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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of GAS
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Influence of the Magnesium Content on the Explosion Properties of Mg-Al Alloy Dusts
Han, Ou-Sup ; Lee, Keun-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.1
Using the Siwek 20 L spherical explosion vessel, the explosion properties have been examined to understand the influence of magnesium content in Mg-Al alloy dusts with different concentration. For this purpose, the Mg-Al alloy dusts (volume mean diameter :
) with magnesium content ratio were used. As the results, the increase of Mg content in Mg-Al alloy causes an decreased minimum explosion concentration and an increased maximum explosion pressure. Also the maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise in Mg-Al alloy dusts mainly depended on the dust concentrations. However, for the explosion index (Kst) of Mg-Al (40:60 wt%), Mg-Al (50:50 wt%) and Mg-Al (60:40 wt%), it was founded to increase the Kst with increasing of magnesium content ratio.
A Study on DNA Degeneration by Comet Assay & Pathological Observation for Mouse Which were Exposed HCN Gases from Fire
Cho, Nam-Wook ; Oh, Eun-Ha ; Hwang, Sung-Kwy ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 7~16
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.7
Combustion Toxic Effects among several factors of risk encountered during fire are important in the evacuation and final survival, and they are broader and fatal than the direct damages caused by flame. Most studies on fire toxicity until the present are limited to fatality, mainly deaths by fire through pathological research. In this study, it is conducted as a fundamental experiment to address 3 principles of animal experiment and to provide an alternative test to animal testing that is regulated by national building codes and it was conducted through approval by the animal testing ethics committee. Hence, in this study average time of activity stop was measured after directly inhaling toxic gases (HCN) to laboratory animals (mice) through gas toxicity test (KS F 2271) for major asphyxiating gases(HCN) which are produced during fire combustion. effects of Combustion toxic gases on body were quantitatively analyzed through changes in internal organs and hematological analysis, and electrophoresis of a single cell of these laboratory animals. Biological conclusion of combustion toxicology is drawn through approaches (pathological examination, blood test, blood biochemical test, electrophoresis analysis of single cell) which could not confirmed in existing gas toxicity test.
Characteristics of LPG Fuel Reforming Utilizing Plasma Reformer
Park, Yunhwan ; Lee, Deahoon ; Kim, Changup ; Kang, Kernyoung ; Cho, Yongseok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.17
In this study, characteristics of reforming process of Automotive LPG fuel using plasma reactor are investigated. Because plasma reformer technology has advantages of a fast start-up and wide fuel/oxidizer ratio of operation, and reactor size is smaller and more simple compared to typical combustor and catalytic reactor, plasma reforming is suitable to the on-board vehicle reformer. To evaluate the characteristics of the reforming process, parametric effect of
/C ratio, reactant flow rate and plasma power on the process were investigated. In the test of varying
/C ratio from partial oxidation stoichiometry to combustion stoichiometry, conversion of LPG was increased but selectivity of
decreased. The optimum condition of
/C ratio for the highest
yield was determined to be 0.8~0.9 for 20~50 lpm. The result can be a guide to map optimal condition of reforming process.
Improvement of Leakage Performance of LPG Injector
Kim, Changup ; Shin, Moonsung ; Baik, SeungKook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 23~28
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.23
The LPG engine technology in Korea has made significant advances with the mass production of LPG vehicle with liquid phase LPG injection system, and have reached to satisfy the SULEV emission regulations. As of now, domestic production of LPG fuelled vehicles in Korea have reached more than 2.4 millions, which is the best in the world. But in the technical point of view, the key technologies for fuel injection system of LPG fuelled engine are mainly dependent on foreign license. Especially, fuel injector in the liquid phase LPG injection system has been imported from C company, which supplies LPG injector worldwide in the name of model D. In the context, it is quite urgent to develop the LPG injector technology in Korea. In this study, WCC coating which is key technology to develop LPG injector by reducing the fuel leakage was developed and tested. Considering the fuel leakage of 0.06cc/min in commercial LPG injector, fuel leakage was reduced down to 0.04cc/min with WCC coating technology and optimization of injector structure.
A Study on Mitigating Accidents for Liquid Hydrogen
Jo, Young-Do ; Kim, Jin-Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 29~33
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.29
This paper is an attempt to give a concise overview of the state-of-the-art in the recent liquid hydrogen safety researches with unwanted event progress. The vessel of liquified hydrogen may fail and liquid hydrogen spilled. The hydrogen will immediately start to evaporate above a pool and make a hydrogen cloud. The cloud will disperse and can produce a vapor cloud explosion. The vessel containing the liquid hydrogen may not be able to cope with the boil-off due to heat influx, especially in case of a fire, and a BLEVE may occur. In equipment where it exists as compressed gas, a leak generates a jet of gas that can self-ignite immediately or after a short delay and produce a jet flame, or in case it ignites at a source a certain distance from the leak (delayed ignition), a flash fire occurs in the open and with confinement a deflagration or even detonation may develop. The up-to-date knowledge in these events, recent progress and future research are discussed in brief.
