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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Herbal Formula Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Dec 2010
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jun 2010
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Herbal Prescriptional Study of Bangpungtongsungsan
Lee, Ju-Hee ; Yun, Young-Gab ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~12
From the Herbal Prescriptional Study of Bangpungtongsungsan(防風通聖散, BPTS). It can be concluded as follows. 1. The origin of BPTS is the book of sunmyungronbang(宣明論方) in 1172. BPTS' hebal compositons are not changed in history, but it's doses had been changed. When BPTS are written to dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑) in 1610, that's doses are added 0.75g to each herbs dose according to the korean people's constitution. 2. BPTS are composed of five elemental prescriptions. that are yugilsan(六一散), bakhotang(白虎湯), hoechunyanggyeoksan(回春凉膈散), jowiseunggitang(調胃承氣湯) and saengryosamultang(生料四物湯), and three subsidiary prescriptions and some herbs have collateral effects in BPTS. 3. BPTS can cure some diseases that are cause by fever with wind, heat in gastrointestinal tract, anemia after childbirth, heat that is caused by kidney's disease, hemorrhoids, alcoholic poisoning, contusion and constipation that are caused by intestinal heat. 4. BPTS can cure hypertension, hyperlipidemia and Obesity also.
Low Back Pain Treatment Prescriptions of Jin Sa Tak
Sung, See-Yeol ; Kook, Yoon-Bum ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 13~21
Low Back Pain Prescriptions of Jin, sa tak are peculiar to using Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma(AMR). All low back pain prescriptions which are enlisted in Byunjeunggimoon, Byunjeungrok and Byunjeungokham include AMR. Whereas low back pain prescriptions which is enlisted in Seoksilbirok are 7 of 10. Preexistence of low back pain prescriptions are not necessarily used AMR. But Jin, sa tak who lived at Ming and Ching era presented AMR in low back pain treatment. AMR is able to get rid of dampness between the kidney functional area and umbilicus. The results are as follows : It is made much of the malicious dampness which is in the kidney. There are not used cold but warm and eliminating dampness herbs to invigorate kidney. It shows that Jin, sa tak who was a Taoist used invigorating and warming kidney herbs. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma is mainly used in treating low back pain from Jin, sa tak. Jin, sa tak shows concrete prognosis to treat a disease.
Study on the Applications of prescriptions including Platycodi Radix as a main component in Dongeuibogam
Lee, Tae-Hyung ; Lee, Sung-Jun ; Huh, Jin ; Shin, Dong-Gean ; Lee, Jae-Cheol ; Shin, Yong-Seo ; Yun, Young-Gab ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 23~42
This report describes 90 prescriptions related to the use of Platycodi Radix main blended from Dongeuibogam. The following conclusions were reached through investigations on the prescriptions that use Platycodi Radix as a key component. Prescriptions that Platycodi Radix was taken as a monarch drug are utilized for 30 therapeutic purposes, for example, cough disease, throat disease, abscess and pus, and wind disease. In particular, 12.1% of prescriptions appear in the chapter of cough, and 9.9% of those appear in the chapter of throat, and each 8.8% of those appear in the chapter of abscess and of wind disease. Prescriptions that utilize Platycodi Radix as the main ingredient are used in the treatment of cough disease, throat disease and abscess, and they are also used for treating 74 different types of disease. The prescriptions are compounded with Platycodi Radix as a monarch drug are related to exogenous agents such as wind-cold pathogen, wind-heat pathogen, epidemic diseases, and endogenous agents such as seven emotions, and non-endo-exopathogenic factors like excessive labor, deficiency of Qi and blood, phlegm-mass, phlegm-fire, ect. The dosage of Platycodi Radix is 2pun(about 0.75g) to 1nyang(about 37.5g), however 1don (about 3.75g) has been taken the most for clinical application. We can find out that according to herbs or prescriptions blended with it self, Platycodi Radix makes a variety of functions to penetrate lung stagnancy and remove phlegm, relieve throat pain and get rid of pus, and regulate Qi flow. And Gamgiltang is the most useful base prescription which used the Platycodi Radix as the main component.
