects of three ginsenosides on the activity of soluble guanylate cylace have been studied in the same range of concentrations as in particulate adenylate cyclase. Only ginsenoside Re has shown the reciprocal feeects when tested with particulated adenylate cyclase and particulate guanylated cyclase. Regulatory action of the several mononucleotides on the activities of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase was examined. Ginsenoside Rd-inhibited adenylate cyclase was activated in great extent by the addition of increasing amount of GMP. On the other hand, ginsenoside Rc-activated guanylate cyclase was inhibited by the addition of increasing amount of AMP and GMP. The fact that the stimulatory action of GMP is observed only with particulated adenylate cyclase but not with soluble suanylate cyclase suggests that the action is membrane-related one. The competitive action was observed between ginsenoside Rb2 and dopamine in their binding to the receptors. This result is clear-cut evidence that the ginsenoside Rb2 binds specifically to
Studies on the Change in the Nitrogen Compounds of Ginseng Extracts during the Processing and the Storage
Park, Myeong-Han ; Seong, Hyeon-Sun ; Lee, Cheol-Ho ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 156~162
Stability of nitrogen compounds in the water-extract of ginseng has been investigated in terms of concentration and SDS-PAGE protein pattern as functions of times and temperature. The concentration of free amino-nitrogen in the extract of fresh ginseng varied with time at various temperatures. Especially at temperature over 90
, it showed a tendency of steady declease at a considerably fast rate. In the case of red ginseng which had been commercially processed and stocked for 1-7 years, it was found that the free amino-N concentration diminished gradually depending on the length of stock period of samples. This result may be comparative to another observation that the amount and density distribution of precipitate from extract varied with the lapse of stock time, based on accelerated sedimentation test. The number of SDS-PAGE protein bands was observed to be at least seven when determined with the extract of fresh ginseng. However, it tended to reduce finally to be one band when the extract was kept at a rather high temperature for a long time.
Effect of mulching and peat on seedling yield of Panax ginseng.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 163~168
Effect of rice hull mulching and peat application on seedling yield of Panax ginseng was investigated in modified Yang-jig seedbed. Mulching and peat increased soil moisture content but effect was not additive. Seedling yield was positively correlated with magnesium organic matter, potassium especially with soil moisture and calcium. Straw mulching is expected to be superior for practice.
Structural Components of Cell Wall in Various Parts of Korean Ginseng(Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 169~171
The structural components of cell wall in various parts of Korean ginseng were analysed. Pectin was abundant in the cortex and epidermis of root, and leaf. Hemicellulose in root was more than in other parts of ginseng. Cellulose content of stem and seed coat was much higher compared to other parts and lignin content was highest in seed coat.
Light environment and physiological response of Panax ginseng I. Experience on light in natural habitat,through cultivation under forest and artificial shade, and change of light control technique
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 172~192
Light environment and growth of Panax ginseng In habitat and cultivation under natural shade were renewed. Grower's experiences on ginseng stand In relation to light environment were assessed. Change of shading method and grower's concepts on light requirement of ginseng plant in Korea, Manchuria and Japan was counted. Growth of wild ginseng was better under rich light. Optimum crown density index appeared to be 0.7 In natural habitat and 0.4 to 0.7 for the cultivation in forest. Change of light Intensity in forest was greatest in May and reached near to constant value (from 40% to 3% for broad leaf deciduous forest and loom 4% to 2% for pine forest). Insufficient light condition induced long and thin stem, poor flowering and seed bearing, and sequent dormancy. Relation between light and ginseng strand was not clear but light Interception with cool weather was effective. Topography and orientation of bed have been deeply considered for light environment. Panel or bark of won were used for shading in deep forest manly In Manchuria while reed blind and straw thatch were used in Korea. Kinds and number of shades material and seasonal or daily schedule have been simplified probably by labor pressure due to eulargement of plantation. Post height has been greater while width of roof, bed and ditch has changed lisle. Scientific survey in the past omitted important light control methods (complete light hardening etc) which has been practiced in specific areas. The concept and technique of light control in the past in Korea were delicate and intensive including the control of temperature and moisture. For the application of old concept in modem cultivation precise Investigation of the technique including the measurement of light, temperature and moisture is needed.
생화학적 측면에서 본 고려인삼의 효능
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 7, issue 2, 1983, Pages 193~214