A Study on the Worst Stress Condition Test Evaluation of Blowers for Small Stationary Fuel Cell System
Kim, Kangsoo ; Lee, Deokkwon ; Lee, Jungwoon ; Kim, Eunjung ; Kim, Inchan ; Kim, Younggyu ; Shin, Hunyong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 34~40
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.34
The fuel cell is one of the renewable energy sources. And it is a new source of energy that can be applied to various fuels and continuously supported by the excellent city-gas infrastructure. It is important to improve performances and reliabilities, and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems for commercialization. And, some safety performances of blower domestically produced are evaluated and some improvements are researched to save the cost of fuel cell systems. In this paper, the performance and worst stress condition of blowers are evaluated in operating environment similar to the fuel cell systems. Actually, the correlation of flow, leakage and thermal behavior are evaluated in the worst stress condition at
and, some major factors of blower degradation such as a motor deterioration, material and structures of the outlet are examined.
A Study on Reliability Flow Diagram Development of Chemical Process Using Directed Graph Analysis Methodology
Byun, Yoon Sup ; Hwang, Kyu Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.41
There are PFD(Process Flow Diagram) and P&ID(Piping and Instrument Diagram) for designing and managing chemical process efficiently. They provide the operation condition and equipment specifications of chemical process, but they do not provide the reliability of chemical process. Therefore, in this study, Reliability Flow Diagram(RFD) which provide the cycle and time of preventive maintenance has been developed using Directed Graph Analysis methodology. Directed Graph Analysis methodology is capable of assessing the reliability of chemical process. It models chemical process into Directed Graph with nodes and arcs and assesses the reliability of normal operation of chemical process by assessing Directed Graph sequential. In this paper, the chemical process reliability transition according to operation time was assessed. And then, Reliability Flow Diagram has been developed by inserting the result into P&ID. Like PFD and P&ID, Reliability Flow Diagram provide valuable and useful information for the design and management of chemical process.
The comparative risk assessment of LNG tank designs using FTA
Lee, Seung Rim ; Kim, Han Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 48~54
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.48
Building above-ground membrane LNG storage tanks have been recently actively reviewed because they have advantages in ease of large capacity, environmental friendliness, and low possibility of gas leakage of the inner tank (slow increase of leakage speed). In this paper, the safety of membrane LNG storage tanks was ensured through comparative risk assessment of full-containment LNG storage tanks and membrane LNG storage tanks by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Risk assessment results showed that both types of tanks have very similar level of risk except for the membrane storage tanks without additional safety equipments (early model).
Development of the Efficiency-Evaluation Model for the Mechanism of CO
Sequestration in a Deep Saline Aquifer
Kim, Jung-Gyun ; Lee, Young-Soo ; Lee, Jeong-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 55~66
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.55
The practical way to minimize the greenhouse gas is to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. For this reason, CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) technology, which could reduce carbon dioxide emission, has risen as a realistic alternative in recent years. In addition, the researcher is recently working into ways of applying CCS technologies with deep saline aquifer. In this study, the evaluation model on the feasibility of
sequestration in the deep saline aquifer using ANN(Artificial Neural Network) was developed. In order to develop the efficiency-evaluation model, basic model was created in the deep saline aquifer and sensitivity analysis was performed for the aquifer characteristics by utilizing the commercial simulator of GEM. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the factors and ranges affecting
sequestration in the deep saline aquifer were chosen. The result from ANN training scenario were confirmed
sequestration by solubility trapping and residual trapping mechanism. The result from ANN model evaluation indicated there is the increase of correlation coefficient up to 0.99. It has been confirmed that the developed model can be utilized in feasibility of
sequestration at deep saline aquifer.
Finite Element Analysis on the Sealing Contact Stress of a CNG Fueling Nipple for Vehicles
Kim, Chung Kyun ; Yoo, Jae Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.67
In this study, the leak-free performance and sealing endurance safety of CNG fueling nipple in which are related to the contact normal stress and equivalent true stress have been analyzed for CNG automobile using a finite element analysis. For the conventional circular o-rings and new double-lip o-rings with an initial compression rate of 15 percentages, the leak-free performance of double-lip o-rings with two contact sealing spots is 41% higher than that of the conventional circular o-rings with a contact sealing spot. The FEM computed results present that the leak-free endurance safety of double-lip o-rings with two contact sealing spots is 5% higher than that of the conventional circular o-rings for initial compression ratio of 15 percentages and a gas compression pressure of 8MPa. And, the maximum equivalent true stress of double-lip o-rings is 10.2% higher than that of the conventional circular o-rings for the leak-free endurance safety. This means that the double-lip o-ring may guarantee the extended sealing life compared to that of a conventional circular o-ring.
