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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 1985
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 1985
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The Effect of Saponin Fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on the Liver of Ethanol Administered Rat
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 1~8
Preventive effect of ginseng saponin fraction against ethanol intoxication of the liver of rats fed width 12% ethanol instead of water for 6 days was investigated. Control group was dosed 12% ethanol instead of water (free access) for 6 days and test group was dosed 0.1% ginseng saponin fraction in the 12% ethanol instead of water for 6 days. Normal rats was given only water freely. It was observed that the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) of both control and test groups were higher than those of normal group while the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenate (ALDH) of control and test groups were lower than that of normal rats, However, the ALDH activity decrease of test group was much less than that of control groups. Electron micrograph showed that severely swollen and disrupted mitochondria and dilated and vesiculated ER can be seen in control group while dilated or vesiculated ER are very few and swollen or disrupted mitochondria can not be seen in test group. From the above experimental result, it seems that ginseng saponin might stimulate ethanol oxidation and the removal of acetaldehyde resulting in the decrease of ethanol intoxication of the liver,
Coefficient of Variability of Agronomic Characters in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 9~14
The aerial parts, stem diameter, stem length, Petiole length, leaf length and leaf width were investigated to estimate coefficient of variability in ginseng at 2 to 4 years grown under the conventional and improved shadings. C.V values of characters such as stem length, petiole length, leaf length and leaf width were decreased with increasing the plant age, while that of steam diameter was increased. C.V. values of aerial part characters were higher in conventional shading than in improved shading, and the variance of c.v. was not significant when above 20 plants were investigated.
Studies on the Soil Management in Ginseng Preplanting Soil (I) Changes of Soil Characteristics between Pre-and Post-management in the Preplanting Soil
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 15~23
The study was carried out to confirm the changes of soil physico-chemical properties and population of Fusarium solani by soil managements at preplanning fields for ginseng cultivation. Soil porosity and aggregation had been significantly increased during the managements while exchangeable nitrogen content and bulk density of the soil had been decreased. Available phosphate and exchangeable potassium content, in addition, seemed to be slightly increased. And soil aggregation showed positive correlation with clay, organic matter, soil moisture, and Ca content in the soil but negative with K content. Decrease rate of NH4-N and NO3-N content after soil managements were 55% and 41% in average, respectively. And better decrease effect for NH4-N was obtained in sand loam soil whereas no effect for NO3-N with soil textures. The more ploughing seemed to result in less propagules of F solani in the soil, however there was non significant decrease in population of the pathogen after the soil management. Number of F. solani in soil was significantly less in the fields where gramineous and leguminous crops had been grown as a precrop than other crops tested. Meanwhile there was no correlation between soil texture and population of the pathogen in the soil.
Studies on the Biological and Chemical Properties of Musty Ginseng Root and its Causal Mechanism
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 24~35
Rusty root of ginseng has been known as one of the limiting factors in ginseng production in Korea. An attempt was, therefore, made to elucidate biological and chemical natures of the rusty root, and the redox Potential of the ginseng cultivated soils were measured and compared with diseased and non-diseased soils. Reddish discoloration was most frequently observed on the epidermis of ginseng root and the pigments were accumulated in all epidermal cells of the diseased lesions. The lower the redox potential of the ginseng cultivated soil was, the more severe the rusty root was observed. Fe content in the diseased epidermis was 3 times higher than that of healthy one. Organic acids such as oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids were also higher in the mss root than in the healthy one. Thin layer chromatogram of phenolic acid fractions obtained from the epidermal cells of the rusty root of ginseng exhibited 3 to 4 unidentified substances not found in the healthy root. Also lignification of the epidermal cells and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase were greater in the rusty root than the healthy root. Colony formation and conidia production of F. solani, And mycelial growth and sclerotium formation of Sclerotinia sp. isolated from ginseng root were suppressed in a nutritionally minimal medium supplemented with water extract of rusty ginseng root epidermis. It is, therefore, suggested that rusty root of ginseng is caused by unfavorable rhizosphere environmental stress or stresses resulting abnormal metabolism in the root as a selfdefence mechanism of non-specific resistance responses.
Studies on the Soil Management in Ginseng Preplanting Soil (II) Relationship between the Soil Characteristics of 2-Year-Old Ginseng Field Soil and the Ratio of Missing Plant
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 36~41
The study was conducted to investigate the changes of soil physico-chemical properties between soils of preplanting fields and 2 years old ginseng fields, and compare the missing plant rate among the 2 years 016 ginseng fields. 1, The missing plant rate of 2 years old ginseng was high in sand loam while low in clay loam soil texture, soil porosity and NO3-N were remarkably increased in 2 years old ginseng field than preplanting soil, as the clay content was increased, soil porosity seemed to be increased but exchangeable nitrogen decreased. 2. The preplanting soil management methods did not significantly influenced on the missing plant rate and soil porosity in 2 years old ginseng fields, However NO3-N content and Fusarium density seemed to be decreased as the plow frequency was increased, exchangeable nitrogen content, whereas, seemed to be increased with more organic matter. 3. Differences of clay content (below 15% and above 20% of clay content) was significantly influenced on soil porosity, bulk density, total nitrogen, organic matter and P2O5 content. 4, Missing rate showed negative correlation with clay, soil moisture, and organic matter content but positive corelation with NO3-N in 2 years old ginseng fields.
