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Herbal Formula Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Journal of Oriental Medical Prescription
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Dec 2011
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jun 2011
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Applications of Prescriptions Including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex in Dongeuibogam
Sung, See-Yeol ; Kook, Yoon-Bum ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~22
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate applications of 122 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex in Dongeuibogam. Methods : 122 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex which have been used separately or concurrently in Oriental Medicine for a long time as a treatment for various disease in Dongeuibogam were studied through order of frequency, symptoms, dosages, and etc. Results : 1. 19(15.57%) prescriptions are recorded in fatigue chapter, 11(9.02%) in mental or emotional disorder as a result of repressed anger or stress chapter, 9(7.38%) in urine and cough chapters respectively and 8(6.56%) in eyes, ears and glycosuria chapters respectively, which are arranged in order of frequency. 2. Burning stress resulted from Yin deficiency treat herbs are ranked top, Yin deficiency treat herbs, dim eyes, Yin-yang deficiency treat herbs, kidney function deficiency treat herbs are ranked in order of frequency among 78 symptoms in prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex. 3. The dosages of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma which is more used than Phellodendri Cortex are ranged from 5 puns:4 puns ~ 2 nyangs:1 nyang. 1 jeon:5 puns is recorded 3(30.00%), 1 jeon:7 puns is 2 times(20.00%), the others are 1 (10.00%) used among 10 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex. 4. The dosages of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma which is used same amount Phellodendri Cortex are ranged from 3 puns each ~ 4 nyangs each, same amount each or unidentified dosages. Same amount each or unidentified dosages each is recorded 36 times(38.71%), 5 puns each is 15 times(16.85%), 1 nyang each is recorded 12 times(13.48%), 0.7 jeon each is recorded 7 times (7.87%) and 1 jeon each is recorded 6 times(6.74%) used among 89 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex. 5. The dosages of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma which is less used than Phellodendri Cortex are ranged from 3 puns:1 jeon ~ 4 nyangs:8 nyangs. 1 nyang:2 nyangs is recorded 4(17.39%), 0.5 jeon:1 jeon is 3(13.40%) each, the others are 1 time(4.35%) used among 23 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex. 6. The less using dosage of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex has a more percentage of decoctions groups, The more using dosage of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex has a more percentage of the other groups except decoctions. The less using prescriptions have an effects of controlling yin and blood deficiency, enhancing Qi, etc, as a whole. The more using prescriptions as a form of compound powder have an effects in incurableness disease, chronic diseases, and etc. Conclusions : The 122 prescriptions including Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Phellodendri Cortex in Dongeuibogam are mainly composed of Gamree-hwan, Samool-tang, Naebo-hwan, Sagoonja-tang and Gobangpoong-tang, and etc.
A Study on Analysis of the Pathology and Basic Prescriptions of Yiemyo-San in DONGYEUBOGAM
Yun, Hen-Ja ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 23~34
Objectives : Yiemyo-San(二妙散) is a basic oriental medicinal prescription used in basically musculoskeletal pain. Way down to posterity, Yiemyo-San has been combined with various prescriptions to treat a variety of diseases. the purpose of In this study is to investigate indications and etiology of indication using Yiemyo-San. Methodes : For prescriptions combining Yiemyo-San in Dongyeubogam(東醫寶鑑), the name of prescriptions, configuration herbs and indication were investigated and prescriptions were classified according to etiology of indication. Results : the numbers of prescriptions combining Yiemyo-San in Dongyeubogam were 45. Yiemyo-San was used frequently in musculoskeletal disease such as beriberi, amyotrophy, gout and arthritis(36%). In addition, it was applied to an internal diseases, ENT diseases and headache. it was used frequently in pathological condition due to supyeol(濕熱)(45%). Yiemyo-San was combined with various prescriptions as a primary prescription at 51% and as a secondary prescription at 49%. Conclusions : When Yiemyo-San is combined with other prescription, it may be used in various disease as well as musculoskeletal disease due to supyeol. combined with various prescriptions as a primary prescription at 51% and as a secondary prescription at 49%. Conclusions : When Yiemyo-San is combined with other prescription, it may be used in various disease as well as musculoskeletal disease due to supyeol.
