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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Dec 2000
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jun 2000
Selecting the target year
Kwack, Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 161~178
The author reviewed history and development of variable approaches of play psychotherapy. To understand basic concepts and practical factors of play, the functions of play behavior and it's clinical application were summarized. As major therapeutic approaches, both theoretical concepts and practical techniques of psychoanalytic approach and those of nondirective approach were presented. For clinician it is important to know developmental theories which can be applied to various therapeutic technics and to apply these theories to play therapy situations. So, to know the developmental approach in play psychotherapy, play as a developmental process, its' therapeutic application, play in the perspective of cognitive development and the therapeutic process of play psychotherapy were reviewed. With the knowledge of developmental concept therapists can increase their abilities to prescribe an appropriate type of play therapy.
STUDY ON THE IMPORTANCE OF INTROSPECTION IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 179~185
Human being can be defined in several ways. These are biological, psychological, social and religious, ethical and philosophical aspects. The first two viewpoints refer to the intrapersonal aspects and the last two viewpoints deal with the interpersonal aspects. In every aspect, introspection is very much important to understand him or herself and other person. In this paper, the author summarized the instruction from the oriental old classic books. By doing this process, the author suggested three ways to introspect himself：1) We have to read the old classic books on Wisdom and follow the teachings in those books. 2) Self-analysis may be one way to introspect him or herself. It is to understand his emotional response by way of thinking(reasoning). By repeating this process, affect and thinking can achieve harmony and balance. 3) Training analysis may help to introspect oneself. Qualified analysts may be of help. In order to understand the psychological aspect of patients, the psychiatrists should get insight into his own mind. In this aspect, introspection is the single most important factor in achieving insight.
A FOUR TO SEVEN YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF SYMPTOMS OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN IN TAEGU AND KYUNGPOOK PROVINCE
Jung, Chul-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 186~197
This study evaluated the improvement of autistic symptoms during the 4-7 year follow-up in autistic children. Fifty subjects(44 males and 6 females whose age ranged between one to 13 years) diagnosed with DSM-III-R autistic disorder were included in this study. Their autistic symptoms were assessed with DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria of autistic disorder(grouped as A, B and C which include 5, 6 and 5 items respectively). The mean of follow-up duration was 6.4
1.1 years. Symptoms between baseline and follow-up were examined according to treatment types, age, sex, IQ and physical problems of them were identified. There were statistically significant decreases of symptom items at follow-up as a whole and A, B and C, respectively. The most symptom decrease occurred in communication and followed social interaction, and activities and interests at follow-up assessment. Symptom items that decreased more than 50% at follow-up evaluation include A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, and C1, C3. Groups with special education only and combined treatment of special education and seizure pharmacotherapy showed better improvement of symptoms than the group with psychiatric pharmacotherapy with special education. Age was a significant factors in the improvement of symptoms. The author concluded that some autistic children improved with aging, therefore they should be treated actively with special education, pharmacothrapy and other scientific methods.
EFFECTS OF THE MOTHER-CHILD ATTACHMENT PROMOTION PROGRAM FOR AUTISTIC CHILDREN
Lee, So-Woo ; Hong, Kang-E ; Im, Sook-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 198~208
Objectives：This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the attachment promotion program which was designed to promote attachment between autistic children and their mothers. The program was consisted of play activity centered mother-child interaction, educational activity for mothers by lecture, video-feedback session, and emotional supports. Methods：The subjects were consisted of 11 pairs of mother and child(7 for participant group：PG, 4 for non-participant group：NPG), who were 2-4 years-old autistic children. The data were collected by video-taping, behavioral observations, and analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank(Sign) Sum Test and Content Analysis. Results：The total attachment score increased from pre test to post-test of PG was significantly higher than that of NPG. The scores of attachment behaviors indicating proximity, mutuality and affect increased significantly(p<.05), while some behaviors indicating synchrony and jointattention did not. Especially the affectionate behaviors of PG demonstrated the most notable changes and they became more active, voluntary and reciprocal. After the program, the mother's nurturing behaviors of PG increased more than that of NPG, with no significant difference between two groups. The mother's behaviors to her child of PG became more child-centered, positively responsive, supportively expressive. As the attachment was promoted, there were also positive changes in the children's autistic behaviors with a great deal of individual differences. Conclusion：Our findings suggest that Mother-Child Attachment Promotion Program could be an effective early intervention model for autistic children.
