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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Ginseng Research
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Ginseng
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 1985
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 1985
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Effect of Ginseng Butanol Fraction on Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Aniline Hydroxylase Activity in Rat
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 135~145
The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the effect of ginseng butanol fraction on ethanol induced hepatic aniline hydroxylase activity in rat. Ginseng butanol fraction increased the hepatic aniline hydroxylase activity which is inhibited by ethanol addition in the enzyme assay system, whereas not shown the ginseng effect in ethanol absence condition in vitro. It was found that ginseng butanol fraction improved the affinity of aniline hydroxylase under presence of ethanol in the reaction mixture. On the contrary ginseng butanol fraction showed significant decreasing effect on aniline hydroxylase activity induced by ethanol administration. These results suggest that ginseng butanol fraction regulate the hepatic aniline hydroxylase activity which is induced by ethanol consumption.
Effect of Vinyl Mulching from the Sowing to Germination on the Seedbed for Production of Ginseng Seedling
Lee, Jong-Cheol ; An, Dae-Jin ; Ha, Jeong-Ju ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 146~153
This study was conducted to know the effect of vinyl mulching from the sowing to germination on the seedbed for germination and production of seedling. Embryo growth was restrained with decreasing the water content in seed and stopped below 10% water content. Germination was possible over 55% water content but radicle growth was stopped at 55% water content. Ratioes of embryo / emdosperm length were about 50% at seeding time, and about 80% at just before freeing season, and the ratio was increased from the thawing season again. Vinyl mulching increased the soil water content and soil temperature. Germination rate and number of available seedling in vinyl mulching were increased 10% and 12%, respectively.
A New Method on the Measurement of Catalase Activity of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Tissues
Yang, Deok-Jo ; Je, Gyeol ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 154~162
We report a newassay method on the measurement of the catalase activity, whose utilzation value is considered to be remarkable in the field of plant biochemistry. We named this method as a De-Coupling method. The essence of de-coupling method is the separation between the enzyme reaction and the indicator reaction. The optimum condition of the enzyme reaction was found to be following: on addition of 1 ml of substrate (H2O2: 20mM) to the fixture of the crude extract of enzyme (volume: 0.2 ml) and the ammonium phosphate buffer (volume: 1.8 ml; 0.93 M phosphate, 1.6M NHB, 2.5 M methanol, pH 7.0). After 30, 60 and 90 seconds of the enzyme reactions are proceeded, the reactions are terminated by 25% of tai-chloro-acetate (final concentration of 5%), respectively. The precipitated materials by tai-chloro-acetate was removed by the centrifugation (2000g, 10minutes). Formaldehyde produced in the enzymatic reaction was reacted with 2ml of acetylacetone (60mM). The indicator reaction -(HANTSCH REAKT10N)- in which lutidine is formed, was proceeded for 60 minutes at
Effect of Metalaxyl on Controlling Phytophthoyra Disease of Korea Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 163~169
The efficacy of fungicides was compared for control of root rot as well as leaf blight caused by Phytophthora cactorum on ginseng plants. Growth of P. cactorum in rlitro was completely or highly inhibited by metalaxyl, tetracyclin, captafol, carbendazim, and thiophanate + thiram. In field trials, the disease was significantly reduced not only in the root rot but also in the leaf blight when metalaxyl was applied at 4.17 mg a.i. per plant for soil drenching and 1.25 mg a.i. for foliage application. Also captafol was effective on control of the leaf blight but its effect was inferior to that of metalaxyl. Metalaxyl lost its effectiveness in vivo between the 5th and 7th week after soil wren ching. Phytotoxicity was, however, observed on 2 years old ginseng plants when metalaxyl was drenched at 8 mg a.i. while no phytotoxic symptom was developed on 2 years old ginseng plants at 4k mg a.i. and 3 years old at 16 mg a.i. per plant, respectively.
