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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of GAS
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Working Environment and Risk Assessment of Gasoline in Workplace
Kim, Hyeon-Yeong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.1
To protect the workers' health, we evaluated the hazards of gasoline which the large amounts of use and lack of information, and perform the risk assessment through the measurement of working environment. It is estimated the reproductive toxicity, and has germ cell mutagenicity class 1B, also IARC 2B, ACGIH A3 with carcinogenicity. With working environment, it is measured as below the TLV-TWA
. It is also calculated
as carcinogenicity RfC (worker),
as chronic inhalation toxicity RfC (worker),
as developmental toxicity RfC (worker). From all of these results, it is calculated that the risks are 459, 51 and 51 as carcinogenicity, chronic inhalation toxicity and developmental toxicity, respectively. It is concluded that the risk of gasoline is evaluated over 1.
A Study on the Optimized Installation of Gas Storage Tank through Pugh Method
Huh, Yong Jeong ; Lee, Jong Rark ; Lee, Seon Yeong ; Leem, Sa Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 8~12
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.8
The aim of this study is achieving customer satisfaction by finding cost-effective installation of storage tanks in the gas filling stations. Pros and cons were measured by comparison between above and underground tanks using Pugh methods. In particular, severe problems regarding gas safety are expected to be resolved by reducing the frequency of gas accidents occurred in mass storage facilities. To this end, we have used Pugh's method to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the existing storage tanks-Ground above type and underground type. After the analyses, it is shown that underground containment storage tank can provide the highest degree of safety and Real estate among Ground above type, Underground buried type and underground containment type storage tanks.
Thermodynamic Analysis on Hybrid Turbo Expander - Heat Pump System for Natural Gas Pressure Regulation
Sung, Taehong ; Kim, Kyoung Hoon ; Han, Sangjo ; Kim, Kyung Chun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.13
In natural gas distribution system, gas pressure is regulated correspond to requirement using throttle valve which is releasing huge pressure energy as useless form. The waste pressure can be recovered by using turbo machinery devices such as a turbo expander. In this process, excessive temperature drop occurs due to Joule-Thompson effect during the expansion process. Installing natural gas boiler before or after the turbo expander prevents temperature drop. Fuel cell or gas engine hybrid system further improve the efficiency, but 1~2% of total transporting natural gas is used for operating the hybrid system. In this study, a heat pump system is proposed as a preheating device which can be operated without using transporting natural gas. Thermodynamic analysis on evaporating and condensing temperatures and refrigerants is conducted. Results show that R717 is proper refrigerant for the hybrid system with high COP and low turbine work within the defined operating conditions. In domestic usage in Korea, the heat pump system has more economic feasibility owing to natural gas being imported with a high price of LNG form.
Explosion Hazards of Aluminum Powders with the Variation of Mean Diameter
Han, Ou-Sup ; Han, In-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 21~26
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.21
In this study, the explosion characteristic of aluminium powders have been investigated as a function of particle size using by a 20 L dust explosion apparatus (K
hner). The tested aluminium particle sizes were the volume mean diameter of 16, 33 and
. The lower explosion limit increases gradually with the increasing of dust particle diameter, respectively 40, 60,
in mean diameter of 16, 33 and
. Also the increase in particle size for each aluminum dusts was found to cause an decrease in explosion pressure and Kst of dust explosion index, and a increase in the lower explosion concentration. Research results may have important implications for aluminum powders utilization and safety operation.
The Effects of the Tempered Materials on the Thermal Runaway Characteristics in the Resol Resin Synthesis Reaction
Lee, Jung-Suk ; Lee, Keun-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.27
In this study, we evaluated an effect of the tempered materials on the thermal runaway characteristics in the resol resin synthesis reaction using the adiabatic calorimetry of vent sizing package 2(VSP2). The kinetic parameters, such as an activation energy and heat of reaction, were estimated using the test results. As the results, the instantaneous characteristics to express the intensity of runaway reaction decreased at the low solid content. However, the sudden loss of the tempered materials triggered the second runaway reaction rapidly. In this condition, the heat of reaction and the activation energy of phenol and p-formaldehyde were about 157 kJ/mol and 60 kJ/mol, respectively.