Effects of Phytohormone on the Root Formation of Stem Cuttings in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 42~53
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information about the large scale propagation of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Therefore, the stem cuttings of 1-year old ginseng, treated with various concentrations of plant growth regulators for 5 seconds (quick dipping) and 24 hours (prolonged soaking), were cultured. The root formation of stem cuttings was varied with the concentrations, kinds, and treatment methods of plant growth regulators. Besides normal-looking roots various malformed roots were observed. In the prolonged soaking method, the culture of stem cuttings, treated with 10 ppm of IBA or NAA, resulted in profuse root regeneration. And stem cuttings, in quick dipping method, treated with 2000 ppm of IBA or NAA resulted in more excellent root regeneration. In general, IBA was more vigorous for the root formation than NAA, The treatment with 50 ppm kinetin or 100 ppm BA brought good result for the retardation of senescence of stem cuttings and BA treatment was more effective than kinetin. As for the saponin content of roots derived from stem cutting culture, the roots, formed by non-treatment of growth regulators, were higher in saponin content than those formed by treatment of growth regulators.
Studies on the Chemical Components of Korean Ginseng (I)-GLC/MS Analysis of Free Phenolic Fraction-
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 54~63
The free phenolic fraction from Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was studied by GLC/MS as trimethylsilyl and methyl derivative. Five phenolic compounds such as 2,6-ditert butyl p-crestal, phloroglucinol, protocatechuic acid, isoferulic acid, quinic acid were identified newly. And additionally 13 organic acids and hydrocarbons were also identified in the fraction.
Studies on the Sterols of Korean Ginseng(I) -On the Contents of Sterols in Neutral Lipid Fraction-
Kim, Man-Uk ; No, Gil-Bong ; Wi, Jae-Jun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 64~71
Free and esterified sterols in neutral lipid fractionated from the free lipid of Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) were analyzed by TLC and GLC to investigate the contents and composition ratios. Content of each sterol was as follows:
-sitosterol was about 51.60 mg%, stigmasterol, 8.93mg% and campesterol, 2.17mg%. Fine root tended to have slightly higher contents of sterols than main root. Linoleic and palmitic acid as the major fatty acids in esterified sterols occupied 70% of the total composition.
Effect of Ginseng Ethanol Extract on Lactate Dehydrogenate-5 in Rat Brain with Age
Park, Yeong-Suk ; Kim, Tae-U ; Jo, Yeong-Dong ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 72~85
Attempts were made to see if feeding of ginseng ethanol extract could affect proper- ties of rat brain lactate dehydrogenase such as specific activity, heat stability, Km for substrate, inactivation by 3-bromopyruvate and trypsin, and immune response. The following results were obtained. Specific activity of LDH was observed to reach maximum in 5 month after birth and then decrease steadily. However, that of LDH from rat fed with ginseng ethanol extract was found in rat fed with ginseng ethanol extract. 3-bromopyruvate was shown to inactivate LDH-5 from old rat fed. Inactivation of LDH-5 by trypsin was remarkable in old rat fed. Km value for pyruvate in old rat fed was remarkably decreased. Cumulative results suggest that ginseng ethanol extract could affect conformational change of LDH responsible for altered properties through unknown mechanism.
Effect of Triol and Diol Fractions of Ginseng Saponin on Glutamine Transport into Rat Renal Cortical Mitochondria
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 86~94
Attempts were made if diol and triol fractions of ginseng saponin affect on glutamine transport into rat renal cortical mitochondria, swelling, phosphate dependent glutaminase activity, and consumption of oxygen. The following results were obtained. When mitochondrial preparation from rat renal cortex was incubated in medium containing 14C-glutamine and either triol or diol fractions, radioactivity was shown to increase at both 10-6% and 10-5% triol fractions of ginseng saponin, but reduce in case of diol fraction. The remarkable acceleration of the rate of swelling of renal cortical mitochondria was observed in the presence of 10-1% trios and diol fractions but no accerelation at lower concentrations. The activity of phosphate dependent glutaminase from renal cortical mitochondria was slightly activated at 10-2% of triol fraction. However, there was no effect in case of diol fraction. Oxygen consumption by mitochondria from renal cortex was remarkably increased at concentrations of 10-5% and 10-6% triol fractions, but reduced in the case of diol fractions. On the basis of these observations it was concluded that triol fraction of ginseng saponin might increase the transport of glutamine into mitochondria by accelerating the respiratory chain and supplying additional energy to mitochondria, and physiological role of triol fraction was entirely different from that of diol fraction of ginseng saponin.
