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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of GAS
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia-Gasoline Dual-Fuel System in a One liter Engine
Jang, Jinyoung ; Woo, Youngmin ; Yoon, Hyung Chul ; Kim, Jong-Nam ; Lee, Youngjae ; Kim, Jeonghwan ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.1
An ammonia fuel system is developed and applied to a 1 liter gasoline engine to use ammonia as primary fuel. Ammonia is injected separately into the intake manifold in liquid phase while gasoline is also injected as secondary fuel. As ammonia burns 1/6 time slower than gasoline, the spark ignition is needed to be advanced to have better combustion phasing. The test engine showed quite high variation in the power output to lead high increase in THC emission with large amount of ammonia, that is, higher than 0.7 ammonia-gasoline fuel ratios.
Characteristics of Combustion and Emission for Synthetic Natural Gas in CNG Engine
Lee, Sungwon ; Lim, Gihun ; Park, Cheolwoong ; Choi, Young ; Kim, Changgi ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.8
Synthetic natural gas(SNG), acquired from coal, is regarded as an alternative to natural gas since a rise in natural gas due to high oil price can be coped with it. In the present study, 11-liter heavy duty compressed natural gas(CNG) engine was employed in order to examine the combustion and emission characteristics of SNG. The simulated SNG, made up 90.95% of methane, 6.05% propane and 3% hydrogen was used in the experiment. Power output, thermal efficiency, combustion stability and emission characteristics were compared to those with CNG at the same engine operating conditions. Knocking phenomenon was also analyzed at 1260 rpm, full load condition. Combustion with SNG was more stable than CNG. Nitrogen oxides emissions increased while Carbon dioxides emissions decreased. Anti-knocking characteristics were improved with SNG.
Dynamic Performance of Natural Gas Injection Valve for Heavy-Duty Power Generation Engine - Part I
Choi, Young ; Kim, Yong-Rae ; Lee, Seok-Whan ; Kim, Chang-Gi ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.15
Natural gas fuel has known to be very promising in terms of abundancy and economic value. Therefore it is widely treated as research topics in a variety field of production, storage and utilization. Natural gas has become one of the major sources for the power generation by using internal combustion engines(ICE). Development of natural gas fuel injection device should be preceded to realize a reliable natural gas fuel supply system for a MW class power generation reciprocating ICE. In this research, an injection valve which consists of solenoid and body part with a moving plate was designed and its dynamic performance was experimented in the engine-like environment. As a result of the experiments, linearity of flow rate was obtained and overall around 2ms of response time was observed at the pressure difference of 1bar. In addition, more than 100Liter/min(@2Hz) of gas flow rate was witnessed, which is expected to be adequate for the fuel supply system of a MW class natural gas engine.
Start and Idle Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen Engine for the HALE UAV
Kim, Yong-Rae ; Choi, Young ; Lee, Janghee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 22~27
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.22
Hydrogen features highest energy density per mass and is expected to be desirable as a fuel of HALE(High altitude long endurance) UAV(Unmanned aerial vehicle). A reciprocating internal combustion engine is known to be a reliable and economic power source for this kind of UAV. Therefore, the combination of hydrogen and engine is worth of doing research. Test bench with 2.4L Spark-Ignited engine was prepared for the experiment in which start and combustion characteristics at idle condition were examined in this study. Stable hydrogen supply system and a universal ECU(Engine control unit) were also utilized for the test engine. Equivalence ratio and spark timings at idle operation were investigated and compared to the data of gasoline engine. The results will be a starting point for full-scale research of hydrogen engine for HALE UAV.
Effects of CNG Heating Value on Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel-CNG Dual-Fuel Engine
Kim, Yongrae ; Jang, Hyeongjun ; Lee, Janghee ; Kim, Changgi ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 28~33
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.28
In this study, a dual fuel engine fueled with natural gas and diesel was tested to investigate the effects of heating value variation of CNG fuel. CNG substitution rate which is defined as the ratio of CNG and diesel supplied in a heating value basis was fixed at 80%. The higher heating value was varied from
by mixing nitrogen gas with pure CNG and diesel fuel was injected at a fixed injection timing. The engine test results showed that thermal efficiency and power output were decreased as the heating value of mixed CNG fuel was decreased. And the peak cylinder pressure was also decreased but the ignition delay time and the combustion duration and timing were almost same.
