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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of GAS
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Investigation of Combustion Properties for Using Safe Hydrogen
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 1~6
For the safety design and operation of many gas process, it is necessary to know certain explosion limit, flash point, autoignition temperature (AIT) and minimum oxygen concentration of handling substances. Also it is necessary to know explosion limit at high temperature and pressure. In this study for the safe handling of hydrogen, explosion limit and AIT of combustion properties for hydrogen were investigated. By using the literatures data, the lower and upper explosion limits of hydrogen recommended 4.0 vol% and 77.0 vol%. Also the AIT of hydrogen with ignition sources recommended
at the electrically heated crucible furnace (the whole surface heating) and recommended
at the local hot surface. The new equations for predicting the temperature and the pressure dependence of the explosion limits of hydrogen are proposed. The values calculated by the proposed equations were a good agreement with the literature data.
Experimental Study on the Leakage Characteristics of Stem Seals Depending on the Driving Distance of the LPG Vehicle
Kim, Chung-Kyun ; Lee, Il-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 7~11
This paper presents the experimental results on the oil leakage characteristics of stem seals depending on the driving distance in LPG vehicle. The increased speeds of the camshaft and oil temperatures do not affect to the oil leakage of the seals because of the low level of driving distances less than 40,000 km. But the increased driving distance over 50,000 km to 100,000 km shows a rapid deteriorating the sealing performance, which may increase the oil leakage through the rubbing surfaces between the poppet valves and stem seals. In this result, the stem seal may be exchanged about the driving distance of 50,000 km to 60,000 km with a currently used stem seal in LPG car. Thus, the stem seal for a poppet valve should be resigned for the increased durability and long life.
A Study on Performance of Initial Blowoff Flow for a Fuel Pump with Various Temperature and Composition Condition in LPG Engine
Park, Cheol-Woong ; Kim, Chang-Up ; Choi, Kyo-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 12~17
The In recent years, the need for more fuel-efficient and lower-emission vehicles has driven the technical development of alternative fuels such as LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) which is able to meet the limits of better emission levels without many modifications to current engine design. LPG has a high vapor pressure and lower viscosity and surface tension than diesel and gasoline fuels. These different fuel characteristics make it difficult to directly apply the conventional gasoline or diesel fuel pump. In this study, experiments are performed to get initial performance and efficiency of the fuel pump under different condition of the temperature and composition of fuel. The characteristics of vane type fuel pump were investigated to access the applicability on LPLi engine.
FE Analysis on the Strength Safety of a Full Containment LNG Storage Tank with Tension Steel Cables
Kim, Chung-Kyun ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Do-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 18~24
This paper presents the stress and deformation behaviors of 9% nickel steel inner tank in a full containment LNG storage tank using a FE analysis. For an increased strength safety of an inner tank, the tension cable was fastened around the outside wall of an inner tank, which is known as a weak zone for the hydrostatic pressures, cryogenic temperature loads, and other loadings. Based on the FEM computed results between a conventional inner tank and a inner tank with tension cables around the lower part of the side wall of an inner tank, the redesigned inner tank is more safe than that of the conventional tank without a tension cable. The FEM results recommend
steel tension cables with a diameter of 50mm for an increased strength safety of the inner tank, which may decrease the stress concentration and deformation near the lower part of the side wall. Thus the tension cable around the inner tank may be used as an alternative safety device compared to the stiffener and the top girder structures for the increased LNG storage tank, especially.
A Study on the Procedure of Quantitative Risk Assessment for High Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline
Lee, Kyung-Sik ; Jo, Young-Do ; Ryou, Young-Don ; Ko, Jae-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 25~31
Recently risk management based on a quantitative assessment is considered to improve the level of safety in Korea. This paper focuses on the procedure of the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines. For that purpose, the methods to estimate failure frequency based on failure causes from European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco, to analyze consequence caused by fire, and to calculate individual risk and societal risk have been proposed systematically in this paper. Risk criteria of individual risk and societal risk have been proposed by considering the environment of pipeline route in Korea. The proposed procedure of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of buried pipeline.