Experiment Study on Operation Model of Automatic Cylinder Valve by the Temperature Differences
Jang, Kap-Man ; Eom, Seok Hwa ; Kim, In Chan ; Kim, Chung Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.73
Currently, all domestic CNG vehicles have manual cylinder valves installed. These are inconvenient for drivers in case of a gas leak accident, because drivers have to stop the vehicle operation and manually close the valve. It makes difficult condition for drivers to quickly and properly respond to such accidents. In advanced European countries, they require Automatic cylinder valve installation, which has a structure where the valve is automatically shut off when the driver turns off the ignition in case of a gas leak. If this electric valve system is introduced in Korea, the safety of CNG buses will be improved with better functionalities. In this paper, in order to solve the structural problem of difficulty for a driver to identify the operational status of individual Automatic cylinder valves, an approach was made regarding temperature increase with pressure increase during CNG filling. it was estimated that the temperature increased approximately more than
due to pressure difference during the filling. Therefore, it was concluded from the experimental data that the valve of the container whose temperature did not increase did not operate, resulting in filling failure.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Risk Assessment Regulation in Manufacturing Industries
Lee, Gibaek ; Baek, Jong-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 80~86
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.80
From 1982, the Korean Ministry of Employment and Labor has executed the risk assessment regulation for manufacturing industries. When a manufacturing company install, transfer, or modify the major facilities, the program inspects and verifies safety of the working place to ensure safety against risks. This study performed cost-benefit analysis of the program for the eight industrial categories that were free from the program. The cost-benefit analysis is the basic method to estimate the effect of the policy execution, and used to justify the policy effectiveness. As a result, there is the biggest benefit in the manufacture of basic metal products and then motor vehicles, trailers and semitrailers, other manufacturing, other machinery and equipment, wood products of wood and cork, rubber and plastic products, food products, furniture in order. Thus the hazard prevention program should be applied into the 8 industrial categories in order to strengthen national competitiveness, protect labors`s safety, reduce the social cost and improve the welfare.
A Study on Quantitative Risk Analysis & Model Application for Hydrogen Filling Center
Shin, Jung-Soo ; Byun, Hun-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 87~101
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.87
In gas industries, the potential risks of serious accidents have been increased due to high technology application and process complexities. Especially, in case of gas-related accidents, the extent of demage is out of control since gas plants handle and produce combustible, flammable, explosive and toxic materials in large amounts. The characteristics of this kind of disaster is that accident frequency is low, while the impact of damage is high, extending to the neighboring residents, environment and related industries as well as employees involved. The hydrogen gases treated important things and it used the basic material of chemical plants and industries. Since 2000, this gas stood in the spotlight the substitution energy for reduction of the global warming in particular however it need to compress high pressure(more than 150 bar.g) and store by using the special cylinders due to their low molecular weight. And this gas led to many times the fire and explosion due to leak of it. To reduce these kinds of risks and accidents, it is necessary to improve the new safety management system through a risk management after technically evaluating potential hazards in this process. This study is to carry out the quantitative risk assesment for hydrogen filling plant which are very dangerous(fire and explosive) and using a basic materials of general industries. As a results of this risk assessment, identified the elements important for safety(EIS) and suggested the practical management tools and verified the reliability of this risk assessment model through case study of accident.
Study of Examples for Air Bag Non-deployment Including Rear Collision and Failure Phenomenon by Damage of Control Parts in Vehicle Air Bag
Lee, Il Kwon ; Kim, Young Gyu ; Moon, Hak Hook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 102~106
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.102
The purpose of this paper is to study the failure cases in relation to system of Air Bag in vehicle happened in the field. In the first example, it was separated the soldering parts connected the wire pin between air bag module and clock spring of air bag. Whenever the pin shake by the car`s vibration, the driver verified the malfunction phenomenon appeared air bag warning lamp on instrument panel in front of driver`s seat. in car inside room. The second example, it verified the warning lamp lighting phenomenon of air bag by produced the circuit plate non-contacting of single an element in air bag electronic control unit. The third example, it verified the light of air bag warning indicator lamp by separated with soldering parts connecting inner pin and resistance terminal of seat belt pretensioner using passenger seat. The fourth example, when the passenger car crash a back of truck, the former bumper get jammed under the latter as the roof height of car low less than that. Therefore, the impact of Car`s collision verified that don`t transfer with body frame of vehicle because of no attachment impact sensor in it.