The Analysis of Herbal Medicine Preparations Equipped in Traditional Korean Medical Clinics
Bak, Yo-Han ; Huang, Dae-Sun ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 43~56
Objective : There is a growing need to expand or adjust insurance coverage of herbal prescriptions in National Health Insurance. The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for expansions or adjustments of 56 herbal prescriptions in the National Health Insurance. Method : We surveyed lists of 56 insurance-covered herbal prescriptions, non-covered company-produced herbal medicines and self-prepared herbal medicines in 531 traditional korean medical clinics by mail from 6/1/2008 to 12/9/2008. Result : Among the 56 Prescriptions, Ojeok-san was stocked in 66.7% of clinics (1st), Samso-eum ranked 2nd, Socheongnyong-tang ranked 3rd, Gumiganghwal-tang was 4th, Hyangsapyeongwi-san ranked 5th. Among the non-covered company-produced herbal medicines, Danggwisu-san ranked 1st, Gwakyangjeonggi-san ranked 2nd, Oryeong-san was 3rd, Bangpungtongseong-san was 4th, Maengmundong-tang ranked 5th. Among the self-prepared herbal medicines, Gongjin-dan ranked 1st, Soche-hwan was 2nd, Gyejibongnyeong-hwan was 3rd, Yeongsin-hwan was 4th, Palmi-hwan ranked 5th. Conclusions : It is reasonable to select frequently used company-produced or self-prepared herbal prescriptions in this stock rate survey for improvement of National Health Insurance coverage.
Analysis of Articles Published in the Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription
Kim, An-Na ; Song, Mi-Young ; Bae, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Chul ; Kim, Ha-Young ; Kim, Young-Sik ; Park, Kyoung-Bum ; Kim, Hong-Jun ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 57~77
Objective : This study reviews the recent trend of oriental medical prescription research. The data examined are the articles published in the Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription from 1990 to 2009. Method : The data are retrieved through the internet database Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) and the collection of the Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription. The number of articles examined is 385, published in 25 volumes of the journal. This study examines the nature of the articles, research methods, subjects, and author information. Research subjects are sorted out by the OASIS key words for the articles published before 1999, and by key word indexes cited in the abstracts for the articles published sinceafter. Results : Among the 385 articles collected, 206 are research articles, 143 philological articles, 35 case studies, and 1 special contribution. A majority of research articles are experimental studies (199 articles or 96.6%), while clinical reports (5 articles or 2.43%), and others studies (2 articles) occupy a small portion. Most of experimental studies (183 articles or 91%) examine the effectiveness of certain prescriptions or treatments. Among the effectiveness studies, 114 articles (62.3%) employ in vivo experiment design, 52 articles (28.42%) in vitro experiments, and 17 articles (9.29%) both in vivo and in vitro experiments. In terms of research subject, the most frequently indexed key words are hepatotoxicity among diseases (9 articles), Bojungikgitang (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang) among prescriptions (10 articles), Buja (Acontii Tuber) among meteria medica (4 articles), immunity and anti-oxidation among efficacy terminology (6 articles each), and Donguibogam(東醫寶鑑) among references in the key words (25 articles). Universities are the main affiliation of authors (76.42%), followed by university hospitals (6.71%), non-academic research institutes (5.55%), local clinics (4.67), academic research institutes (2.81%), hospitals (2.38%), and others (1.44%). The most affiliated institute of the first and correspondent authors is Wonkwang University. In terms of authorship, co-authorship outnumbers sole-authorship by 82.08% to 17.92%. The proportion of authors of a single article is 63.54% which is near the author productivity distribution described by Lotka's law.
