Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Herbal Formula Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jun 2003
Selecting the target year
]Standard Principles for the Designing of Prescriptions - The Theory for Monarch, Minister, Adjuvant and Dispatcher
Kim Do-Hoy ; Seo Bu-il ; Kim Bo-Kyung ; Kim Gyeong-Cheol ; Shin Soon-Shik ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~18
The Theory for Monarch, Minister, Adjuvant and Dispatcher (or the Theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding Korean Oriental Herbal Medicines) has served as a standard principle for newly developed prescription formulas as well as established ones. Despite its significance, however, this theory hasn't been thoroughly studied and covered in the academic journals of Korean Oriental Herbal Medicines (KOHM) yet. This paper inquires into the origin of the theory while presenting the definitions and functions of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM. In the end, the recommended doses and number of the KOHM comprising each of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM are suggested. The compatibility theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM can be traced back to the Warring States Period during which it was recorded in the treatise of the various schools of thoughts and their exponents. The theory was firmly established as a full system in
focuses on the classification of the properties of KOHM,
mainly deals with the principles for writing prescriptions. In this regard, it is
that systemized the Theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM in a real sense. Principal KOHM aims at the causes of diseases and treat main symptoms. The doses are greater than Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM. With their comprehensive effects, Principal KOHM is a leading ingredient of any prescription formula. Assistant KOHM are similar to Principal KOHM in its natures and flavors. Although its natures, flavors as well as efficacies may slightly differ from those of Principal KOHM, Assistant KOHM strengthens the therapeutic effects, jointly working with Principal KOHM. They mainly treat accompanying diseases and symptoms. Adjuvant KOHM is divided into two types: facilitator and inhibitor. Facilitators with the similar properties to those of Principal and Assistant KOHM help strengthen the therapeutic effects. Since they usually treat accompanying symptoms or secondary accompanying symptoms (minor accompanying symptoms), there are two kinds of facilitators. (1) The first kind of facilitators assists Principal KOHM, targeting accompanying symptoms. (2) The second ones supporting Assistant KOHM are for accompanying or secondary accompanying symptoms (or minor accompanying symptoms). Inhibitors counteract and thereby complement Principal and Assistant KOHM. Some of them inhibit the side effects or toxicity of Principal KOHM for the sake of the safety of the whole prescription formula while the others generate induced interactions. Guiding KOHM can be used for two purposes: guiding and mediating. The Guiding KOHM for the former purpose leads the other KOHM in a prescription formula to the lesion. But, the Guiding KOHM for mediating coodinate and harmonize all the ingredients in a prescription formula. The number of KOHM for those Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM and their doses are different, depending on the types of prescriptions: classical prescriptions, prescriptions after
Treatise of Cold-Induced Diseases
and prescriptions of Sasang Constitutions Medicines. In the case of the prescriptions after
Treatise of Cold-Induced Diseases
, it is highly recommended to follow the view of
Thesaurus of Korean Oriental Medicine Doctors in Chosun Dynasty
for the number of KOHM to be used. For the doses, however,
Elementary Course for Medicine
, is found to be more accurate. The most appropriate number of KOHM per prescription is 11-13. To be more specific, for one prescription formula, it is recommended to administer one kind of KOHM for Principal KOHM, 2-3 for Assistant KOHM, 3-4 for Adjuvant KOHM and 5 for Guiding KOHM. As for the proportion of the doses, when 10 units are to be administered for Principal KOHM in a formula, the doses for the other three should be 7-8 units for Assistant KOHM, 5-6 for Adjuvant KOHM and 3-4 for Guiding KOHM. The doses of the KOHM added to or taken out of the prescription correspond to those of Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM.