Relationship between Chemical Components and their Yields of Red Ginseng Extract Extracted by Various Extracting Conditions
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 170~178
Korean red ginseng tails was extracted with solutions having various ethanol concentration at the temperature range of 70-100
. Extraction was carried out for 1-5 times of 8 hours at given temperature. The results obtained on physicochemical properties of yields, saponins, sugars, minerals, color and viscosity were analyzed statistically to find the correlation with extracting conditions. A very high positive correlation was found between extraction time and cumulative values of yields of chemical components. Increase in ethanol concentration affected negatively on viscosity, absorbencies and yields of soluble solids and minerals. Some of the properties also showed a high correlation with temperature increase. Equations were also derived from the significant results on correlation analysis.
Effect of the Extracting Condition on the Crude Fat and Free Fatty Acids of Red Ginseng Extract
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 179~185
The effect of temperature and ethanol concentration on lipids yield and free fatty acids were investigated during 1-5 times of 8 hours extraction. The crude lipids recovered was generally increased as the ethanol concentration increased while it was decreased at higher extraction temperature. Fatty acids composition in free fatty acids showed linoleum and plasmatic acids to be the major fatty acids, accounting 60% of 16 fatty acids identified. Fatty acids pattern was little affected by the changes in ethanol concentration while increase in temperature resulted significant changes in fatty acids composition.
The Effect of Defatted Panax Ginseng on the Growth and Starvation in Rat.
Lee, Seong-Dong ; Kim, Hyeong-Ryeol ; Jo, Gap-Yeon ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 186~192
In order to observe the effect of defatted ginseng which is made by extracting fat from ginseng using petroleum ether during the growth and the starvation, the powder of defatted ginseng was added to the basal diet by 25% and 50% respectively, and the mixtures were fed for 4 weeks to just weanling white female rat which weighed 78-82 g. As for the diet initake, there was not showed any meaningful difference between the defatted ginseng powder fed group and the control group (to which was fed just - the basal diet not including defatted ginseng powder), but the protein intake for the former group appeared to be reduced (P<0.02-0.01) compared to the control group. As for the growth rate, that of the defatted ginseng powder fed group appeared higher (P<0.02) than that of the control group in 1 week after feeding, but since after 2 weeks, there was not showed meaningful difference between the two groups. As for the weight-reduction rate by starvation, that of the 25% defatted ginseng powder fed group showed just 79.6% (P<0.05) of the control group's in 5 days after feeding, but the rate of the 50% defatted ginseng powder fed group appeared 119.3% of the control group's. As for the required time from the beginning of starvation to the death, it was resulted that the higher the rate of defatted ginseng addition is, the shorter the time becomes (P<0.05)
Studies on the Lipid Components of Various Ginsengs 1. lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Free Lipids
Choe, Gang-Ju ; Kim, Man-Uk ; Kim, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 193~203
Lipid and fatty acid compositions of the free lipids in Panax ginseng (Korea, Japan and China), Panax quinquefolium (America, Canada) and Panax notoginseng (China) were studied by means of silicic acid column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. Free lipid contents were 1.13 to 1.24% in panax ginseng and 0.87 to 1.18% in Panax quinquefolium and 0.39% in panax notoginseng. Neutral lipid fractions were 81.2 to 84.4%, while glycolipid fractions 8.01% to 14.47% and phospholipid fractions 3.49 to 5.74% in free lipid contents. The major components were triglycerides, free sterols, diglyceride, free fatty acids and sterol esters in neutral lipid fractions, sterol glucoside, monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified steryl glucoside in glycolipid fractions and phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatide, ethanolamine, phosphatidyl choline in phospholipid fractions. The contents and compositions of neutral lipids and glyclipids were some different among various ginsengs, whereas phospholipids showed relatively similar compositions in the contents. Seventeen fatty acids were analyzed in the four free lipid fractions from the various ginsengs and the main fatty acids were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid. It was found that the amounts of some fatty acids were different among the various ginsengs, but the fatty acid patterns of these ginsengs were on the whole similar.