Acute Toxicity Study on Gumiganghwal-tang(Jiuweiqianghuo-tang) in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Shin, In-Sik ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Seo, Chang-Seob ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Lee, Ho-Young ; Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Lee, Nam-Hun ; Lee, Jin-Ah ; Lee, Sul-Lim ; Huh, Jung-Im ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 79~85
Objectives : This study was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity and safety of Gumiganghwal-tang (Jiuweiqianghou-tang) in Sprague-Dawley rats though the current regulatory guideline. Methods : The preliminary study showed that the single oral administration of Gumiganghwal-tang(Jiuweiqianghou-tang) did not induce any toxic effect at a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. Based on the results, 2000 mg/kg was selected as the limited dose. In this study, 10 rats of each sex were randomly assigned to two groups of 5 rats each and were administrated singly by gavage at dose levels of 0 and 2000 mg/kg. Mortalities, clinical signs, and body weight changes were monitored for the 15-day period following administration. At the end of observation period, all animals were sacrificed and complete gross postmortem examinations were performed. Results : Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed. There were no adverse effects on clinical signs, body weight, and gross findings at all treatment groups. Conclusions : These results showed that the single oral adminstration of Gumiganghwal-tang(Jiuweiqianghou-tang) did not cause any toxic effect at the dose levels of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In conclusion, the
of Gumiganghwal-tang (Jiuweiqianghou-tang) was considered to be over 2000 mg/kg body for both sexes.
Anti-inflammatory activities of Sagunja-tang(Sijunzi-tang)
Lee, Jin-Ah ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Jung, Da-Young ; Lee, Ho-Young ; Lee, Nam-Hun ; Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Seo, Chang-Seob ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Lee, Mee-Young ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 87~94
Objectives : To provide the information of efficacy for Sagunja-tang (Sijunzi-tang; SG), it was evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect. SG, a widely used herbal formula in tranditional Korean medicine, has been used to treat for the Boki-invigorating. In many studies, plant-derived anti-inflammatory efficacies have been investigated for their potential inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. This study was performed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of SG extract on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Methods : The productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG)
, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
were examined in a macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells, in the presence of the SG extract. RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with LPS
and SG extract for 18 hours. The anti-inflammatory activity of SG was investigated by carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. The paw volume was measured at 0, 2 and 4 hours following carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. Results : SG extract showed inhibitory effect on
, IL-6 and TNF-
by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. But SG extract was not inhibitory effect on NO by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. And administration of SG extract (1 g/kg) showed a reduction in carrageenin-induced paw edema on rats. Conclusions : These results suggest that SG extract has anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo models.
Simultaneous Determination of Seven Compounds in Samsoeum by HPLC-PDA
Seo, Chang-Seob ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Huang, Dae-Sun ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 95~103
Objectives : To develop and validate HPLC-PDA methods for simultaneous determination of seven constituents in Samsoeum(SSE). Methods : Reverse-phase chromatography using a Gemini C18 column operating at
, and photodiode array(PDA) detection at 254 and 280 nm, were used for quantification of the seven marker components of SSE. The mobile phase using a gradient flow consisted of two solvent systems. Solvent A was 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and solvent B was acetonitrile with 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid. Results : Calibration curves were acquired with
>0.9997, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values (%) for intra- and inter-day precision were less than 3.0%. The recovery rate of each compound was in the range of 100.07-112.65%, with an RSD less than 4.0%. The contents of seven compounds in SSE were 1.24-10.53 mg/g. Conclusions : The established method will be helpful to improve quality control of SSE.
Effect of Water Extract of Peonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Percica on Anti-inflammation
Kim, Young-Il ; Lee, Sung-Jun ; Huh, Jin ; Lee, Tae-Hyung ; Shin, Dong-Gean ; Lee, Jae-Cheol ; Shin, Yong-Seo ; Yun, Young-Gab ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 105~120
Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica have been used as oriental medicine for removal of fever, alleviation of pain, an anti-phlogistic effect and removal of extravasated blood. However, it has been never shown the effects of these herbal medicines on anti-inflammatory processes. This experiment was performed to show how these herbs could act as anti-inflammatory medicines at cellular level. Anti-inflammation effects of water extracts from Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica as well as their mixture have been investigated, and the results were follows; 1) each extract slightly suppressed the expression and production of inflammatory mediators and enzymes such as NO, iNOS, IL-
, and TNF-
in lipopolysaccharid(LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. These suppressive effects, however, were synergistically increased by their mixture. 2) Each extract of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica insignificantly suppressed the activation and activity of NF-
in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, which controls the expression of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, IL-
, and TNF-
. However, extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica suppressed effectively the activation and activity of NF-
. 3) Each of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica induced translocation of NF-
to the nucleus from the cytosol and DNA-binding activity of nuclear NF-
in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. The extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica showed more significant suppression of the NF-
translocation and its DNA-binding activity, as compared to those of the each extract. These results suggest that the extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica may affect different control mechanisms for NF-
activation and the expression and production of NF-
-dependent inflammatory mediators, indicating that this extract mixture may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Study on the Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Remedy Prescripted with Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix in U937 cells
Lee, Yong-Suk ; Jang, Seon-Il ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 121~132
Inflammatory reaction is characterized by over-production of inflammatory mediators due to an up-regulation of inflammatory pathways, which produce pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-
), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
), and nitric oxide (NO) in U937 cells. We investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of water extracts from Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated U937 cells. Each extract suppressed the production of inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-
) and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS- stimulated U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These suppressive effects were synergistically increased by their combination. Their combination extract also inhibited NF-
-DNA complex of NF-
binding activity and translocation of NF-
from cytosol to nucleus. These results suggest that the combination of water-extractable components of Lonicerae Flos and Scutellariae Radix may be useful for therapeutic drugs against inflammatory immune diseases, probably by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators.