Study on the Origin, Description and Composition of Sokmyeung-tang(續命湯)
Na Ho-Jeong ; Kwon Dong-Yeul ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 19~28
Sokmyeungtang was the representative prescription for Apoplexy under the rule of Tang and Song dynasty of which the cultures were thriving in the history of China. However, the clinical use of Sokmyeungtang has been gradually reduced since Geumwon dynasty of China because it was misunderstood that the dryness heat drugs of pungent in flavor and warm in property such as Ephedra, Pubescent Angelica Root, Chinese Cassia Tree-Bark, Divaricate Saposhnikovia Root, Prepared Aconite Root, Fresh Ginger, and Wildginger Herb included in the presciption for Apoplexy supplemented heat as damaging Yin flood. In fact, the drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property activate exterior and interior circulation, circulate channels and collaterals, promote blood circulation, and remove blood stasis with the side effect of relieving exterior syndrome with drugs warming channels. When treating Apoplexy with Sokmyeungtang, the cold drugs such as Gypsum, Baikai Skullcap Root, and Pueraria Root are prescribed to suppress fire of pungent dryness and to control excessive heat of people with Apoplexy as reducing the effects of hot drugs causing impairment of Yin. For treatment of Apoplexy, the above drugs accelerate blood and Qi circulation in channels and collaterals and then in necrotic tissue of human body as removing blood stasis. Consequently, these drugs improve disorders of capillary tube circulation. If Sokmyeungtang, an old prescription, is properly understood, it will be substantially helpful to all kinds of treatments in clinical cases
The Role of Armeniacae Amarum Semen in Herbal Formula
Byun Sung-Hui ; Kim Han-Kyun ; Jee Seon-Young ; Lee Byung-Wook ; Kim Sang-Chan ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 29~40
Armeniacae Amarum Semen was well-known as a theraputic agent of asthma by flowing downward of qi and moistening of lung in Oriental Medicine. But there are many other effect in Armeniacae Amarum Semen such as, loosening the bowel to relieve constipation, removing stagnation of qi and food, dispersing accumulation of pathogen, parasiticide. We have been studying what the meaning of Armeniacae Amarum Semen in herbal formula and usage of Armeniacae Amarum Semen is.
Studies on application of Rhizoma Atractylodis Japonicae blended prescriptions from Bangyahkhappeun
Park Jong-Chan ; Lee Jang-Chun ; Kuk Yun-Beum ; Eyum Hyun-Sik ; Yun Young-Gab ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 41~60
This report describes the studies as follows through the research into the data of Rhizoma Atractylodis japonicae blended prescriptions from Bang Yahk Hap Peun. The main pathologies of Atractylodis Japonicae blended prescriptions found chills, bowels, malaria, and they are used 18 disease also. In these prescriptions, the symptoms of chills and bowels are the most frequently used. Atractylodis Japonicae main blended prescriptions use in the symptoms of Sang Han Pyo syndrome, Sang Han Yin syndrome, and they are 25 disease also. Through the research, Atractylodis Japonicae main blended prescriptions are used the pathologes of wet, internal disease, the injury of the cold and wind, stomach and spleen. The actual amount of Atractylodis Japonicae blended has a wide capacity from 6 pun to 6 don, 1-2 don is broadlly used. The structures of Atractylodis Japonicae blended prescriptions are Pyong We San, Yi Myo San, Hyang So San, Warl Gook Hwan, Gook Chul Hwan, such as basic prescriptions are most used.
Study for the quality and the herbalogical Gypsum
Lee Jang-Cheon ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 61~82
Objectives: This study has been done to make sure the Gypsum's standardization in medical use. Gypsum has a quality for removing pathogenic heat from the stomach meridian function and headache. Methods: I studied the herbalogical Gypsum and compared its' compositions and character before and after high temperature burning. Results: Gypsum and Lishi(理石) are the sulfate which is made of
, Feldspar is a Calcite, Hanshuishi(寒水石) and Ningshuishi(凝水石) are not a Gypsum but a Magnesium Sulfate(
) and Kalium Sulfate(
). Conclusion: Real Gypsum is supposed to be Yiong cheng
(應城) Gypsum. Chemical edible Gypsum isn't appropriated to be used in medicine.
Effect of Each Constituent-Herb of Sagoonja-Tang on the Change of Corticosterone Level induced by Cold Stress in Mice
Kwon Yong-Uk ; Lee Tae-Hee ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 83~94
This study aimed to investigate the effects of each constituent-herb of Sagoonja- Tang on the plasma corticosterone level in mice exposed to cold stress. Sagoonja-Tang is composed of Ginseng Radix, Atractylodis Radix, Poria, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. Each constisuent-herb(0.5g/kg, 1.0g/kg) was administered intragastrically to mice 1hr prior to expose to forced cold water swimming(
, 3min) before measuring the change of plasma corticosterone level of mice. The results were as follows: 1. At 30 minutes after the cold stress for 3 minutes the most significant increase of corticosterone level was shown. 2. Ginseng group(PGR group) didn't show any significant changes. 3. Atractylodis group(AR group) showed significant decrease at 0.5g/kg dose (P<0.01). But it didn't show significant changes at 1.0g／kg dose. 4. Poria group(P group) didn't show significant changes. But it showed slightly increase at 1.0g/kg dose. 5. Glycyrrhizae group(GR group) didn't show significant changes. These data revealed that Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma might have the anti-stress effect through the control of plasma corticosterone level and the dose of herbs had a different effect on the plasma corticosterone level in mice exposed to cold stress.