A Study on Formulas in "Xi
o' Er Y
Cho, Hyun-Jin ; Park, Sun-Dong ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 35~49
Objectives : This study aims to reveal the characteristics of formulas in "Xi
o' Er Y
. Methods : For that objectives, We analyzes formulas in "Xi
o' Er Y
. In the text, 132 formulas were described. To comprehend the formulas, we classified them as several bases. Results : After those analyses, we bring to a conclusion as follows. 1. 30 formulas are described that treated convulsive diseases (j
ng, 惊風). Next, g
n(疳), parasite infection, diarrhea/dysentery, dermatosis and etc were in the order. 2. Classified by the formulation, Yu
(圓劑) was the best(70 kinds of formulas, 53%). S
(散劑) was a form of 41 formulas(31%). T
(湯劑) and g
(膏劑) were a form of 5 formulas each. 10 formulas were assumed the form of w
(外用劑). 3. We researched in-depth analysis of Yu
. As a results, dosage, additive(輔料) and the time to take of Yu
were decomposed. Also, the formulas that treated convulsive diseases were analyzed by the herbs classification. Conclusions : Though the formulas that treated convulsive diseases were hard to application at local clinic, overall nosology of pediatrics was reflected comparatively. "Xi
o' Er Y
was expected to play a role for reconsideration of formulas' formulation.
Applications of Prescriptions Including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix in Dongeuibogam
Kwon, Hyun-Kyong ; Kook, Yoon-Bum ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 51~58
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate applications of 171 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix in Dongeuibogam. Methods : 171 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix which have been used separately or concurrently in Oriental Medicine for a long time as a treatment for various disease in Dongeuibogam were studied through order of frequency, symptoms, dosages, etc. Results : 1. 27 times(15.79%) prescriptions are recorded in intumescence chapter, 21 times(12.28%) in fatigue chapter, 11 times(6.43%) in women chapter and 9 times(5.26%) in anus chapter, which are arranged in order of frequency. 2. Yin-yang deficiency treat herbs are ranked top, eliminating intumescence methods, bloody stool, discharging blood from one's vagina, yang deficiency treat herbs are ranked in order of frequency among 107 symptoms in prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix. 3. The dosages of Astragali Radix which is more used than Angelicae gigantis Radix are ranged from 3 puns:1 pun ~ 2 nyangs:1.5 nyangs. 1 jeon:5 puns is recorded 8 times(14.29%), 2 jeon:1 jeon is 7 times(12.50%), 1 jeon:3 puns and 1 jeon:7 puns are 24 times(11.2%), 1 nyang is 21 times(9.8%), same amount is 11 times(5.1%), 5 pun is 4 times(7.14%) each, 1.5 jeon:5 puns is 3 times(5.36%) used among 56 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix. 4. The dosages of Astragali Radix which is used same amount Angelicae gigantis Radix are ranged from 2.5 puns each ~ 2 nyangs each, 2.5 chons, same amount each. 1 jeon each is recorded 36 times(38.71%), 1 nyang each is 15 times(16.13%), 0.7 jeon each is recorded 12 times(12.90%), 0.5 jeon each is recorded 6 times(6.45%) used among 93 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix. 5. The dosages of Astragali Radix which is less used than Angelicae gigantis Radix are ranged from 3 puns:7 pun ~ 5 nyangs:12 nyangs. 1 jeon:1.5 jeons is recorded 3 times(13.64%), 0.8 jeon:1 jeon and 1 nyang:2 nyangs are 2 times(9.09%) each, the others are 1 time(4.55%) used among 22 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix. 6. The dosages of (Astragali Radix
Angelicae gigantis Radix), (Astragali Radix = Angelicae gigantis Radix) and (Astragali Radix
Angelicae gigantis Radix) which are recorded by counts (decoction groups: the other groups) are 52:4(92.86%:7.14%), 70:23(75.27%:24.73%), 13:9 (59.09%:40.91%) respectively. 7. The less using dosage of Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix has a more percentage of decoctions groups, The more using dosage of Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix has a more percentage of the other groups except decoctions. The less using prescriptions have an effects of controling yin and yang, enhancing blood and chi, etc, as a whole. The more using prescriptions as a form of compound powder have an effects in incurableness disease, chronic diseases, etc. Conclusions : The 171 prescriptions including Astragali Radix and Angelicae gigantis Radix in Dongeuibogam are mainly composed of Dangguibohyul-tang, Samool-tang, Sagoonja-tang and Gobangpoong-tang, Gamri-hwan, etc.