Effects of Rehmanniae Radix on HPA Axis System and Catecholamienrgic System in FST
Park, Jae-Beom ; Lee, Tae-Hee ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 133~144
Object : The effects of Rehmanniae Radix(RR) on HPA Axis system and Catecholaminergic system was investigated. Methods : we performed the Forced Swimming Test(FST). Also the expression of Corticotropin -Releasing Factor(CRF), c-Fos and Tyrosine Hydorxylase(TH) was measured by immunohistochemical method at Paraventricular Nucleus(PVN), Locus Coeruleus(LC) and Ventral Tegmental Area(VTA). Results : 1. The duration of immobility in the Forced Swimming Test was significantly decreased in the Rehmanniae Radix 400 mg/kg groups in comparison with the control group(p<0.05). 2. Comparing to the control group, CRF expression was significantly decreased in the Rehmanniae Radix 400 mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.01). 3. c-Fos expression was significantly decreased at PVN in the Rehmanniae Radix 100 mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.01). 4. TH expression was significantly increased at LC in the Rehmanniae Radix 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.001). 5. TH expression was significantly decreased at VTA in the Rehmanniae Radix 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.001). Conclusion : According to the results, it can be considered that Rehmanniae Radix has antidepressant effect by showing the reduction of immobility in FST through the decreased expression of CRF, c-Fos in PVN and TH in VTA.
Establishment of UPLC method for analysis of liquiritigenin and studies on the processing of licorice for enhancement of liquiritigenin content
Lee, Jong-Rok ; Jo, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Sang-Mi ; Kim, Sang-Chan ; Park, Sook-Jahr ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 145~154
Objective : Licorice has been used for treating digestive disorder and also recommended as a detoxification agent. Liquiritigenin, a component of licorice, has been reported to have various biological activities. In this study, we aimed to establish the analytical method for liquiritigenin content in licorice and the processing method for the enhancement of liquiritigenin content in licorice. Methods : Processing was accomplished by roasting licorice at
for indicated time periods (5-20 min). Analysis of liquiritigrnin from roasted licorice was conducted using UPLC(Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography). Results : We established UPLC method for the analysis of liquiritigenin using water : acetonitrile gradient as mobile phase. Furthermore, we standardized the processing condition of licorice to enhance liquiritigenin content using UPLC method. Processing of licorice was accomplished by roasting at
for indicated time periods (5-20 min) and by pretreating with 50% of acetic acid or 30% ethanol for 24 h. By roasting licorice, the liquiritigenin contents in the licorice were increased. The best roasting time of licorice was 6 min, while roasting for the time above 8 min resulted in diminishing liquiritigenin contents. Moreover, pretreatment with 50% of acetic acid or 30% ethanol picked up liquiritigenin contents in roasted licorice. Conclusion : The adequate processing condition of licorice for the enhancement of liquiritigenin contents was obtained by pretreating licorice with 50% of acetic acid or 30% ethanol for 24 h and then by roasting at
for 6 min.