Effect of Anti-Alzheimer's disease by Jeonmaedan in CT105-overexpressed SK-N-SH cell lines
Song Ho-Sang ; Park Chi-Sang ; Park Chang-Gook ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 95~110
Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a geriatric dementia that is widespread in old age. In the near future AD will be the biggest problem in public health service. Although a variety of oriental prescriptions in study Jeonmaedan have been traditionally utilized for the treatment of AD, their pharmacological effects and action mechanisms have not yet fully elucidated. It has been widely believed that A
peptide devided from APP causes apoptotic neurotoxicity in AD brain. However, recent evidence suggests that CTl05(carboxy terminal 105 amino acid peptide fragment of APP) may be an important factor causing neurotoxicity in AD. In addition, AD is one of brain degeneration disease. So we studied on herbal medicine that have a relation of brain degeneration. In Oriental Medicine, Jeonmaedan has been used for disease in relation to brain degeneration. As the result of this study, in Jeonmaedan the apoptosis in the nervous system is inhibited, the repair against the degerneration of SK-N-SH cell lines by CT105 expression is promoted. So Jeonmaedan may be beneficial for the treatment of AD.
Effects of Gamiguibitang on the ovulation in rats
Choe Chang-Min ; Hong Gi-Chul ; Kim Duck-Nim ; Kim Song-Baeg ; Yoo Sim-Keun ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 111~124
Gamiguibitang(GMGBT) is used in amenorrhea and female infertility caused by ovulation disorder. An attempt was made to evaluate the influences of GMGBT on the serum concentrations of FSH, LH, estradiol(E2) and progesterone, the histological and optical changes of ovary of rats. The results of the study were as follows: 1. Blood FSH level significantly increased in experimental group controlled by four times quantity as compared with control group. 2. Blood LH level increased in experimental group controlled by four times quantity as compared with control group, which showed no efficacy. 3. Blood E2 level increased in experimental group controlled by four times quantity as compared with control group, which showed no efficacy. 4. Blood progesterone level significantly decreased in experimental group controlled by double quantity as compared with control group. 5. In optically observations of ovary, weight of ovary significantly increased in experimental group controlled by double quantity as compared with control group 6. In histological observations of ovary, ovulation significantly increased in experimental group controlled by both double and four times quantity as compared with control group. According to these results, it can be concluded that GMGBT influences the pituitary gland and ovary to increase the ovulation of rats.
Vasodilation Effect of the Water Extract of Gingko biloba, Acanthopanax senticosus and Augmented Four-Substance Decoctions in Rat Thoracic Aorta
Kim Hyung-Hwan ; Park Soo-Yeon ; Kang Soon-Ah ; Kim Hong-Yeoul ; Ahn Duk-Kyun ; Park Seong-Kyu ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 125~134
We have examined the relaxational response to the water extract of Angelica gigas
(AG), Gingko biloba
(GB), Acanthopanax senticosus
(AP) and Augumented-Four-Substance Decoction (AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD) in isolated thoracic aorta from sprague dawley(SD) rat. Rat thoracic aorta was investigated in vessel segments suspended for isometric tension recording by polygraph. Responses to AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD were investigated in vessels precontracted with 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) were compared in vasodilation effect. We found that the thoracic aorta segments responded to AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD with a dose-dependent vasodilation. The 5-hydroxytryptamine induced contraction at
were inhibited by 26.3%, 75.8%, 87.5% and 6.9%, 22.6%, 30.8% after addition of the 0.1 g/mL water extract of AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD. In conclusion, AG, GB, AP and AG-FSD, GB-FSD, AP-FSD induced relaxation in the isolated rat thoracic aorta were composed of dose-dependent relaxation. AP-FSD has very potent vasodilation.