Effect of Extraction Temperature and Ethanol Concentration on Nitrogeneous Constituents of Red Ginseng Extract
Seong, Hyeong-Sun ; Kim, U-Jeong ; Yang, Cha-Beom ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 95~103
The concentrated red ginseng extract (RG-EXT) was prepared by extracting the ginseng tails with 0-90% ethanol solution at 70-100
and analyzed for amino acids composition and other nitrogeneous fractions. The results showed that nonprotein fraction was more than 90% of the total N-compounds and 17 free amino acids were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Maximum and minimum N-compounds or total free amino acids were recovered in RG-EXT with 50% and 90% ethanol, respectively. An increase in ethanol concentration resulted a significant change in free amino acid composition while extraction temperature caused a little gradual decrease in water soluble nonprotein and total nitrogen fractions.
Effect of Extracting Conditions on Some Factors Affecting the Sugar Composition of Red Ginseng Extract
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 104~111
The quality of concentrated red ginseng extract, which was prepared from Korean red ginseng tails, was studied with respect to the changes in the ethanol concentration in the range of 0-90% and temperature of 70-10
during 1-5 times of extraction. Each extraction time was taken 8 hours at given temperature. The ratio of free sugars to total sugar changed significantly with the number of extraction and ethanol concentrations. An increase in reducing sugar and free sugars and a decrease in extracted soluble starch were fond as ethanol concentration increased. Extraction temperature was found little effect on extractability of sugars and their ratios. Analysis of free sugars in red ginseng extract identified 6 frdd sugars such as rhamnose, xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, including sucrose to be major.
Effect of t:inseng Extracts on the Activities of Fatty Acid Metabolism Enzymes.
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 112~118
It has been known that the ginseng extracts activate the lipid metabolism in animal body. The experiments were undertaken to elucidate the effects of total, diol, and trial saponin of ginseng on the activities of acyl Co-A synthetase and hydroxyacyl Co-A dehydrogenase involved in fatty acid metabolism in normal albino rat liver. The acyl Co-A synthetase activity, in vitro, was increased by 20% with treatment of 2.5
10-3% total saponin, by 14% with 2.5
10-3% diol saponin, arid 30% with 2.5
10-4% triol saponin, respectively. And the enzyme activity was increased by 27% at 2 hours after intraperitoneal injection of total saponin. Hydroxyacyl Co-A dehydrogenase activity, in vitro, was increased by 77% with 10-4% total saponin, by 64% with 10-2% diol saponin, and by 72% with 10-3% triol saponin, respectively. Also, the enzyme activity, in vivo, was increased by 15.3% and 33% at 2 hours and 4 hours.
Effect of Ginseng Saponin on the Integrity of Lysosomes
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 119~127
The effect of ginseng saponin on acid phosphatase (AP) activity in liver Iysosomes was investigated and the mechanism by which ginseng saponin may function on the integrity of Iysosomes was discussed. The experimental results obtained are summarized as follows; 1, A very marked increase in the AP activity was observed in the supernatant of hypotonic medium, as compared with that of isotonic medium, indicating that the hypoosmotic shock per so results in activation through osmotic Iysis of particles. 2. Ginseng saponin had no effect on the activity of AP if once released from Iysosomes when Iysed in the hypotonic medium, suggesting that ginseng saponin has no effect on the enzyme molecules per se. 3. The AP activity in isotonic medium suspensions was decreased at the concentrations of 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4% of ginseng saponin, but increased at 10-2 and 10-1%. It's suggested that ginseng saponin enhances the integrity of Iysosomes at 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4%, but decreases it at 10-2 and 10-1%. 4. Suspending particles in distilled water resulted in no correlation of AP activity with treatment with ginseng saponin. 5, The AP activity was decreased in the presence of ATP, showing the possible significance of ATP as a Iysosomal stabilizer and the possibility that ginseng saponin may affect a membrane bound ATPase system by which Iysosomal AP release may be controlled.
The Effect of Honey Concentration on the Quality of Honeyed Ginseng in the Process of Manufacturing Honeyed Ginseng
Kim, Hae-Jung ; Jeong, Dong-Sin ; Ju, Hyeon-Gyu ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 1, 1985, Pages 128~134
In order to study the effect of honey concentration on the quality of honeyed ginseng in the process of manufacturing honeyed ginseng, honeyed ginseng was manufactured under the various condition of honey concentration, 40 brix, 50 brix, 60 brix and 70 brix and the approximate composition, the yield and organoleptic test of them were investigated. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The higher honey concentration was used, the yield of honeyed ginseng was increased. 2. The higher honey concentration was used, the amount of total sugar was increased while the amount of crude saponin, crude protein. crude fat, crude fiber and crude ash was decreased. 3. Free sugars of honeyed ginseng consist of rhamnose, xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, 4. The amount of saponin lost in the process of manufacturing honeyed ginseng was 2.5%-5.0%, therefore honey concentration was not so effective on the loss of saponin. 5. According to organoleptic test, H-3 and H-2 treating honey concentration at 60 brix and 50 brix was the best and better of all.