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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 1999
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1999
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CLINICAL STUDY OF THE ABUSE IN PSYCHIATRICALLY HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Lee, Soo-Kyung ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 145~157
This study was performed by the children and adolescents who were abused or neglected physically, emotionally that were selected in child & adolescents psychiatric ward. We investigated the number of these case in admitted children & adolescents, and also observed characteristics of symptoms, developmental history, characteristics of abuse style, characteristics of abusers, family dynamics and psychopathology. We hypothesized that all kinds of abuse will influnced to emotional, behavioral problems, developmental courses on victims, interactive effects on family dynamics and psychopathology. That subjects were 22 persons of victims who be determined by clinical observation and clinical note. The results of the study were as follows：1) Demographic characteristics of victims：ratio of sex was 1：6.3(male：female), mean age was
. According to birth order, lst was 12(54.5%), 2nd was 5(23%), 3rd was 2(9%) and only child was 3(13.5%). 2) Characteristics of family：According to socioeconomic status, middle to high class was 3(13.5%), middle one was 9(41.% ), middle to low one was 9(41%), low one was 1(0.5%). according to number of family, under the 3 person was 3(13.5%), 4-5 was 17(77.5%), 6-7 was 2(9%). according to marital status of parents, divorce or seperation were 5(23%), remarriage 2(9%), severe marital discord was 19(86.5%). In father, antisocial behavior was 7(32%), alcohol dependence was 10(45.5%). In mother, alcohol abuse was 5(23%), depression was 17(77.3%), history of psychiatric management was 6(27%). 3) Characteristics of abuse：Physical abuse was 18(81.8%), physical and emotional abuse and neglect were 4(18.2%). according to onset of abuse, before 3 years was 15(54.5%), 3-6 years was 5(27.5%), schooler was 1(15%). Only father offender was 2(19%), only mother offender was 8(35.4%), both offender was 8(35.4%), accompaning with spouse abuse was 7(27%), and accompaning with other sibling abuse was 4(18.2%). 4) General characteristics and developmental history of victims：Unwanted baby was 12(54.5%), developmental delay before abuse was9(41%), comorbid developmental disorder was 15(68%). there were 6(27.5%) who didn‘t show definite sign of developmental delay before abuse. 5) Main diagnosis and comorbid diagnosis：According to main diagnosis, conduct disorder 6(27.3%), borderline child 5(23%), depression4(18%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) 4(18%), pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified 2(9%), selective mutism 1(5%). According to comorbid diagnosis, ADHD, borderline intelligence, mental retardation, learning disorder, developmental language disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, chronic tic disorder, functional enuresis and encoporesis, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, personality disorder due to medical condition. 5) Course of treatment：A mean duration of admission was
months. 11(15%) showed improvement of symtoms, however 11(50%) was not changed of symtoms.
A STUDY ON THE DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN ADOLESCENT VICTIMS OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE
Park, Young-Sook ; Shin, Jee-Yong ; Jhin, Hea-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 158~168
This study was carried out to know the main defense mechanisms used by adolescent victims of school violence. Subjects of this study are composed of 41 adolescent victims(clinical group) and 40 normal adolescents(control group). Clinical group is divided into four subgroups of inpatient, outpatient, day hospital, and school groups. Used scales are Ewha Defense Mechanisms Test(EDMT) and Staittrait anger scale. Several important results are found. Adoescent victims use neurotic defense mechanisms of neurotic and mature level less frequently than normal adolescents. In clinical group day hospital adolescents use more mature defense mechanisms than outpatient adolescents. Displacement and acting out are correlated with trait and sate anger. Somatization is correlated with trait anger, and regression is correlated with state anger significantly.