Effects of Wolguk-whan Water Extract on Acute Oxidative Liver Injury Induced by Acetaminophen
Lee Chae-Jung ; Park Sun-Dong ; Moon Jin-Young ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 135~146
Objectives : Wolguk-whan has been used as a prescription of natural drug for the treatment of stress digestive system disease. Recently, we reported that Wolguk-whan methnol extract (WGWM) exerted a significant protective effect against oxidative damage to the liver of ICR mice. This study was purposed to investigate the effects of Wolguk-whan water extract (WGWW) on liver injury induced by oxidative stress. Methods : In order to investigate the effects of WGWW on acute liver injury, ICR mice were pretreated with WGWW for 6days, starved for 24hrs, and administerated acetamirtophen(500mg/kg, i.p.). In the liver homogenates, lipid peroxide and glutathione(GSH) levels were measured. In addition, activities of hepatic enzyme, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase(GST) were measured in the hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. Results : In vivo administeration of WGWW showed effective inhibition of acetaminophen induced lipid peroxidation, and showed elevations of GSH level, catalase, GSH-Px, GST activities. Conclusions : These results suggested that WGWW might suppress the formation of oxidative metabolites, and prevent acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity.
Effect of Each Constituent-Herb of Sagoonja-Tang on the Change of Corticosterone Level induced by Heat Stress in Mice
Jo Yong-Kook ; Lee Tae-Hee ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 147~158
This study aimed to investigate the effect of each constituent-herb of Sagoonja-Tang on the plasma corticosterone level in mice exposed to heat stress. Each formula(0.5g/kg, 1.0g/kg) was injected intragastrically to mice exposed to forced hot water swimming(42
, 3min) before measuring the change of plasma corticosterone level of mice. The results were as follows: 1. At 15 minutes after the heat stress for 3 minutes the most significant increase of corticosterone level was shown. 2. Ginseng group didn't show significant changes. 3. Atractylodis group showed significant decrease at 0.5g/kg dose(P<0.05). But it showed slightly increase at 1.0g/kg dose. 4. Poria group didn't show significant changes. 5. Glycyrrhizae group showed slightly increase, but insignificant. These data revealed that Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma might have the anti-stress effect through the control of plasma corticosterone level in mice exposed to heat stress.
The effects of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix(SR), Carthami Flos(CF) and Acori Graminei Rhizoma(AR) to cerebral contusion
Kim Haeng-Jin ; Jeon Sang-Yun ; Kim Jung-Sang ; Kim Kyoung-Soo ; Hong Seok ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 159~171
This study was done to investigate effects of SR, CF and AR to angiogenesis of cerebral tissues, protecting damage of cerebral neurons and activating them in cerebral contusion-induced rats. I observed these conclusions as follows ; 1. Observation of VEGF-immunoreactive cells : Groups of administered AR were not meaningful in increasing VEGF-immunoreactive cells for 3 days and 7 days, groups of administered SR meaningfully increased them to control groups in all groups, and groups of administered CF meaningfully increased them to control groups in all groups, too, interestingly, increased double to control group for 7 days. 2. Observation on cerebral neurons by Cresyl violet stain : Dendrites and axons of groups of administered SR, AR for 3 days were clearly observed to control group. Cerebral neurons of groups of administered CF for 3days and 7 days were increased a little, but were not meaningful. In conclusion, AR will be careful of being used in cerebral contusion. CF and SR were effective to activating cerebral hemokinesis by inducing angiogenesis in trauma of tissue, but weakly to protecting trauma of cerebral neurons and activating them. I think more studies will be done in these facts.
The Effects of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, Carthami Flos on Brain Ischemia Experimentally Induced from the Occlusion of Left Common Carotid Artery in Rats
Kim Bang-Oul ; Kim Jeong-Sang ; Kim Kyung-Soo ; Jeon Sang-Yoon ; Hong Seok ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 173~184
Objectives: This study investigates the effects of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, Carthami Flos on Brain ischemia of the rats induced from the Occlusion of Lt. Common Carotid Artery. Methods: I observed effects using light microscopes and examined tissue of parietal lobe and hippocampus and VEGF-immunoreactive cells. Results: A small number of VEGF-immunoreactive cells are observed in the control group. VEGF-immunoreactive cells in Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix-administered group were slightly increased compared with control group. VEGF-immunoreactive cells in Carthami Flos-administered group were significantly increased compared with control group. Neurons of parietal lobe and pyramidal cells of hippocampus in the control group were greatly damaged.(neuronal densitity, form of dendrite and axon) On the other hand, neurons of parietal lobe and pyramidal cells of hippocampus in Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix-administered group were less damaged. Neurons of parietal lobe and pyramidal cells of hippocampus in Carthami Flos-administered group were significantly less damaged compared with control group. Conclusion : Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, Carthami Flos can effect on stimulating angiogenesis and reducinging the damage of neurons in the rats induced from the Occlusion of Lt. Common Carotid Artery.
Antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and its influence on indoleamine and its metabolite of depression model rats
Lee Duk-Ki ; Gwak Dong-Gul ; Park Sun-Dong ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 185~196
Depression is very common mental disorder, so many people suffer from it, which makes the treatment of depression important. Many drugs to treat depression were developed and being prescripted. But they have a lot of side effects, so it needs to develop drugs without side effects or with less side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat not only physical disorder but also mental disorder and it has been reported that they have less side effects. Therefore, there is the need to discover and use herbal medicine with antidepressant effect. The purpose of this study was to reseach Antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and its influence on serotonin and its metabolite of depression model rats. We used 'forced swimming test(FST)' to know antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and HPLC to check the influence on serotonin and its metabolite(5-HIAA) of Licium chinense Mill. after rats' brains were divided into cerebral cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The results were obtained as follows : In the study of antidepressant effect by 'forced swimming test(FST)' method, Licium chinense Mill. had a significant antidepressant effect. In the study of influence on serotonin and 5-HIAA by HPLC, Licium chinense Mill. mainly increased serotonin and 5-HlAA of cerebral cortex and striatum signigficantly among 4 parts of rat's brain above-mentioned. These results suggest that Licium chinense Mill. has antidepressant effect that may be related with the increase of serotonin and its metabolite as its mechanism, but more precise experiments will be need to prove their relation.
A Study on Antimutagenic Acitivities of the Extracts from Dianthi Herba
Seo Un-Kyo ; Jeong Ji-Cheon ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 197~212
Antigenotoxicity test (SOS chromotest) and antimutagenecity test (Ames test) were carried out using water-soluble and methanolic extracts from Dianthi Herba. Antigenotoxic activity of methanolic extract against mutagens both MNNG and NQO was much more effective than that of water-soluble one. When the extract was added to the certain concentration
, antigenotoxic activities against both mutagens were enhanced. Against the mutagen MNNG with Ames test, antimutagenic activity of the methanolic extract was better than that of water-soluble one. The 74.6% of inhibition ratio for revertant forming CFU/plate was shown at
of the methanolic extract.
The external and internal morphological standard of original plants and herbal states in 2 kinds of Arisaematis Rhizoma
Kang Jun-Hyug ; Yun Ju-Bong ; Ju Young-Sung ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 11, issue 2, 2003, Pages 213~232
Objectives : This study was designed to establish a characteristic discrimination of internal and external morphological standard of original plants and herbal states in Arisaema amurense var. serratum
and A. amurense
. Methods : In this studies, the external-internal morphological standards were determined by using stereoscope and butanol series. Results : 1. In the external shape of original plant, Arisaema amurense var. serratum
has high stem, an oval-elliptic leaflet and a serrate leaf margin. But A. amurense
has a relatively low stem, an upside oval leaflet and no serrate leaf margin. 2. On the herbs character of original plant, Arisaema amurense var. serratum
is small in height and diameter, but A. amurense
is relatively large in height and diameter. 3. On the gathered herbs character of original plant, the section of Arisaema amurense var. serratum
is brightly white, easily spilt and strong scent. But the section of A. amurense
is thin yellowish brown, not easily spilt and weak scent. Also the grade of gathered herbs, both can be classified by diameter and external scent. 4. In the current herbs character, Korean and Sichuan Province products are irregullar shape and have no scent, Jilin Province products are regular shape. Also, Guangxi Province products are small size and concave in one side, Hebei Province products are irregular size and shape. 5. In internal shape of original plant, epidermal cell of Arisaema amurense var. serratum is very tight. With the except of micro difference in parenchyma cell of cortex, on the whole there are nearly no differences with A. amurense
Also, samely in the internal shape, according to collecting sites, epidermis exhibits a lot layer in curving state and secreting duct is developed and vascular bundle and exists between parenchyma cell of cortex. Conclusion : In the future, additional study is needed to distinguish herb and effect between same genus-degree of relatedness.