Analysis of Herbal formulation on Wolgug-hwan Series
Park, Seong-Gyu ; Byun, Sung-Hui ; Lee, Byung-Wook ; Kim, Sang-Chan ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 79~90
Objectives : This study was performed to analysis the composition of herbal formulations about a series of Wolgug-Hwan(WGH, formed by Gukchur-won and Sagung-san) in Dongeuibogam written by Heo Jun. Methods : The series of WGH in Dongeuibogam were selected by 'Prescription Lineage Graph' (http://18.104.22.168/PrescriptionLineageGraph.aspx) established by prof. Lee at Pusan National University. In the analysis of a series of WGH, we used some formulation books including classics. Results : Gaeuldogi-tang(GDT) is formed by WGH, Yeonggangchulgam-tang(YGT), Yugil-san (YIS) and Gungchul-san. Cheongul-san(CUS) is formed by WGH, Ijin-tang(IJT), YGT and Haegeum -hwan(HGH). Sosikcheongul-san(SCS) is formed by CUS and IJT. Jeungmiijin-tang(JIT) is formed by WGH, IJT, Sambaek-tang and Gyullyeonjichul-hwan. Sihoeokgan-tang(SET) is formed by WGH, Sihosogan-san(SSS) and Jigolpi-eum. Wolgukbohwa-hwan(WBH) is formed by WGH, Bohwa-hwan, Mokyangjichul-hwan and Hwangnyeon-tang(HNT). Chimsa-hwan(CSH) is formed by WGH, Injinho-tang(IHT), Yungmisamneung-hwan, Jeungmisamul-tang and Sinseongugi-tang. Conclusions : SCS, CUS, or JIT has been used frequently in case of phlegm-fire. These are formulated by the combination of WGH and IJT with Samseon-san or HGH or Jichul-hwan according to the special symptoms, respectively. SET which is formulated by WGH and SSS has been used in case of stagnation of liver-qi. GDT, WBH or CSH has been used in damp-heat. These are formulated by the combination of WGH with YIS, HNT, or IHT, respectively.
A Study on the Applications of Herba Menthae Mainly Blended Prescription in Dongeuibogam
Choi, Jung ; Yun, Hen-Ja ; Yun, Yong-Gab ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 91~102
Objectives : This report describes 48 prescriptions related to the use of Herba Menthae main blended from Dongeuibogam. The following conclusions were drawn through investigations on the prescriptions that use Herba Menthae as a key component. Prescriptions that Herba Menthae was taken as a monarch drug are utilized for 15 therapeutic purposes, for example, wind stroke, throat disease, nose disease, head disease and tooth disease. In particular, 12.5% of prescriptions appear in the chapter of each wind stroke, throat disease, nose disease. Methods : Prescriptions that utilize Herba Menthae as the main ingredient are used in the treatment of urticaria, hemoptysis-hematemesis, loss of consciousness due to wind stroke and they are also used for treating 41 different types of disease. Herba Menthae is used for pathogenic factors such as wind and heat. Results : The dosage of Herba Menthae is 0.15pun(about 0.06g) to 4don(about 14g), however 5pun(about 1.88g) has been taken the most for clinical application. Conclusions : Gamgiltang, Piryongbanggamgiltang and Hoichunyanggyeoksan are the most useful base prescriptions which use the Herba Menthae as the main ingredient.
Systematic Studies on Galgeun-tang(gegen-tang, kakkon-to) for Establishment of Evidence Based Medicine
Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 103~111
Objectives : The purpose of this report was to provide the information of activity and safety of galgeun-tang by analyzing domestic/international papers and theses about galgeun-tang. Methods : Domestic/international papers and theses related to galgeun-tang were reviewed and analyzed. These papers were then classified by efficacy, or clinical trials. Results : The basic pharmacological experiment showed antipyretic, analgesic and anti-virus and anti-oxidant efficacy of galgeun-tang. In the case report of galgeun-tang, it showed therapeutic effect for patient with chronic rhinitis. But administration of galgeun-tang induced pruritic eruption in the two case report as a side effects of galgeun-tang. Conclutions : galgeun-tang showed tantipyretic, analgesic and anti-virus and anti-oxidant efficacy in the basic pharmacological experiment. Also, galgeun-tang showed therapeutic effect for patient with chronic rhinitis. But it was reported that galgeun-tang induced pruritic eruption in two case report, so physicians should be aware of the potential side effects.