Preparation of Porous Gold for Sensor Applications
Kim, Young-Hun ; Kim, He-Ro ; Ko, Jae-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 32~37
For a development of U-safety system, liquid/gas-sensors that are easy to carry and install in any place are needed. Therefore, in this work, we prepared porous gold using a templating method with nanoporous alumina, and it was used as sensing materials and electrode. The resulting materials showed high purity macroporous structure with
of window-pore and
of surface area. Because porous gold had good electric conductivity, convenience to measure the change of electric resistivity and good reproducibility, it could be used as potential sensing materials. As a proof-of-concept test, the detection test for mercury ion was carried out.
A Neural Network-Based Tracking Method for the Estimation of Hazardous Gas Release Rate Using Sensor Network Data
So, Won ; Shin, Dong-Il ; Lee, Chang-Jun ; Han, Chong-Hun ; Yoon, En-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 38~41
In this research, we propose a new method for tracking the release rate using the concentration data obtained from the sensor. We used a sensor network that has already been set surrounding the area where hazardous gas releases can occur. From the real-time sensor data, we detected and analyzed releases of harmful materials and their concentrations. Based on the results, the release rate is estimated using the neural network. This model consists of 14 input variables (sensor data, material properties, process information, meteorological conditions) and one output (release rate). The dispersion model then performs the simulation of the expected dispersion consequence by combining the sensor data, GIS data and the diagnostic result of the source term. The result of this study will improve the safety-concerns of residents living next to storage facilities containing hazardous materials by providing the enhanced emergency response plan and monitoring system for toxic gas releases.
Development of Tank Lorry Monitoring System for Safety Using Intelligent Computing Device
Lee, Choon-Young ; Bae, Ki-Man ; Park, Geun-Young ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Lim, Jeong-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Ryong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 42~47
It is important for national safety that tank lorry or bulk lorry which is carrying toxic gas or explosive materials should be monitored during the maneuvering from starting point to destination as well as vehicle or tank status. Therefore, we propose a safety monitoring system for tank lorry to check driving condition and the vehicle status. We studied the integration of central control system with in-vehicle computer system connected with various sensors for monitoring through a communication network.
Development of Methane Gas Leak Detector Using Mid-infrared Ray Sensors with
Park, Gyou-Tae ; Lyu, Keun-Jun ; Han, Sang-In ; Oh, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Ji-Yoon ; Ahn, Sang-Guk ; Yoon, Myung-Seop ; Kwon, Jeong-Rock ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 48~52
According to extremely industrial growth, gas facilities, equipments and chemical plants are gradually increased due to incremental demands of annual amount of gases. The safety management of gases, however, is still far from their requirements. Methane, the principal ingredient of natural gas, is inflammable and explosive and is much used in factories and houses. Therefore, these gas safety management is essential. So, we, with a program of the gas safety management, hope to develop the detection system of methane gas leak using mid-infrared ray LED and PD with
. The cryogenic cooling device is indispensible at laser but needless at LED driven on the room temperature if manufacturing optical sensor with
. It, consequently, is not only possible to implement for subminiature and portable type but also able to speedily detect methane of extremely small quantities because the
absorption intensity at
is stronger than that at
. Our objective of research is to prevent gas leak accidents from occurring previously and to minimize the extent of damage from them.
Nondestructive Testing of Welding Flaw at Gas Pipeline by Measuring Magnetic Flux Leakage
Ryu, Kwon-Sang ; Park, Soo-Yung ; Kim, Yong-Il ; Lee, Wan-Kyu ; Lim, Jae-Kyun ; Nam, Young-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 53~56
We have developed a system for nondestructive measurement of the magnetic flux leakage at welding flaws, existing in a gas pipeline by Hall sensor. For measuring the magnetic flux leakage, we designed a reference specimen having four kinds of welding flaws. Magnetic flux leakage is measured around the welding flaws of the specimen. The possibility for classification of different kinds of welding flaws is carried out by means of the peak-peak value and the interval between peak-peak of the magnetic flux leakage.
A Study on Failure Mode of Pipe Elbows with Wall Thinning
Shin, Kyu-In ; Yoon, Kee-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 57~62
Difference of failure modes was studied by finite element analysis for elbows with local wall thinning area particularly at inner surface of intrados of the elbow. Longitudinal wall thinning length, minimum thickness were kept constant but circumferential wall thinning width was varied to get
thinning width. Elastic-plastic analysis were carried out under the combined loading conditions of internal pressure and in-plane bending moment closing the elbow. Von Mises stress were obtained from the outer surface central surface location in intrados, extrados and crown parts in elbow. The results showed that the plastic deformation and failure started from the crown location when the thinning width small (
). However, plastic collapse started from the intrados location when the thinning width is approaching
. This should be reflected to assess structural integrity of elbows after wall thinning measurement is made.