Experimental Study of Emission Characteristics for CNG Passenger Car
Kim, Hyun-jun ; Lee, Ho-kil ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 34~39
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.34
Recently, most of the energy consumed in vehicle is derived from fossil fuels. For this reason, the demand for clean, renewable and affordable alternative energy is forcing the automotive industry to look beyond the conventional fossil fuels. Natural gas represents today a promising alternative to conventional fuels for vehicles propulsion, because it is characterized by a relatively low cost, better geopolitical distribution than oil, lower environmental impact, higher octane number and a higher self ignition temperature. Above all, CNG is an environmentally clean alternative to the existing spark ignition engines with the advantages of minimum change. In this study was installed bi-fuel system that a conventional 2 liters gasoline engine was modified to run on natural gas by a gas injection system. Experiments were mainly carried on the optimization of an ECU control strategy affecting the emission characteristics of CNG/Gasoline bi-fule vehicle. The test results shown that CO2 emission in bi-fuel mode was reduced 16% compared to gasoline fuel in the NEDC mode. Also the amount of CO and HC emissions in bi-fuel and gasoline modes were found to equality. But Compared to gasoline, the bi-fuel mode resulted in higher NOx emissions.
Effect of Operating Condition Change on the Conversion Efficiency of TWC with HCNG Engine
Kim, Chang-Gi ; Lee, Sung-Won ; Yi, Ui-Hyung ; Park, Cheol-Woong ; Lee, Sun-Youp ; Choi, Young ; Lee, Jang-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 40~46
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.40
Stoichiometric combustion engine with Three-way catalyst had an advantage that can reduce the harmful emissions effectively. Fuel equivalence ratio controlled from engine is very important because Fuel equivalence ratio with high conversion efficiency was narrow. This study analyzed the conversion efficiency under whole range of operating area for to evaluate the performance of three-way catalyst. In order to identify the Optimum conversion efficiency, the conversion efficiency due to change the control value of fuel equivalence ratio was investigated. The result show that conversion efficiency of emissions(more than 95%) has discovered by means of fuel equivalence ratio control at each test condition. As engine power increases, optimal fuel equivalence ratio tended to increase linearly under operating conditions of similar exhaust gas temperature.
A Study for Numerical Analysis of Flow Variation on Low Pressure Fuel Pump Fluid using Excavator Engine
Lee, IL Kwon ; Kim, Seung Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.47
This paper is to study applying for numerical analysis method for flow field, velocity and pressure of fuel on the low pressure pump using excavator. The pressure distribution of fuel pump certified the linear variation according to rotation angle of rotor. Especially, it knew the fact that the pressure in rotation angle
appeared high outlet and low inlet of fuel pump. Also, this range angle can seek the fact that the leakage flow and velocity are the most increasing. And the more rotor rotation of fuel pump, the more mean outlet flow rate increased in linear. Whenever the gap size decrease with rotor and housing, the discharge flow rate could seek the approaching 0.0712kg/s that consider with theory discharge flow rate calculated from displacement between rotor gear and idle gear.
Dependence of Explosion Overpressure of Flammable Gas on the Change of Volume Blockage Ratio of Facilities
Lee, Seung Kuk ; Lee, Da Eun ; Kim, Sung Chan ; Yoon, Kee Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 54~61
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.54
A series of CFD calculation has been conducted to investigate the effect of facility confinement on explosion power for process plant facility. The level of confinement of a facility was simplified with VBR(volume blockage ratio) and averaged size of obstacles. FLACS which is 3D CFD code of gas dispersion and the explosion was used for simulating the explosion phenomena in the idealized domain with different confinement level. The CFD results showed a tendency that the overpressure increases with increasing VBR and number of obstacles. The effect of VBR on the overpressure was relatively small for the case of number of obstacle less than 25. The results of this study can be used to provide a safety guideline considering the facility confinement in case of leakage accident of flammable gas and vapor in process plants.