Applications of Prescriptions Phlegm-Fluid Substances Chapter Depending on Symptoms in Dongeuibogam
You, Seung-Yeol ; Kook, Yoon-Bum ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 113~130
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate 93 prescriptions which are all affiliated Phlegm-Fluid Substances chapter depending on Symptoms in Dongeuibogam. Methods : The following conclusions are reached through investigations on the applications of prescriptions which are all affiliated Phlegm-Fluid Substances chapter Depending on Symptoms in Dongeuibogam. Results : 1. Fluid detention disease article represents that Byukeum(癖飮), Hyuneum(懸飮) and Yueum(流飮) have the same treat criteria, in effect, there is not any problem left in case it is reached fluid detention disease is not 8 but 6. 2. Strong water-utilization herbs can be mainly used in treating Fluid detention disease, eliminating phlegm warm herbs are almost used two times more than eliminating phlegm cold herbs in eliminating phlegm disease. 3. Arisamatis Rhizoma is only used by itself in Chongmongseok-hwan, the others are used at the same time with Pinelliae Rhizoma. As a result of this, Arisamatis Rhizoma has an effects on eliminating Wind relative dusease but eliminating phlegm disease which can cause upper body phlegm disease. 4. Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus and Tricosanthis Radix are able to get rid of obstinate phlegm-Fluid disease in eliminating phlegm cold herbs. 5. Gamisachil-tang and Gamieejin-tang which are located in throat chapter are more proper prescriptions to treat phlegm at throat than Gwache-san or Jeoljehwadam-hwan which is located in Phlegm-Fluid Substances chapter in Dongeuibogam. 6. Glycyrrhizae Radix is used 46 times(49%) at total 93 prescriptions in eliminating phlegm disease herbs. It seems to be needed more study whether Glycyrrhizae Radix can control the Phlegm-Fluid disease or not. Conclusions : The 93 prescriptions for eliminating Phlegm-Fluid Substances in Dongeuibogam are mainly composed of Sobanha-tang, Eejin-tang and Baeksang-hwan, etc.
Analysis of the Properties and Tastes In Hyeongok's Formulas for Invigorating Five Viscera and their Ingredients
Shin, Soon-Shik ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 131~144
Objectives : The objective of this study lies in theoretical establishment of formulas for invigorating five viscera for curing the asthenic syndrome of five viscera through analyzing the component medicines and combination principles of Hyeongok's formulas for invigorating five viscera, and furthermore, maximizing the clinical use of them. Methods : This study analyzed the component medicines and combination principles of Hyeongok's formulas for invigorating five viscera based on the theory for properties and tastes of herbal medicines from the "Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine", the theory for principal herbal medicine, assistant herbal medicine, adjuvant herbal medicine, dispatcher herbal medicine, and the five elements doctrine. Hyeongok's formulas for invigorating five viscera are Bogantang, Boseemtang, Bobeetang, Bopyeotang, and Boshintang. Results : There are three methods for curing the asthenic syndrome of five viscera according to the five elements doctrine: in case of Bogantang invigorating the liver, invigorating the kidney and purging the lung; Boseemtang, invigorating the heart, invigorating the liver and purging the kidney; Bobeetang, invigorating the spleen, invigorating the heart and purging the liver; Bopyeotang, invigorating the lung, invigorating the spleen and purging the heart; Boshintang, invigorating the kidney, invigorating the lung and purging the spleen. Conclusions : First, to cure the asthenic syndrome of five viscera, the methods of invigorating five viscera, and purging five viscera should be used according to the five elements doctrine. Secondly, herbal medicines appropriate for those treatment methods should be chosen according to the theory for properties and tastes of herbal medicine and thirdly, the combination of those herbal medicines should be carried out according to the theory for principal herbal medicine, assistant herbal medicine, adjuvant herbal medicine, dispatcher herbal medicine. As a good example, Hyeongok's formulas for invigorating five viscera are combined according to the above theories. In conclusion, this formula was created by applying to the theory for properties and tastes of herbal medicines.