A Empirical Study on Applying Ubiquitous Technology for Gas Safety Management
Oh, Jeong-Seok ; Choi, Kyung-Suhk ; Kwon, Jeong-Rock ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 63~68
The ubiquitous technology is capable of innovating various area to constructing intelligent and network to all objects. This technology can construct network infrastructure to facilities for applying legacy industry and need to develop intelligent service that analyze context-aware through network. This paper derive and propose the introduction range of ubiquitous technology, which should be testified and analyzed network, and studied the detection and analysis of information for managing gas facilities. We investigate the current status of gas facilities and automatic reading system, testing and analyzing wireless personal area network and mobile communication by scalability, self-configuration, connection in underground. Furthermore, we propose modelization method for intelligent service and derive the introduction range for applying ubiquitous technologies for managing gas facilities.
Suggestions for Safety Improvement of CNG Bus Based on Accident and Failure Analysis
Yoon, Jae-Kun ; Yoon, Kee-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 69~76
Three failure cases of CNG composite vessels were reported since after January 2005. The 1st and 2nd accidents were indebted to vessel defect and installation mistake. The 3rd was caused by gas leak at pipe connections. In this paper various aspects were studied based on information of the three failure analysis, which must be improved for better safety of the CNG bus system. Overpressure region caused by vessel explosion was theoretically predicted and also assessed by PHAST program. Explosion of 120 l vessel under 20 MPa is equivalent to 1.2 kg TNT explosion. The predicted value by PHAST was more serious than theoretical one. However, actual consequence of explosion was much less than both of the predicted consequences. Since the CNG vessel was designed by the performance based design methodology, it is difficult to verify whether the required process and tests were properly conducted or not after production. If material toughness is not enough, the vessel should be weak in brittle fracture at early in the morning of winter season since the metal temperature can be lower than the transition temperature. If autofrettage pressure is not correct, fatigue failure due to tensile stress during repeated charging is possible. One positive aspect is that fire did not ocurred after vessel failure. This may be indebted to fast diffusion of natural gas which hindered starting fire.
Effects of Fuel Nozzle Diameter in the Behavior of Laminar Lifted Flame
Kim, Tae-Kwon ; Um, Hyen-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Ho ; Ha, Ji-Soo ; Park, Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 77~84
Experimental study was conducted to clarify the importance of buoyancy effects in laminar lifted flames which have been well understood by cold jet similarity theory. To evaluate buoyancy effects, lifted flame behaviors were systematically observed in methane and propane lifted flames diluted with He as changing the fuel nozzle diameter from 0.1 to 6 mm. Important physical parameters such as fuel strength, flame stretch and flame curvature, which were derived through simple physical scaling laws, were estimated. It is experimentally proven that buoyancy effects are important in relatively large fuel nozzle diameter and large fuel dilution with He. The results of Chen et al., which displayed the existence of stably lifted flames for 0.5
A Study on Pipeline Network Analysis for Predicting Pressure and Flow rate Transients in City-gas Supply Lines
Nam, Jin-Hyun ; Cho, Chan-Young ; Jang, Sung-Pill ; Lim, Si-Hyung ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Chung, Tae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 85~91
The deviation of measured pressures in pipeline networks from normal or reference pressures is useful information for judging the operation of the pipeline networks. A cost-effective monitoring of pipeline networks including a leak detection capability can be realized when transient pressure variation is accurately predicted using measured conditions at supply- and demand-sides of the networks. In this study, a pipeline network analysis program was developed based on one-dimensional flow equations for compressible fluids. The validity of the present analysis was demonstrated by simulating the flow in a straight pipeline and comparing the results with the previously reported ones. Pressure and flow rate transients in several simple city-gas pipeline networks were also analyzed to show the usefulness of the developed program.