Study on Fracture Behavior of Mild Steel Under Cryogenic Condition
Choi, Sung Woong ; Lee, Woo IL ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 62~66
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.62
Considering for plants and structure under extreme conditions is required for the successful design, especially temperature and pressure. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for the materials under extreme condition needs to be considered. In this study, A-grade mild steel for the LNG carrier and offshore plant was examined by performing low-temperature Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests to investigate DBTT and the fracture toughness. The absorbed energy decreased gradually with the experimental temperature, which showed an upper-shelf energy region, lower shelf energy region, and transition temperature indicating DBTT. In addition, the fracture surface morphologies of the mild steels indicated ductile fractures at the upper-shelf energy level, with wide and large-sized dimples, whereas a brittle fracture surface, where was observed at the lower-shelf energy level, with both large and small cleavage facets. Based on the experimental results, ductile brittle transition temperature was estimated in about
A Vibration Test of Fuel Tanks for LNG Vehicles
Choi, Myung-Jin ; Cho, Tae-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 67~71
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.67
Natural frequencies of a cryogenic fuel tank of LNG vehicle were computed to check the safety related to the resonances, and tests were performed to confirm the vibrational durability of a cryogenic fuel tank. There were 3 tests. The first test started at excitation frequency of 31.9Hz, and the test was performed reducing the excitation frequencies. Failure took place at 22.1Hz. The second test was performed with the frequencies to be increased. At 12.7 Hz, failure took place and nitrogen gas was exhausted. In the third test, the excitation frequencies were continuously changed, and the vibration port was failed in the range between 8 Hz and 19.3 Hz. Detailed research on the failed parts of the tank in this study is recommended to enhance the safety of the cryogenic fuel tanks of LNG vehicles.
A Study on the Operational Optimization of Turbo-Expander Pressure Reduction System to the Natural Gas Flow Rates
Yoo, Han Bit ; Kim, Hyo ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.72
Electricity can be generated when the natural gas passes through a turbo-expander pressure reduction system at natural gas pressure reduction stations. Efficiency of the turbo-expander depends on the ratio of the natural gas flow rates to the design flow rate of the turbo-expander. Therefore, the optimal conditions for the operation of the pressure reduction system can be determined by controlling the natural gas flow rates. In this study, we have calculated the electric energy generation depending on the natural gas flow rates at the two low-pressure reduction stations when the pressure of the natural gas is reduced from 17.5 bar to 8.5 bar and have found the optimal conditions for the turbo-expander pressure reduction system through the comparison with the calculation results. The turbo-expander generates the electric power efficiently for the high natural gas flow rates which variations are slight. The determined design flow rate of the turbo-expander has the highest coverage of the natural gas flow rates. The electricity generation is calculated as much as 9 MW(B station) and 12 MW(D station) at each pressure reduction station.
Design Study of Automatic Cut-off Horizontal Valve for a LPG Cylinder
Kim, Chung Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 80~84
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.80
In this paper, the valves for a LPG gas cylinder have been investigated on the body height and weight by comparing design data between typical automatic shut-off vertical and newly developed horizontal valves. The height of an automatic shut-off horizontal valve is radically reduced by 41~42% compared with that of a typical automatic shut-off vertical valve. And, the body weight of a horizontal valve is also reduced by 29~40% compared with that of a vertical shut-off valve. This result is just achieved by a structural design modification from typical vertical valve to horizontal arrangement of various valve components.