Pharmacological Action and Toxicity of Rehmannia glutinosa
Park, Yeong-Chul ; Lee, Gi-Yong ; Baek, Lag-Min ; Son, Hye-Young ; Kook, Yoon-Boom ; Lee, Sun-Dong ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 145~160
Objectives : Rehmannia glutinosa has been used extensively in Korean traditional medicine. Although thorough clinical trials are lacking, Various pharmacological actions for Rehmannia glutinosa has been identified newly using animal models. In addition, it was reported that reactive intermediates, potentially causing toxic effects, was isolated from one of components in Rehmannia glutinosa. In this article, it is purposed for explanation and introduction of new studies for Rehmannia glutinosa in terms of pharmacological action and toxicology. Methods : New studies for Rehmannia glutinosa were reviewed and summarized in terms of pharmacological action and toxicity. Results and Conclusions : Rhmannia glutinosa and its components including iridoids, saccharides, as well as amino acid, showed a variety of pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. In addition, it was identified that aucubin, one of major components of Rhmannia glutinosa was biotransformed to reactive intermediates by
-glycosidase and acid-hydrolysis, resulting in forming aucubigenin- albumin adduct. Even if a lot of new pharmacological actions has been identified, it should be considered for Rhmannia glutinosa to contain the material producing reactive intermediates which may induce the side effects.
Effects of Mixture of Bupleuri Radix and Lycii Radicis Cortex on the Change of HPA-Axis and Catecholamic System in the Forced Swimming Test
Cho, Eun-Ho ; Lee, Tae-Hee ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 161~174
Objectives : The effects of Extraction after Mixture of Bupleuri Radix and Lycii Radicis Cortex on the change of the HPA-Axis system and the Catecholamic system was investigated. Methods : After performing the Forced Swimming Test(FST), the expressions of corticotropin releasing factor(CRF), c-Fos in the paraventricular nucleus(PVN), and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH) in the ventral tegmental area(VTA) and locus coeruleus(LC) were measured by immunohistochemical method. Results : The duration of immobility in FST was significantly decreased in A 100(Extraction after Mixture of Bupleuri Radix and Lycii Radicis Cortex, 100mg/kg) and A 400(Extraction after Mixture of Bupleuri Radix and Lycii Radicis Cortex, 400mg/kg)(p<0.001). The expression of CRF in the PVN was shown the tendency to reduce in A100 and A400. The expression of c-Fos in the PVN was shown the tendency to reduce in A100 and A400. The expression of TH in the VTA was shown the tendency to reduce mildly in A100 and A400. The expression of TH in the LC was significantly reduced in A400(p<0.001). And the dose dependent reduction tendency was shown, respectively. Conclusions : According to the results above mentioned, the immobility, c-Fos and CRF expression was reduced at lower dose and was increased at higher dose. Therefore there is contradictory effects on the HPA Axis system in accordance with the dose. But in the effects on the catecholaminergic system, it significantly reduced the expression of TH in the LC. It was validated that the effect on the catecholaminergic system was ruled by Bupleuri Radix rather than Lycii Radicis Cortex via mainly the noradernergic system.
The Comparative Study on Decoctions of Yukmijihwang-tang (Liuweidihuang-tang) Extracted by Different Extraction Method and Extraction Time
Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Seo, Chang-Seob ; Jeon, Woo-Young ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 175~182
Objectives : This study was performed to compare the differences between decoctions extracted by different extraction method and extraction time. Methods : Decoctions were prepared with pressed or non-pressed extraction conditions for 60, 120 and 180min. The yields of extracts, sugar contents, hydrogen ion concentrations(pH), the contents of reference compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang(Liuweidihuang-tang) were investigated. Results : The yields and the dissolved solid content containing sugar content of decoctions were more in pressed extraction method than unpressed extraction method, and they tended to be increased as extraction time increased. The pH values of decoctions methods did not show significant differences between pressed and unpressed extraction methods or extraction times. Most of reference compounds showed higher contents in pressed extraction method than unpressed extraction method and their contents were augmented according to increase of extraction time. The content of paeonol was decreased when extracted in more than 120min with pressed extraction method and tended to be decreased as extraction time increased in unpressed extraction method. Conclusions : The pressed extraction with long extraction time could be useful for decoction of Yukmijihwang-tang(Liuweidihuang-tang). However, another ingredients possible to decrease in such condition need to be considered to determine suitable extraction condition.