PRINCIPLES OF POWER, CONTROL AND SURVIVAL IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 169~177
Human being can be defined in several ways. These are biological, psychological, social and religious, ethical and philosophical aspects. The first two viewpoints refers to the intrapersonal aspects and the last two viewpoints deals with the interpersonal aspects. There have been numerous thoeries and hypotheses to explain the human behavior and psychopathology, but the author does not find any theory or hypothesis to integrate the biological and psychological viewpoints. In addition, The author does not find any theory to integrate the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects in interpersonal relationships. Thus, the author proposed one model to explain the human behavior. In proposing this theory, the author has the following hypotheses：1) All human being can not exist by oneself. 2) The ultimate goal of all human being is to achieve 'Survival'. 3) There are four kinds of survivals and they are biological, psychological, social and religious, ethical and philosophical survivals. 4) Power and control are two prerequisites for survival and there are four kinds of power and control. 5) The four elements of power and control are biological, psychological, internal and external ones. 6) The conflict between buman being can also be explained in terms of power, control and survival. 7) Normality and abnormality of human behavior can be explained in terms of the harmony and balance among the powers and controls.
THE DEGREE OF EGO IMPAIRMENT IN ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC PATIENT GROUPS
Oh, Youn-Hee ; Kim, Zoung-Soul ; Shin, Min-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 178~185
Objective：This study was designed to examine the validity of the Ego Impairment Index(EII) in adolescent psychiatric patients(depression, depressive-conduct disorder, schizophrenia), and to explore the validity of the depressive-conduct disorder as a diagnostic entity. Method：19 depressives, 13 depressive-conduct disordered, and 10 schizophrenics with the age from 12 to 18 were selected based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria, and their responses of the Rorschach and MMPI were analyzed. The EII was empirically developed by Perry and Viglione(1991) in order to assess the degree of ego impairment, and was derived from the Rorschach test. Results：It was founded that a single factor, ego impairment, was derived from the principal component analysis and explained 57.18% of total variances. The degree of ego impairment was grater in schizophrenics than in the other two groups, but there were no difference between depressives and depressive-conducts. Conclusions：These results offered support for the use EII as an empirical means of assessing the degree of ego impairment in adolescent patients. And these results suggest that depressive-conduct disorder group is more similar to the depressive group, implying that depressive-conduct disorder might correspond to so called masked depression. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were discussed.
ASSESSMENT OF CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT THINKING OF CHILD-PSYCHIATRIC CHILDREN WITH THE DRAW-A-PERSON TEST AND KEDI-WISC SIMILARITY TEST
Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, In-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 186~194
Objective：This study was conducted to examine the Draw-A-Person test as a non-verbal indicator of concrete and abstract thinking. Method：Thirty child-psychiatric children and 27 normal children were individually assessed with Draw-A-person Test and KEDI-WISC, and the scores were compared between similarity test and DAP. Results：The results showed significant differences between the groups. In clinical group, there were significant correlations with DAP scores and similarity test scores, especially abstract scores on DAP were highly correlated with similarity test scores. Results indicate characteristics of abstract thinking may be more discernable on the DAP than concrete thinking in clinical group.