A Study on Development and Construction Methods of the Inorganic Floor Finishing Material of Hazardous Material Storage Facilities
Oh, Dong-Seok ; Yu, Chul-Hee ; Kim, Byung-Duk ; Kim, Heum ; Park, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.35
Usage of the inorganic floor finishing material can be advantageous to overcome some problems of traditional organic-based floor finishing material used for hazardous material storage facilities. A spark can be produced by physical impact between the flooring and the flooring disposal equipment while removing the existing flooring. In order to prevent a fire hazard, which may be caused the spark, it is feasible that a construction can be implemented without removing the existing flooring. Moreover, the top coating material containing an antistatic agent is effective to prevent secondary damage caused by static electricity after finishing the construction of the flooring. Therefore, the inorganic floor finishing material of the this study is expected to be beneficial for safety management and economical aspect for inspectors.
The Study on Measurement and Prediction of Combustible Properties for Aniline
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 44~50
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.44
For the safe handling of aniline, this study was investigated the explosion limits of aniline in the reference data. And the lower flash points, upper flash points and AITs(auto-ignition temperatures) by ignition delay time were experimented. The lower flash point of aniline by using Setaflash and Penski-Martens closed-cup testers were experimented
, respectively. The lower flash point aniline by using Tag and Cleveland open cup testers were experimented
, respectively. Also, this study measured relationship between the AITs and the ignition delay times by using ASTM E659 tester for aniline. The experimental AIT of aniline was
. The calculated LEL and UEL by using the measured low flash point and upper flash point were 1.16 Vol.% and 8.36 Vol.%, respectively.
FE Analysis on the Sealing Characteristics of Multi-Contact Packing for Swivel Joint
Kim, Chung Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 51~55
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.51
This paper was analyzed for a sealing characteristics of single lip contact type o-ring and multiple lip contact type packing for a swivel joint using the finite element method. According to the FE analysis, a conventional o-ring produces a maximum contact normal stress of 2.5MPa for a supplied LP gas pressure of 1.8MPa, which is related to the sealing performance. But, a sealing performance of newly invented multi-lip packing produces a maximum contact normal stress of 3.01MPa, which is 20.4% higher than that of a conventional o-ring. And an extrusion of a conventional o-ring, which is strongly related to the sealing endurance safety, was occurred at a supplied gas pressure of 1.62MPa. But, a multi-lip packing does not produce up to the gas pressure of 1.8MPa. This means that a new type of multi-lip packing may have excellent sealing characteristics because of no extrusion for high gas pressure. Thus, multi-lip packing with multiple lip contacts may be useful for high sealing and endurance safety compared to that of the conventional o-ring with a single lip contact.
Numerical Study on Steam-Methane Reaction Process in a Single Tube Considering Porous Catalyst
Moon, Joo Hyun ; Lee, Seong Hyuk ; Yoon, Kee Bong ; Kim, Ji Yoon ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 56~62
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.56
The present study investigated numerically heat and mass transfer characteristics of a fixed bed reactor by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of Fluent (ver. 13.0). The temperature and species fraction were estimated for different porosities. For modeling of the catalyst in a fixed bed tube, catalysts were regarded as the porous material, and the empirical correlation of pressure drop based on the modified Eugun equation was used for simulation. In addition, the averaged porosities were taken as 0.545, 0.409, and 0.443 and compared with non-porous state. The predicted results showed that the temperature at the tube wall became higher than that estimated along the center line of tube, leading to higher hydrogen generation by the endothermic reaction and heat transfer. As the mean porosity increases, the hydrogen yield and the outlet temperature decreased because of the pressure drop inside the reformer tube.