Estimation of shelf-life by long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san
Seo, Chang-Seob ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Lim, Soon-Hee ; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 183~194
Objectives : To estimate the shelf-life by long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san. Methods : Experiments were conducted to evaluate the stability such as the selected physicochemical, heavy metal, microbilogical experiment under an acceleration test and long-term storage test of Pyungwi-san in different storage under room temperature, refrigeration and freezing. Futhermore, HPLC analysis was performed for the determinations of glycyrrhizin in the Pyungwi-san on an Inertsil ODS-3 column(250 mm
4.6 mm, 5 um) using solvent 35% acetonitrile include 0.05% phosphoric acid at 254 nm. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Results : The significant change was not showed in pH, heavy metal, microbiological, identification test and quantitative analysis based on acceleration test and long-term storage test. Retention time of glycyrrhizin in HPLC chromatogram was about 16.065 min and calibration curve showed good linearity(
= 0.9999). The contents of glycyrrhizin in acceleration test and long-term storage test were 0.068~0.076 mg/mL and 0.066~0.077 mg/mL, respectively. Shelf-lifes of room temperature, refrigeration and freezing by long-term storage test were predicted 41, 24 and 34 months, respectively. Conclusions : The suggested shelf-life would be helpful on the storage and distribution of herbal medicine.
Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract from Ecklomia cava on gram-positive bacteria(Peptidoglycan)-induced macrophages
Kang, Ok-Hwa ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Keum, Joon-Ho ; Mun, Su-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Sik ; An, Byung-Kwan ; An, Hyeon-Jin ; Kwon, Dong-Yeul ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 195~205
Objectives : Ecklonia cava is brown alga(Laminariaceae) which grows is sea, it has antioxidant, diarrhea and anticoagulant effect. In this study, the effect of ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (EC) on peptidoglycan(PGN) -induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. Methods : In the present study, IL-6 production was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), prostaglandin
) production was measured using the EIA kit, and inducible NO synthase(iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) activation, as determined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription -polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results : EC inhibited PGN-induced NO and IL-6 production. Consistent with these observations, the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 were inhibited by EC. Moreover, EC suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) 1/2 in PGN-induced RAW 264.7. Conclusions : These results suggest that EC has inhibitory effects on PGN-induced
, NO, and IL-6 production, as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the murine macrophage. These inhibitory effects occur through blockades on the MAPKs phosphorylation.
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Gagam-GongJin-dan in mouse peritoneal macrophages
Kim, Hong-Jun ; Kim, Young-Sik ; Mok, Ji-Ye ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun ; Cho, Jung-Keun ; Jang, Seon-Il ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 207~217
Objectives : In a previous study, we have shown that Gagam-Gongjin-Dan(GGD) has an inhibitory effect on the ovalbumin-induced immune responses and a hepatoprotective effect on actaminophen-induced liver injury in Balb/c Mice. However, the possible anti-inflammatory effect of GGD extract for inflammatory mediators was not reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate an inhibitory effects of GGD extract against lipopolysaccharides(LPS) induced inflammatory mediators in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Methods : GGD extract was prepared by extracting with methanol for 7 days. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through vacuum distillation system. Accumulated nitrite, an oxidative product of nitric oxide(NO), was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The levels of prostaglandin
), tumor necrosis factor-
) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) were measured by Western blot analysis. Results : GGD extract (50-
/ml) per se had no cytotoxic effect in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. GGD extract dose-dependently reduced NO,
production and COX-2 activity caused by stimulation of LPS. The levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions were markedly suppressed by the treatment with GGD extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions : These results suggest that GGD extract has an anti-inflammatory effect against LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in peritoneal macrophages, these properties may contribute to inflammation disease care.
Ethyl acetate fraction of GGEx18 modulates feeding efficiency ratio and blood leptin level in high fat diet-fed obese mice
Park, Ki-Jeong ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Lee, Hye-Rim ; Yoon, Mi-Chung ; Park, Sun-Dong ; Lee, Yong-Tae ; Shen, Zhi-Bin ; Cui, Hong-Hua ; Shin, Soon-Shik ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 219~231
Objectives : This study was designed to determine the effects of the GGEx18 ethyl acetate fraction(EF) on body weight gain, feeding efficiency ratio, and obesity-related factors in plasma as well as histology of liver and adipose tissues using high fat diet-fed male C57BL/6N obese mice. Methods : 8 weeks old, high fat diet-fed obese male mice were divided into 5 groups: C57BL/6N normal, control, EF(1), EF(2) and EF(3). After mice were treated with EF for 9 weeks, we measured body weight gain, food intake, feeding efficiency ratio, fat weight, plasma leptin and lipid levels. We also analysed histology of liver and adipose tissues on high fat diet-fed male C57BL/6N obese mice. Results : Compared with control, EF-treated mice had significantly lower body weight gain and feeding efficiency ratio. Consistent with the effects on body weight gain, EF significantly decreased the adipose tissue weight compared with control. Consistent with the effects on feeding efficiency ratio, EF significantly decreased plasma leptin concentrations compared with control. EF reduced the size of adipocytes as well as hepatic lipid accumulation compared with control. EF seems to be safe since not only the plasma levels of ALT and AST are within the normal range, but also EF did not show any toxic effects on organs. EF(3) was most effective among EF(1), EF(2), and EF(3) at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusions : These results demonstrate that EF effectively reduces body weight gain, feeding efficiency ratio in high fat diet-fed obese mice, leading to the modulation of obesity. In addition, EF decreases the size of adipocytes and improves plasma lipids and controls hepatic lipid accumulation, suggesting that EF may act as a therapeutic agent for obesity.