Assessment of Yield Characteristics of Gas Pipeline Materials by Observing Surface-Local Deformation
Lee, Yun-Hee ; Baek, Un-Bong ; Cheong, In-Hyeon ; Nahm, Seung-Hoon ; Lee, Sang-Houck ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 92~98
A combination of the instrumented indentation and 3D morphology measurement has been tried in order to perform a real-time property measurement of degraded materials in gas pipelines; three-dimensional indent morphologies were recorded using a reflective laser scanner after a series of insturmented indentations on three metallic specimens. Dimensions of the permanent deformation zone and contact boundary were analyzed from the cross-sectional profile over an remnant indent and used for estimating yield strength and hardness, respectively. Estimated yield strength was comparable with that from uniaxial tensile test and actual hardness implying material pile-up effects was lower than the calculated value from indentation curve by
. It means that this 3D image analysis can explain the material pile-up effects on the contact properties. Additionally, a combined system of indentation and laser sensor was newly designed by modifying a shape of the indentation loading fixture.
Numerical Analysis for Evaluation of Ejection Capacity Relationship of Safety Valves in Pressure Regulating Station(I) - Flow Analysis and Mass Flow Rate Verification of Pressure Regulator -
Gwon, Hyuk-Rok ; Roh, Kyung-Chul ; Kim, Young-Seop ; Lee, Seong-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 99~104
Gas pressure regulators in pressure regulating station reduce high-pressure gas in a process line to a lower. Gas pressure regulators are not flow control devices, they are used to control delivery pressure only. For the safety of pressure regulating station, it is essential to study flow regime and characteristics of a safety valves that is connected to a pressure regulator. For this, it is necessary to understand flow characteristics and the flow rate of upstream component part such as gas pressure regulators in regulating station. In the present study, numerical analysis of flow characteristics and the mass flow rate of a pressure regulator is conducted under the several inlet, outlet conditions and open rates. Then, the numerical result of the mass flow rate is verified with experimental equation from manufacture of pressure regulator. Consequently, the numerical result is comparatively good agreement with values from experimental equation.
Numerical Analysis for Evaluation of Ejection Capacity Relationship of Safety Valves in Pressure Regulating Station (II) - Flow Analysis and Required Effective Discharge Area of Safety Valve -
Gwon, Hyuk-Rok ; Roh, Kyung-Chul ; Kim, Young-Seop ; Lee, Seong-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 105~109
A safety valve has a valve mechanism for the automatic release of gas from piping system when the pressure exceeds preset limit cause of a defect of a pressure regulator, condensation of water in a pipe. Therefore, for the safety of pressure regulating station, it is essential to study the flow regime and characteristics of safety valve. This article presents the numerical analysis on the flow analysis, the ejection capacity and required effective discharge area of the safety valve that is established in pressure regulating station. Then, the results are compared and analyzed with domestic and foreign regulations such as API(America Petroleum Institute), EN(European Standard), and NF(Norme Francise). Moreover, the installation number of safety valve is considered by using domestic and foreign regulations and maximum reguired effective discharge area of safety valve.
Reduction Method for the Risk of the Chemical Facilities by KS-RBI Program Supporting the Quantitative Cause Analysis
Kim, Tae-Ok ; Lee, Hern-Chang ; Jo, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Kyu-Jung ; Kwon, Hyuck-Myun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 110~117
The risks of the chemical facilities were estimated by the KS-RBI(Ver. 3.0) program supporting the quantitative cause analysis, and reduction method for the risks of the facilities was investigated. As a result, we could find that the risks of the facilities decrease with reducing the likelihood of failure (LOF) affected by demage mechanism, inspection number and effectiveness of inspection, and with reducing the consequence of failure (COF) affected by the ratings of the detection, isolation, and mitigation systems. Furthermore, high risks of the facilities would be decreased by reduction of the LOF and the COF simultaneously. Accordingly, the applied plant would be able to achieve the decrease of inspection and labor costs because of the decrease of consequences and inspection intervals through the reduction of risks.
Development of Emergency Response System by Risk Assessment Methodology in Energy Facility
Lee, Heon-Seok ; Kang, Seung-Gyun ; Jung, In-Hee ; Kim, Bum-Su ; Yoo, Jin-Hwan ; Park, Chul-Hwan ; Kim, Dae-Heum ; Ko, Jae-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 12, issue 2, 2008, Pages 118~123
There are many facilities, such as facilities for high pressure gas storage and systems related to high pressure pipes, to handle hazardous materials in energy industries. Because the foundation of the proper risk analysis and management system has not been established, there is the possibility of an accident and Korea has met higher accident rate than developed countries. These accidents in energy facilities could cause great damage to facilities including the surrounding area, We have conducted the present research in order to systematize the emergency response system (ERS) using a lot of information on the degree of damage in an accident by consequence analysis.