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH MOOD DISORDER
Cho, Su-Chul ; Paik, Ki-Chung ; Lee, Kyung-Kyu ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Hong, Kang-E ; Lim, Myung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 209~220
The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of depressive episode about major depression and bipolar disorder in child and adolescent. The subjects of this study were 34 major depression patients and 17 bipolar disorder patients hospitalized at child and adolescent psychiatry in OO university children's hospital from 1st March 1993 to 31st October 1999. The method of this study is to review socio-demographic characteristics, diagnostic classification, chief problems and symptoms at admission, frequency of symptoms, maternal pregnancy problem history, childhood developmental history, coexisting psychiatric disorders, family psychopathology and family history and therapeutic response through their chart. 1) The ratio of male was higher than that of female in major depressive disorder while they are similar in manic episode, bipolar disorder. 2) Average onset age of bipolar disorder was 14 years 1 month and it was 12 years 8 months in the case of major depression As a result, average onset age of major depression is lower than that of bipolar disorder. 3) The patients complained of vegetative symptoms than somatic symptoms in both bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. Also, the cases of major depression developed more suicide idea symptom while the case of bipolar disorder developed more aggressive symptoms. In the respect of psychotic symptoms, delusion was more frequently shown in major depression, but halucination was more often shown in bipolar disorder. 4) Anxiety disorder coexisted most frequently in two groups. And there coexisted symptoms such as somartoform disorder, mental retardation and personality disorder in both cases. 5) The influence of family loading was remarkable in both cases. Above all, the development of major depression had to do with child abuse history and inappropriate care of family. It is apparent that there are distinctive differences between major depression and bipolar disorder in child and adolescent through the study, just as in adult cases. Therefore the differences of clinical characteristics between two disorders is founded in coexisting disorders and clinical symptoms including onset age, somatic symptoms and vegetative symptoms.
THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL GROUP THERAPY FOR SCHOOL BULLIED
Lee, Ju-Hyun ; Shin, Jee-Yong ; Yeon, Byeong-Kil ; Han, Chang-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 221~230
Bullying is the intentional, unprovoked abuse of power by one or more children to inflict pain on or cause distress to another child on repeated occasions. Bullying can be considered to be a form of child abuse：peer abuse. Victims suffer adverse effects in the short and long term. If bullying is regarded as a form of abuse then professionals have a duty to detect it, take it seriously, and ensure that it is deal with to reduce the child's suffering and minimize the potential long term effects. This study is aimed preliminarily the development of cognitive behavioral group therapy for school bullied. 202 normal middle school freshman responded to self report scales- Offer's Self-Image Questionnaire-Revised, Children's Depression Inventory, Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety scale, and Defining Issues Test. The data were analyzed with Pearson's correlation to test the relationship among the above 4 variables. Self Image, depression, and anxiety were correlated strongly each other. But moral development was not correlated with self image, depression, and anxiety. Five school bullied students were referred by their teacher for school maladjustment. The author tried 12 sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral group therapy and assessed their behaviors pre- and post intervention by above 4 scales. There were no significant different intervention effects statistically. But It is meaningful that improvement of psychological mindedness in diary written by subject in treatment sessions
PROGNOSIS OF TREATED INPATIENTS WITH CONDUCT DISORDERS USING A STRUCTURED TELEPHONE FOLLOW-UP INTERVIEW
Chae, Jeong-Ho ; Moon, Seok-Woo ; Lee, Eun-Hoi ; Hahm, Woong ; Bang, Yang-Weon ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 231~239
Objectives：The major goal of this study was to investigate the treatment outcome of psychiatric treatment in inpatients with conduct disorder and to elucidate factors affecting its prognosis. Methods：We reviewed the medical records of 300 inpatients with conduct disorder who had been treated with a specialized adolescent treatment program. Follow-up structured telephone interview had been performed in 96 patients. Results：1) At the point of follow-up, 90% of the patients were improved in behavioral patterns, 2% of the patients were worse, and 8% of the patients were unchanged. 2) Intrafamilial relationship was improved in 70% of the patients, worse in 2%, and unchanged in 28%. 3) Fifty-seven percent of families thought to be helped by psychiatric inpatient treatment, 6% replied to be harmed, and 37% thought not to be helpful. 4) Comparing the good prognosis group who were all better in behavioral patterns, intrafamilial relationship, and efficacy of treatment with the rest of subjects, the good prognosis group was significantly younger and had more history of problems in familial structure. Conclusion：Although the present study had some meterological limits, the promising positive results in the outcome of inpatients with conduct disorder encourages further more sophisticated investigations in this problematic psychiatric conditions.
THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS THAT SHOW THE CHRACTERISTICS OF PEER GROUP NEGLECT OR REJECTION
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Hong, Sung-Do ; Lee, Si-Hyung ; Hong, Kang-E ; Son, Jung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 240~251
This study was a preliminary study on the adolescent psychiatric patients that show the characteristics of peer group neglect or rejection. We divided the adolescent psychiatric patients(n=25) into neglect-reject group(n=15) and non-neglect group(n=10). Each patient answered 8 scales and several questions about general relationships with friends. And, both the score of each 8 scales and answer about qusetions were examined. Lastly, records of 5 cases from neglect-reject group were analyzed. The depression dimension score of SCL-90-R, anxiety dimension score of SCL-9O-R, paranoid dimension score of SCL-90-R, interaction anxiousness scale(IAS) score were significantly different between 2 groups. On the result of case analysis about 5 patients of neglect-reject group, the adolescent psychiatric patients had a tendency to be rejected or neglected in case of having developmental problems(for example, language development or cognitive impairment).
PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS AND HANDICAPPED：SELF-CONCEPT AND STRESS COPING STRATEGY
Choi, Seung-Mi ; Chung, Chin-Youb ; Kim, Zoung-Soul ; Shin, Min-Sub ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 252~261
Objectivity：This study was conducted to examine the depression, self-concept, perception of stress & coping strategy in children with chronic physical illness. Methods：Two groups of participants were recruited for this study, 13 children with chronic illness in outpatient or inpatient treatment at Seoul National University Children's Hospital, and 13 nonpatient children. They were assessed using Korean form of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS), Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory(CDI) and three subscaleds('color how you feel' 'color how others make you feel' 'A children in the rain' of Children's Self-Report and Projective Inventory(CSRPI). Result：There were significant differences between the chronic ill children and the healthy children in scores of depression and self-concept. The chronicity ill children were more depressive and had very negative self-concept, and obtained significantly lower scores than the healthy children in the subscales of PHSCS, 'intellectual/school status' and 'popularity' Among three scales of CSRPI, there was no difference in 'color how you feel' and 'color how others make you feel' But there were significant differences in all items of 'A child in the rain'(quantity of raining, duration of raining, tool, and effectiveness). 'Duration of raining' correlated most negatively with PHSCS scores, and correlated positively with CDI scores. Conclusion：The children with chronic illness are more depressive and have very negative selfconcept. And they feel that the stresses are more permanent, but have no appropriate coping strategy. The results suggest that the chronic illness strongly affects the psychological and emotional adjustment of children(i.e. depression, peer relation, stress coping strategy).
REVIEW OF THE PEER RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS - FOCUSING CASE STUDIES -
Cho, Soo-Churl ; Shin, Sung-Woong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 262~281
We focused on the peer relationship of adolescent patients with schizophrenia, which usually occurs around puberty. Reviewing cases with schizophrenia and the literature extensively, we had come to the conclusion as follows；1) the most robust predictors among factors influencing the prognosis of schizophrenia are premorbid interpersonal relationship and adaptive functions. 2) Especially teachers’ reports about school life and peer relationship during school life are useful for predicting the occurrence of schizophrenia in adolescents. We described characteristic and behavioral childhood features which are important in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, based on high-risk studies and long term follow-up studies. Also, pathological profiles of the interpersonal relationship and pathology in adulthood were presented. We tried to integrate various aspects of interpersonal and social weaknesses of schizophrenics applying 'primary and secondary socialization' concept. Finally, five cases of adolescent schizophrenics were described briefly and proposal for the early detection and intervention for risk factors was introduced.
A VALIDITY STUDY OF PARENT BEHAVIORAL RATING SCALES AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Kim, Ji-Hae ; So, Yoo-Kyung ; Jung, Yoo-Sook ; Lee, Im-Soon ; Hong, Sung-Do ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 282~289
This study was designed to examine the validity of HPR subscale in Korean Personality Inventory for Children(KPI-C) and Attention Problems subscale in Korean Child Behavior Checklist(K-CBCL) as diagnostic tool for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). Nineteen ADHD-1 type, twenty-three ADHD-H type, sixteen Neurosis, and fifteen normal children with the age from 6 to12 were selected based on DSM-IV, and their responses of the KPI-C and CBCL were analyzed. Omnibus F-test results showed that there were significant differences in the F scores of HPR and Attention Problems T scores(p<.05). But in Posthoc analysis, the HPR and AP scores in three clinical groups were significantly higher than in normal group, but there was no group difference among three clinical groups(p<.05). These results shows that HPR subscale and Attention Problems subscale may be useful tools for screening clinical groups(vs normal group) but there was a limit to the clinical validity of two subscales as diagnostic tools for the subtypes of ADHD.
T.O.V.A. PROFILES OF CLINICALLY REFERRED CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INATTENTION
Lee, Soo-Jin ; Lee, Hye-Ran ; Ko, Ryo-Won ; Shin, Yee-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 11, issue 2, 2000, Pages 290~296
Objective：This study aims to investigate the cognitive characteristics of clinically referred children with symptoms of inattention, cach as having ADHD, tic disorder, and emotional disorder. Methods：65 boys(38 with ADHD, 17 with Tic disorder, and 10 with Emotional disorder) were individually assessed using the KEDI-WISC(FIQ, VIQ, PIQ) and T.O.V.A.(errors of omission, errors of commission, reaction time, variability, anticipatory response, multiple response), and the results of those tests were analyzed. Results：There was significant difference among three diagnostic groups of the VIQ of KEDIWISC and the reaction time of T.O.V.A. after the correction of the effect of age difference. Conclusion：The findings suggest that the reaction time of T.O.V.A. might be the useful variable to differentiate the ADHD from other psychiatric disorders and the effect of age and IQ difference should be considered carefully to diagnose in clinical setting.