Effects of Forsythiae Fructus on CRF, c-Fos and TH in the Forced Swimming Test
Kim, Hyo-Joon ; Lee, Tae-Hee ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 155~167
Objectives : In order to investigate the antidepressant effects of Forsythiae Fructus(FF), we performed the Forced Swimming Test(FST). Also the expressions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH) were measured by immunohistochemical method at paraventricular nucleus(PVN), ventral tegmental area(VTA) and locus coeruleus(LC). Methods : Spraque-Dawley rats were administered FF extract(100 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) intragastrically three times prior to the FST. Results : The duration of immobility in the FST was significantly decreased in the FF 100 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg groups(p<0.05). The expression of CRF was significantly reduced in the FF 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg groups(p<0.001). c-Fos expression was significantly decreased at PVN in the FF 100 mg/kg group(p=0.069). TH expression at VTA was significantly increased in the FF 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg groups(p<0.05). TH expression at LC was not significantly changed(p=0.346). Conclusion : According to the results, it can be suggested that Forsythiae Fructus has antidepressant effect via the decreased immobility through the reduction of CRF and c-Fos expression at PVN.
The pistil of nelumbo nucifera has anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells
Choi, Woo-Yeon ; Jo, Mi-Jeong ; Zhao, Rong-Jie ; Byun, Sung-Hui ; Kim, Mi-Ryeo ; Kim, Sang-Chan ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 169~179
The pistil of nelumbo nucifera (PNN) is used in the treatment of nocturnal pollution, hematemesis, epistaxis, metrorrhagia and diarrhoea in traditional medicine. The present study was examined to evaluate the effects of PNN on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro. After the treatment of PNN, cell viability was measured by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) production was monitored by measuring the nitrite content in culture medium. The protein bands were determined by immunoblot analysis and levels of cytokines were analyzed by sandwich immunoassays. In the MTT assay, the doses of PNN extract (0.03, 0.10 mg/ml) had no significant cytotoxicity. The increases of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were detected in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-activated Raw 264.7 cells compared with control, in contrast, these increases were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with PNN. In cytokine assay, the massive pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-
, interleukin (IL)-
and IL-6 were induced in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 cells, but pre-treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with PNN caused inhibition (TNF-
=107.43%, IL-6=46.27%) the production of cytokines by LPS. In addition, PNN reduced prostaglandin E2 productions in a dose-dependent manner (0.03mg/ml=37.52%, 0.10 mg/ml=83.77%) as a consequence of the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Taken together, our data indicates that PNN can regulate the inflammatory response in macrophage cells activated by Gram-negative infection.
Clinic Study on Herb Medication for Patients Who have a Chronic Respiratory Disease from the Cold Sequelae
Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Han, Hyo-Jung ; Jang, Jeong-A ; Park, Eun-Young ; An, Tae-Han ; Seo, Ho-Seok ; Kim, Jin-Won ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 18, issue 1, 2010, Pages 181~189
Objectives : In order to confirm a remedial effect and related influence of the clinic treatment by prescribing Samchuljojung-tang(蔘朮調中湯), Bojungikqi-tang(補中益氣湯) and Samso-um(蔘蘇飮) to patients who suffering from a chronic cough and rhinorrhea. Methods : 1. In a clinical observation and analysis method, we have selected the 23 patients who have visited National Oriental Medical Center, date from 2007.8.21 to 2008.7.31 and suffering from a chronic cough and rhinorrhea caused by the common cold sequelae. 2. Separated them into three types(I: cough type, II: rhinorrhea type, III: cough & rhinorrhea type). 3. Observed thoroughly the level of symptom and recorded it for each type with questionnaire survey at the beginning set 4. Prescribed Samchuljojung-tang, Bojungikqi-tang and Samso-um for type I, II, III respectively. 5. Observed the level of symptom and treatment afterwards affect, and recorded movements of intensity level for 3 types with same questionnaires. Results : 1. Type I : The survey turned out to be from 9 patients, initial level recorded 31.89 at the entry diagnosis, and next level that means changing of symptoms, recorded to 12.67 after prescribing herb medication. 2. Type II : From 11 patients, initial level was 32.82 and next level was 13.45. 3. Type III : From 3 patients, initial level was 37.67 and next one was 16.00. Conclusions : It is concluded that there is a significant remedial effect and related influence of the clinic treatment for each type of patients who suffering from a chronic cough and rhinorrhea caused by the common cold sequelae.