THE EFFECTS OF FAMILIAL RISK FACTORS ON THE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF ADHD CHILDREN
Kim, Jin-Hee ; You, Hee-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 195~200
Objective：This study was to investigate the effects of familial risk factors on the behavior problems of ADHD group and normal group. Method：The familial risk factors and behavioral problems of the children were administered to 160 mothers, comprised of 29 ADHD children and 131 normal children. Results：The results showed that the ADHD group and normal group were significantly different in the degree of marital satisfaction, state-trait anxiety, and depression. Familial risk factors and the behavior problems of children were significantly correlated. Conclusion：Marital unsatisfaction and parental affective problems were closely related to behavior problems of ADHD patients.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DETAINED DELINQUENT ADOLESCENTS AND VARIABLES RELATED TO THE REPEATED CRIME DURING 6 MONTHS AFTER RELEASE
Kim, Won-Sik ; Koh, Seung-Hee ; Koo, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Hong-Chang ; Suh, Dong-Hyuck ; Chung, Sun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 201~211
Objectives：This study investigated the characteristics of detained delinquent adolescents and variables related to the repeated crime during 6 months after release. Methods：The socio-demographic and crime-related characteristics of 73 detained adolescents were evaluated by semi-structured interviews and police records, and the psychological characteristics of them measured by the MMPI. We also compared the characteristics between subjects with and without repeated crime during 6 months after release. Results：1) Most of detained adolescents had families with low socioeconomic status(77%) and broken families(48%). Sixty-six percent of them were dropped out of school. The most frequent crime pattern was theft(49%), and with accomplice(77%). Seventy-five percent of total subjects had the records of previous conviction. Of the previous convictions, seventy-eight percent was same with the present crimes. 2) Subjects with repeated crime during 6 months after release were younger and had higher T-score on Pa scale of MMPI than the subjects without repeated crime. More adolescents with repeated crime had broken families than those without repeated crime. They also showed the crime-related characteristics of higher percent of theft among crime patterns, higher incidence of previous conviction, younger age of the first crime, and shorter crime-free duration from the last to present crime. Conclusion：These results of present study suggest that the development and the persistence of adolescent delinquency would be resulted from interaction of factors of individual, family, school, and community. By the comparison between subjects with and without repeated crime, it was found that familial dysfunction, younger age at first crime, presence of previous conviction might be the risk factors for repeated delinquency. To prevent repeated crime of delinquent adolescents more effectively, early therapeutic intervention and the development of programs to help adaptation in school and community would be essential.
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC SEQUELAE AND ITS EVALUATION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Kim, Hae-Gyoung ; Bhang, Hyung-Suk ; Park, Gwang-Soo ; Wang, Mi-Rhan ; Min, Seong-Ho ; Park, Ki-Chang ; Ahn, Joung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 212~219
Objective：This study is designed to get clinical guidelines for management of children with TBI by examining neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI, determining whether the severity of TBI, type of treatment, and enviornmental factors are related to those sequelae, and defining the adequacy of public psychological tests as evaluating tools for them. Method：This is chart review of 47 children, aged 5 to 14 years, referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic for neuropsychiatric evaluation at least 6 months after TBI. Data on the initial GCS score, associated injury, treatment type, and duration of hospital stay are obtained from medical records. EEG, MRI, intelligent test, and several psychological tests are administrated at the point of assessment. Results：1) Cognitive symptoms outnumber externalizing behavioral, emotional, and somatic symptoms, with no significant differences of frequencies of those 4 categorical symptoms between mild injury group and moderate to severe group. 2) Children treated with non-surgical method(p<0.01) complain more cognitive symptoms than the others. 3) Behavioral symptoms are related to younger age(p<0.05), and to anticonvulsant medication(p<0.05). 4) Children with associated injury complain emotional symptoms more frequently(p<0.05). 5) More somatic symptoms are presented by children with no medication(p<0.05), and with higher I.Q(p<0.05). 6) Low I.Q is correlated to low GCS score (p<0.05). Cognitive impairment is confirmed in 25 in 42 children complaining cognitive symptoms though I.Q test and BGT, whose hospital stay is longer than the others(p<0.05). 7) emotional disturbance is confirmed in 22 in 25 children showing emotional problems through psychological tests, who complain cognitive symptoms more frequently(p<0.05). Conclusion：This findings suggest that even mild TBI children need to be followed-up and treated as complaining neuropsychiatric symptoms over 6 months after injury, and shorter hospital stay is recommended for cognitive and emotional status of children, and for better evaluation of neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI, more specific tests should be included in neuropsychological test tools.