Studies on the Lipid Components of Various Ginsengs ll. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Bound Lipids
Choe, Gang-Ju ; Kim, Man-Uk ; Kim, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 204~212
Lipid and fatty acid compositions of the bound lipids in Panax quinquefolium (Korea, Japan and China), Panax quinquefolium (America, Canada) and Panax notoginseng (China) were studied by means of silicic acid column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The could lipid contents in various ginsengs were 0.29 to 0.48%, in which neutral lipid fractions were 63.6 to 67.3%, glycolipid fractions 21.9 to 25.7% and phospholipid fractions 7.7 to 12.4%. The content compositions of neutral lipid fractions were lower and those of glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were higher in the bound lipids than in the free lipids from the various ginseng. The major components were fatty acids, diglycerides and free sterols in neutral lipid fractions, monogalactosyl diglyceride, sterol glucoside and esterified steryl g1ycoside in glycolipid fractions and phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidic acid in phosphoipid fractions. Seventeen fatty acids were analyzed in the four bound lipid fractions from the various ginsengs and main fatty acids were linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. Total saturated fatty acid and palmitic acid contents were higher and total unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid contents lower in the total bound lipids than in the total free lipids from the various ginsengs.
The Effect of Saponin Fraction of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer on the Biosynthesis of Androgens in Rat Testis
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 213~220
It was attempted to observe the effects of ginseng saponin, one of the major components of the roots of Panax ginseng, on androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol in vitro as well as in vivo in rat testis. Ginseng saponin was administered by stomach tubing prior to intraperitoneal injection of cholesterol containing (4-14C)-cholesteroll into adult male rats and the liver, testis and blood serum were analyzed. The first high radioactivity of the liver and blood serum of test animal was observed at 6 hours after radioactive cholesterol injection, while that of control appeared at 12 hours after the injection. In the case of testis, the first high radioactivity of test group appeared between 4 and 6 hours after the radioactive cholesterol injection, while that of control appeared at 10-14 hours. Analysis of radioactivity distribution of cholesterol, androstenedione and testosterone in the testis of rats fed with/without ginseng saponin piror to (4-14C)-cholesterol injection showed that the saponin stmulated the synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. This was confirmed again by in vitro experiment using testis homogenate as an enzyme source. From the above experimental results, it was suggested that the ginseng saponin stimulates both cholesterol transport and the biosynthesis of androgens from cholesterol in rat testis.
The Effect of Ginseng on Gluconeogenesis at the Early Phase of Germination Soy-bean Sprout
Park, Hye-Su ; Gwak, Han-Sik ; Ju, Chung-No ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 221~231
The effect of ginseng saponin on the activities of isocitrate lyase, palate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and lipase have been investigated at the early phase of germinating soy-bean sprout and found that all the above enzymes were stimulated when the bean was rinsed for 24 hours with 10-4% saponin solution. The length of the saponin treated group was not longer than that of control group but the weight of the former was heavier (15%) than the latter. Total sugar content of test group was always much higher than that of control. From the above results, it was concluded that ginseng saponin might stimulate several enzymes of Soybean sprout during germination resulting in rapid growth of the Soybean sprout.
Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Absorption of Cholesterol and Serum Lipid Components
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 232~239
The effects of total saponin, triol and diol saponin, and prosapogenin of ginseng on the absorption of cholesterol and the component of serum lipids was observed as a function of time using isotopic method. The following results were obtained. 1) Labelled cholesterol absorption was observed to be enhanced after adminstrations of total saponin, triol saponin, and. prosapogenin of ginseng to rat (Sprague Dawley). 2) Decreases in the amount of serum lipid were observed after administration of total saponin and prosapogenin of ginseng.
Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fraction on Cleavage of pBR322 by Several Restriction Endonuclease
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 240~247
Attempts were made to see if we could cut more pBR322 in the presence of ginseng saponin fraction in connection with possibly for shortening the enzymatic reaction time and the amount of the enzyme to be used. The following results were obtained restriction endonucleases such as AccI, XhoII, SaII, and HincII were observed to cut pBR322 efficiently at 10-1% ginseng saponin fraction. In case of BamHI, 10-2% ginseng saponin fraction was observed to the most effective concentration. Such cumulative results suggest that ginseng saponin fraction would play important role as far as the cleavage of pBR322 for short period by endonucleases is concerned.