An Analysis of Safety Management Items for Low Pressure Hydrogen Facility below 0.1MPa in Domestic Hydrogen Town
Lee, Duk-Gwon ; Heo, Doo-Hyun ; Lee, Sun-Kyu ; Lee, Jung-Woon ; Lyu, Geun-Jun ; Lee, Yeon-Jae ; Kim, Hie-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.85
As the interest in hydrogen energy is being increased, it is a widely issue to develop a lot of hydrogen technologies in the field of production, storage, transportation, application and others. In the aftermath, there is a hydrogen town in Ul San, which is expected to expand application fields of hydrogen energy, as a demonstration project. The hydrogen town in Ul San can consist of high and low pressure part by the gas pressure. The high pressure part is managed by 'the high pressure gas safety control act'. And, low pressure part is managed by 'the guideline for the safety management of demonstration project of hydrogen town'. In this paper, to improve efficiency of safety management, the direction of safety management is reviewed by an analysis of low pressure hydrogen facility and safety management items. And then, some improvement directions are suggested. In the end, it is expected that the results of this study could help to activate construction of hydrogen town and improve efficiency of safety management as well.
Development of Standard Checklist for Safety Management of Toxic Gas facility in Domestic University Laboratory
Lee, Sungjin ; Kim, Byung-Duk ; Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 92~98
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.92
Toxic gases are managed by High Pressure Gas Safety Control Act. Toxic Gases are "31 designated species and each gas of which the permissible concentration(
) is equal to or less than 5000 ppm as defined in High Pressure Gas Safety Control Act.". Korean toxic gas usage in accordance with the growth of the electronic industry has increased explosively. The demand of toxic gas research in domestic university laboratories has grown together. But the research associated with toxic gas safety management in the domestic laboratory is nonexistent state. In this study, we identified weak points of toxic gas safety management through a survey of domestic university laboratory facilities. This paper presented toxic gas safety measures in order to overcome those weak points. Also this paper developed a standard checklist to improve and ensure safe management of toxic gas facility in accordance with the proposed measures. This research is to enforce safety management of toxic gas facilities in domestic university laboratory and it will provide safety guidelines for every laboratory.
A Study of Mixed Refrigerant Process Control in Liquefied Natural Gas Process using Dynamic Simulation
Lee, Jae Yong ; Park, Chan-Cook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.99
Today the most efficient way to transport the natural gas is carried via the liquid. In order to liquefy the natural gas to be cooled to
or less. Cooling method has a number of different ways. In this paper, we studied control method for the representative liquefaction process, C3MR. Natural gas liquefaction control is a tool that can maintain the quality of natural gas is a means to ensure stable operation. Analyzing the C3MR process, and select the control parameters for the control valve. We find control structure for mixed refrigerant cycle through the step response. A control result obtained through the dynamic simulation arbitrarily given a disturbance was found to maintain a steady-state results.
Experimental Study on Marine oil Skimmer Applying the Vapor Explosion-proof Equipment
Ham, Seong-Hun ; Jung, Chan-sub ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 105~109
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.105
In this paper is proposed for the oil return device developed to perform efficient emergency operation in the event the sea oil spill. Oil recovery apparatus for spilled oil on marine aims to quickly purged with high recovery. Oil recovery apparatus can prevent secondary pollution which may occur in the purification method using the adhesion agent and chemicals. Also it has excellent properties oil recovery. Adopted by the vapor explosion-proof mechanism to remove the risks that may occur during oil recovery operations.
Experimental Study on Single Channel DPF Device Applying the Method of Internal 2-Way Rotary Valve
Ham, Seong-Hun ; Youm, Kwang-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas, volume 19, issue 6, 2015, Pages 110~115
DOI : 10.7842/kigas.2015.19.6.110
In this paper it is proposed to solve the problem of particulate matter reducing apparatus of the current DPF. One exhaust gas passage 2-way controlled to purify the exhaust gas generated during combustion efficiently. Through the control of the rotary valve within a single device, it is possible to prevent the exhaust pressure increases due to particulate matter accumulate inside the developing DPF. Develop DPF device capable of inducing a high efficiency of the output in order to improve the problem of reducing the engine output and fuel efficiency.