A STUDY ABOUT SUICIDAL ATTITUDE AND SELF-IMAGE IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS - FOCUSED ON INDUSTRIAL AND CULTURAL WOMEN'S HIGH SCHOOL FACTION -
Kim, Bong-Jun ; Jang, Dong-Won ; Kim, Jun-Hyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 220~235
Objectives：The purpose of this study was to evaluate suicidal attitudes, self-image, anxiety and depression on industrial and cultural wemen's high school, and to make a comparative study between suicidal attitudes and anxiety, depression, self-image. Methods：Three hundred twenty-six student(161 persons from industrial wemem's school, 165 persons from cultural wemen's school), who were supposed to different from in psychosocial environment, entered this study. To assess the attitudes toward suicide, Suicide Opinion Questionnaire(SOQ) were done at study. To estimate anxiety, depression, and self-image, Zung' Self-rating Anxiety Scale (ZAS), K-Beck Depression Inventory(KBDI), Offer's Self Image Questionnaire(OSIQ), respectively, were executed in this study. Results：1) We extracted 5 factors after factor analysis based on SOQ results with the response of the 326 subject；ethics, religion, mental illness, acceptability, revenge. Revenge factor were stastically significant between both groups. 2) In OSIQ, family relationship factor & superior adjustment factor were stastically significant between both groups, but, both groups didn't have a significance on ZAS & KBDI. 3) According to correlative analysis between SOQ results and OSIQ, ZAS, KBDI results, ethics factor(SOQ) were converse to BS factor, ET factor, and ME factor in OSIQ. Mental illness factor(SOQ) were in proportion to PP factor(OSIQ). Acceptability factor(SOQ) were in proportion to ZAS & KBDI result. Conclusion：Our subject mostly regarded suicide as sinful ethically ,and as mental illness. But, In that there was neuropsychiatric history and suicidal idea in them, the subjects looked upon suicide as permissive. With significantly high score on ZAS & KBDI, there were more acceptable attitude toward suicide. So, We consider suicide to be used as coping strategy about more stressful event to young adolescent.
STRUCTURAL VALIDATION OF THE PRQ PART II (PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT) MEASURE FOR ADOLESCENTS
Lee, Eun-Young ; Tak, Young-Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 236~243
The purpose of this study were to factor analyze the 25-item Personal Resource Question-naire (PRQ)-Part II, a social support measure, and to establish construct validity for the instrument among adolescents by relationship found between perceived social support and the theoretically relevant variables of attachment, parent-child relationships, and coping, The sample was consisted of 451 college students, aged 18 to 24. According to the criteria used in this study a four-factor structure, which consisted of 15-items, resulting from a principal components analysis with an oblique rotation, best represented the multidimensionality of the PRQ-Part II of late adolescents in Korea. Evidence in support of construct validity for both the 15-item and 25-item PRQPart II was provided by statistically significant correlations found between the two scales and the theoretically relevant variable of attachment, parent-child relationships, and coping. With the findings of this study, the 15-item Korean version of the PRQ-Part II can be used in research and practice as a reliable and valid instrument measuring perceived social support for late adolescents in Korea.
A CASE OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER NOS WITH REPETATIVE SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR
Kim, Jeong-Lim ; Chung, Bo-In ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hong, Kang-E ; Lim, Myung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 10, issue 2, 1999, Pages 244~251
Self-injurious behavior is often showed in mental retardation, especially in autism. Self-injurious behavior has been regarded as a symptom cluster rather than a disease but it is an emergent clinical situation that can directly affect mortality. This case is about a refractory autistic patient who showed a self-injurious behavior of hitting the head repetitively. He was hospitalized and was treated by pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy and for this reason this clinical experience is reported with literature review. The patient is a 7-year old boy who was ward admitted from 1999 April 20 till July 10 into OO hospital OO ward because of self-injurious behavior. During the 12 weeks he had admission treatment. As for the pharmacotherapy, haloperidol was dosed up from 0.5mg to 1.0mg from the 4th week and combination drug therapy was done during the admission with naltrexone 25-50mg. As for the behavioral therapy, Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior was used and regular play therapy was done. To remove the physical restraint, headgear and hard sleeve was used. Currently, OPD follow up treatment is being done and haloperidol 0.5mg and naltrexone 50mg is maintained. The patient’s mother is educated and play therapy is done an hour daily at home. When the patient was released form the hospital, self-injurious behavior was decreased more than the moderate state and remission state is still being maintained at the outpatient clinic.