Effects of Drying Conditions on the Quality of White Ginseng
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 248~255
In order to investigate the optimal drying condition of white ginseng by using bulk air drier(130 x 62 x 65cm), drying curves, diffusion coefficient at various drying temperature, the energy of activation, variation of color intensity and chemical components during drying of white ginseng were studied. Fick's second low of diffusion for diffusion out of spheres was successfully applied to describe the drying of white ginseng. It was found that the diffusion coefficient of water was 2.2x107, 9.0x107 cm2/sec at drying temperature 4
, respectively. An Arrhenius type temperature dependency of moisture diffusivity was found, the energy of activation being 18.8 Kcal/g mol. Color intensity of white ginseng dried at various drying temperature was increased with an increase in drying temperature. The contents of crude protein, reducing sugar and crude saponin during drying of white ginseng were gradually decreased as increasing of drying time. And with the sensory evaluation by multiple comparison difference analysis, the optimal drying temperature of white ginseng was between 45
Biochemical and Histological Charaeteristics of Inferior Red Ginseng
Do, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Dal ; Seong, Hyeon-Sun ;
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 256~263
In order to investigate the inferior factor of red ginseng quality, the contents of various chemical components, physico-chemical properties and arrangement state of ginseng cells were observed. Contents of total reducing sugar, reducing sugar, crude protein, crude fibre and specific gravity of inside white part of red ginseng were less than those of normal part. But differences in content of crude saponin, HPLC pattern of ginsenosides and reducing ability for DP P H(1,1-dipheny 1-2-picrylhydrazyl) between normal and inside white part of red ginseng were not found. The optical density of 1 water extract of normal part of red ginseng did not differ from that of inside white 1 part of red ginseng, but the visible and UV absorbance of acid hydrolyzate of normal red ginseng showed higher than those of inside white part of red ginseng. The differences in the internal color and tissue of normal and inside white part of red ginseng were easily found with naked eye, and by the microscopic fractography, the orangement state of ginseng cell in the inside white part of red ginseng was less dense than that in normal red ginseng.
Characters and Inheritance of Stem Color in
of Violet-Stem Variant x Yellow-Berry Variant in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 264~269
The inheritance of violet and green stems was examined in F1 F2 of violetstem variant x yellow-berry variant in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, and the characters of F1 and F2 plants were investigated. From these results, it was shown that most of the characters of F1 and F2 plants were simillar to the female plants. However, reciprocal crosses between violet and green stems yielded progeny of violet-stem variant. Thus the cross V♀x♂Y gave all violet-stem seedlings, and the cross Y♂ x Y♀ gave all violet-stem seedlings. And all of the crosses segregated in F2 in a ratio of 3 violet to 1 green.
Physicochemical Properties of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) Root Polysaccharides. -Change of physicochemical properties of the starch during storage and heat treatment-
Journal of Ginseng Research, volume 9, issue 2, 1985, Pages 270~284
In order to investigate the change of physicochemical properties of ginseng root starch during storage and heat treatment, the roots were stored for 15 days at 5
, and heated for 15 hours at 6
, respectively. The starch content was decreased from about 40% to 23-26% and sucrose content was increased from 4% to 12-16% during storage for 15 days at 5-45
. Maltose, which was not detected in fresh samples, was increased up to 8.5% during storage or heat treatment. Granular size of the starch was decreased and some of the granules were broken during storage. Amylose content in the starch was decreased from 33% to 20%, and blue value and alkali number of the starch were increased slightly, and solubility and swelling power of the starch were decreased during storage. 3 The higher storage temperature and the longer storage time, the starch was more susceptible to gelatinize, and the viscosity of the starch was lowered with the susceptibility of gelatinization. The susceptibility of degradation of the starch by the amylase was increased and amylolytic activities in ginseng root were, also, increased during storage.