Modeling of Liquid Hold-up in Fixed-bed Reactor for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
Park, Chansaem ; Jung, Ikhwan ; Park, Seongho ; Na, Jonggeol ; Kshetrimayum, Krishnadash ; Han, Chonghun ; Lee, Jong Yeol ; Jung, Jongtae ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 63~67
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.63
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis mainly produces a wax which is a viscous liquid for long carbon chain. When a catalytic fixed-bed reactor is used for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax generated on a catalyst surface can keep adsorbing on the catalyst surface. This liquid hold-up causes significant pressure drop and clogging problems through the reactor. Thus, the model for liquid hold-up is required to design the size of reactor and catalyst particles. In this study, the liquid hold-up model considering structural and operational conditions was proposed based on empirical equations for convective mass transfer between the syngas flow and the wax-adsorbed catalyst. The developed model was validated by comparing with the experimental data from Knochen's work (2010). The influence of reactor length and coross section on the wax hold-up in reactor were analyzed and the optimal reactor size were proposed.
A Study on Performance Shaping Factors of Human Error in Toxic Gas Facilities
Kim, Youngran ; Jang, Seo-Il ; Shin, Dongil ; Kim, Tae-Ok ; Park, Kyoshik ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.68
It is necessary to control and evaluate human factors to reduce economic loss by major accident in toxic gas facilities. Conventional works to evaluate hazards have been focused on mechanical and systematic failure, while only a little works have been studied on managing human errors. In this work, a classification system of performance shaping factor (PSF) was suggested to consist human error in managing accident in the toxic gas facilities. Four types of PSFs (human, system, task characteristics, and task environment) were collected, reviewed, and analyzed to be categorized selected according their characteristics of situational, task, and environmental parameters. The PSFs were further modified to set up PSF systems adequate to evaluate human error, and the proposed system to consist PSFs to evaluate human error was further studied through accident analysis in toxic gas facilities.
A Study on Applicability of API-581 and Methodology for Consequence Analysis in High-Pressure Toxic Gas Facilities
Jang, Seo-Il ; Kim, Youngran ; Park, Kyoshik ; Shin, Dongil ; Kim, Tae-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 76~85
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.76
To establish the necessary safety technology in high-pressure toxic gas facilities, especially for the corrosion, which is the main causes of toxic gas accident, this study adopts and investigates the API-581 procedures developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API). And the applicability of the 8-step analytical procedures of consequence analysis in API-581 is discussed, and a method for consequence analysis in high-pressure toxic gas facilities is suggested. Based on the discussion and results, the analytical procedure is simplified as the 6 steps in total for the effective application to high-pressure toxic gas facilities: Step 1 (determination of representative material), Step 5 (determination of release type), Step 6 (determination of phase of fluid), and Step 8 (estimation of damage range) are not applied: Step 3 (estimation of total amount of release) is applied only for the inventory group concept; Step 4 (estimation of release rate) only for the gas release rate; and all of Step 2 (selection of release hole size) and Step 7 (evaluation of post-release response) are applied. In the proposed method, the generally applicable method of CCPS is adopted as alternative method for Steps 5 and 8.
Cause Analysis and Development of Root Cause Analysis Map using Data of Chemical Laboratory Accidents
Lee, Su-Kyung ; Yoon, Yeo-Song ; Eom, Seok Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 18, issue 4, 2014, Pages 86~94
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2014.18.4.86
To develop a Root Cause Analysis Map which determines the cause of the accident in chemical laboratory, The Root Cause Analysis(RCA) Map for the laboratory areas was sketched from Phase 1 of the accident element to Phase 3 of the accident element, based on the RCA Map which is applied in the petrochemical industry. On the basis of laboratory RCA Map which was classified by using such method. The root causes of the 211 accident cases in laboratories were classified from Phase 4 to Phase 5 by the Cause Factor Charting technique and The cause of the accident data were inputted to EXCEL program. After that, The causes of the accident data were sorted and classified by type and each step. So 'Approximate Primary RCA Map Draft' was written. In addition, it was reaffirmed whether the root causes of 211 accidents of laboratory were appropriate to 'Primary RCA Map Draft'. By complementing the cause which was expected to cause future accidents, the RCA Map for chemical laboratories was developed. Based on 'RCA Map' proposed in this study, the causes of accidents were analysed management systems 35%, monitoring 12.2%, Human Factor Eng. 15.1% and education training 12.1% by the size of the frequency from Phase 1 to Phase 5.