Test Bed Design of Fire Detection System Based on Multi-Sensor Information for Reduction of False Alarms
Lee, Kijun ; Kim, Hyeong Gweon ; Lee, Bong Woo ; Kim, Tae-Ok ; Shin, Dongil ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 107~114
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.107
Fire detection system is used for detection and alarm-generation of danger in case of fire. Most fire detection systems being used these days often malfunction from false positive and false negative errors. To improve detection reliability, an integrated fire detection algorithm using multi-senor information of heat, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors is suggested, then built and tested using the LabVIEW environment. Simulated using sensor measurement data offered by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), possibility of reducing false positive and false negative errors is verified.
Study on the Change of Physical Properties in Polyurethane Foam by NCO index at the Aging Condition
Kim, Kwangin ; Kim, Sangbum ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 115~122
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.115
Polyurethane foams were synthesized with different contents and kinds of catalysts to know change of properties under various NCO index. UTM(universal testing machine), DSC(differential scanning calorimetry), SEM(scanning electron microscope) and FT-IR(Fourier transform spectroscopy) were used for studying the PUF`s physical properties change. Compressive strength of PUF increased with increasing contents of catalyst. Glass transition temperature(Tg) and compressive strength of PUF using PC-8 and 33LV catalyst, increased with increasing NCO index at the aging. According to the results of Infrared spectral analysis, reduction of NCO peak was found in gelling catalyst, because unreacted NCO reacted with polyurethane. Although Tg and compressive strength of PUF using TMR-2, unchanged with increasing NCO index at the aging, because trimerization of isocyanate.
Study on the Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foam at the Aging Condition
Kim, Chang-Bum ; Kim, Sangbum ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 123~127
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.123
In order to establish the cause of the deformation of polyurethane foam, compression set was measured according to the aging temperature and time. FT-IR, TGA, DSC and DMA were used for investigating the cause of deformation of aged PUF. The results of FT-IR and TGA reveals that no structure change occurred during deformation of PUF. Resilience of aged PUF was reduced by the increase of reduction ratio in storage modulus over the glass transition temperature of hard segment.
Development and Field Test of a Smart-home Gas Safety Management System
Park, Gyou-Tae ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kim, In-Chan ; Kim, Hie-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 128~135
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.128
In this paper, we proposed a system and a scenario to raise efficiency of gas safety management by developing wireless ZigBee communication modules, smart-home gas safety appliances and the system suitable for gas safety. Our designed system consists of a micom gas meter, an automatic extinguisher, sensors, and a wall-pad. A micom-gas-meter monitors gas flow, gas pressure, and earthquake. An automatic fire extinguisher checks combustible gas leaks and temperature of
(cut off) and
(fire). Sensors measure smoke and CO gas. In our novel system, a micom-gas meter cut off inner valve with warnings, an automatic fire extinguisher cut off middle valve and spray extinguishing materials, and sensors generate signals when detecting smoke and CO and then take a next action. Gas safety appliances and sensors automatically takes measures, and transmit those information to a wall-pad. The wall-pad again transmits real time information to server. Users can check and manage gas safety situations by connecting BcN server through web or mobile application. We hereby devised scenarios for gas safety and risk management based on the smart, and demonstrated their efficiency through test applied to filed.
Thermodynamic Analysis on the Feasibility of Turbo Expander Power Generation Using Natural Gas Waste Pressure
Ha, Jong Man ; Hong, Seongho ; Kim, Kyung Chun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 136~142
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.136
Thermodynamic equations for the electric power and temperature in a turbo expander generator (TEG) using pressure energy in a natural gas line are derived. From the equations, it was shown that dominant factor is not the pressure difference but the pressure ratio. The high energy level in the inlet of TEG can be made from nearly no expense of electric energy input, which means TEG can be treated as one of newly available clean energy source. If a post heating method is chosen to heat up expanded natural gas, the usage of cold energy is possible without a refrigeration cycle. The combined TEG and refrigeration system enhances economic benefit much more.
Tungsten-Doped Titania Nanopowders - Their Chemical Vapor Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity
Park, Bo-In ; Kang, Kae-Myung ; Jie, Hyunseock ; Song, Bong-Geun ; Park, Jong-Ku ; Cho, So-Hye ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 16, issue 6, 2012, Pages 143~147
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2012.16.6.143
Photocatalytic properties of
nanopowders has been received much attention due to their high potentials for environmental applications such as remediation of polluted environments. The
nanopowders doped with metal or non-metal elements have been synthesized by variety methods such as flame method, chemical vapor synthesis, sol-gel, ion implantation, which affect a doping behavior in different ways resulting in different surface characteristics, leading to different photocatalytic activity. In addition to an effect of synthesis methods, the photocatalytic activity of
nanopowders can be improved by subsequent heat-treatments. In this study, to obtain a highly efficient photocatalyst, we synthesized
nanopowders doped with tungsten by the chemical vapor synthesis method (CVS) and determined their physical properties and photocatalytic activity, together with subsequent post-treatment in the range of