Acute Toxicity Study on Ssanghwa-tang Extract Fermented with Paecilomyces Japonica in Mice
Lee, Ji-Hye ; Um, Young-Ran ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ; Ma, Jin-Yeul ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 233~241
Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity and safety of Ssanghwa-tang extract fermented with Paecilomyces japonica. Methods : To evaluate the acute toxity and safety, 0(control group), 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg of Ssanghwa-tang and fermented Ssanghwa-tang extracts were orally administered to 35 male and 35 female ICR mice. After single administration, we observed number of death, general toxicity, changes of body weight, and autopsy. Results : Compared with the control group, we could not find any toxic alteration in all treated groups (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg). Conclusions :
of Ssanghwa-tang and fermented Ssanghwa-tang extracts might be over 5000 mg/kg and it is very safe to ICR mice.
Comparisons of Preferences and Functional Properties of Soft Extracts from Schisandrae Fructus Depending on the Manufacturing Process
Kim, Hong-Jun ; Kim, Young-Sik ; Choi, Go-Ya ; Lee, Guem-San ; Park, Kyoung-Bum ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Choi, Young-Kyu ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Ju, Young-Sung ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 243~251
Objectives : To further enhance the business value of domestic Schisandrae Fructus, new products composed of modified Gyeongok-go were developed. Their preferences and antioxidant behaviors were compared under different manufacturing processes. Methods : Sensory evaluation was carried out on a 7-point scale by a taste panel. Additionally, the antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro against ABTS[2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Results : The differences among each sample were not statistically significant in sensory evaluation. In contrast, the antioxidant properties of each sample can have up to twice effect distinction at a final concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. Conclusions : Manufacturing methods, while having smaller effect on sensory evaluation, greatly affected the antioxidant properties. As a consequence, the optimum manufacture conditions need to be established using different manufacture conditions and activity search methods.
One Case Report of Peptic ulcer Patient Who was Administered by Anjungsan
Kim, Min-Chul ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 253~261
Objectives : The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is estimated about 10% in Korea, and has declined due to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Symptoms of peptic ulcer are postprandial epigastric pain, hunger pain, anorexia, nauea, vomiting, soreness, postprandial fullness, postparandial discomfort. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Anjungsan in the improvement of the symptoms in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods : After taking Anjungsan to patient with peptic ulcer, Examined to assess the improvemnet by Ordinal Scale VI grade and VAS. Results : Patients with symptoms of the appeal was taking Anjungsan gets better after 3 dyas appeared to be more than half. And 11 days after treatment all symptoms were improved under the VAS 1-2 except for epigastric lump sensation. Conclusions : After treatment with Anjungsan, patient showed improvement in all symptoms associated with peptic ulcer.
A Case Of Treatment with Mahwanggachul-tang on Fever and Edema Due to Urinary Tract Infection Combined with Stroke
Yim, Je-Min ; Lee, Ah-Ram ; Kam, Cheol-Woo ; Kim, Won-Il ;
Herbal Formula Science, volume 19, issue 1, 2011, Pages 263~272
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to report the improvement after treatment with Mahwanggachul-tang on fever and edema due to urinary tract infection combined with stroke. Methods : From December 8th to 22nd 2010, We treated a ischemic stroke patient having fever and edema due to urinary tract infection with Mahwanggachul-tang. We checked body temperature, intake-output, urine analysis and chest X-ray. Results : There were improvement on body temperature, Intake-output, urin analysis and chest X-ray. Conclusions : This report shows Mahwanggachul-tang has effectiveness on fever and edema due to urinary tract infection combined with stroke.