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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume 12, Issue 2 - Dec 2001
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jun 2001
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STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ONTOGENETIC PROCESSES AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Jung, Yeoung ; Shin, Sung-Woong ; Whang, Joon-Won ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 165~178
In order to elucidate the biological etiology and the relationship between the ontogenesis of serotonin system and psychopathology in ADHD, plasma serotonin(5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA) were measured and the correlation between the plasma levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA and age were evaluated in 46 ADHD patients and 18 control subjects. The ADHD patients were composed of 16 combined type, 10 inattentive type, and 20 hyperactive-impulsive type and the control subjects were communication disorders. The results are summarized as follows：1) There was significant difference in plasma 5-HT levels among combined, inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive and control subjects(ANOVA F=4.33, df 3, 60, p<0.05), and post-hoc test using Scheffe method showed significant difference between the combined type and control group. But, post-hoc tests showed no significant differences between combined and inattentive, combined and hyperactive-impulsive, hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and control and inattentive and control groups. 2) There was no significant differences in plasma 5-HIAA levels among the combined, hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive and control groups(ANOVA F=2.08, df 3, 60, p>0.05). 3) Significant difference in 5-HT level was found between the whole ADHD group(N=46) and the control group(N=18)(T=3.10, df 62, p<0.05). But no significant difference in 5-HIAA level was found between the whole ADHD group and the control group(T=1.90, df 62, p>0.05). 4) Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels showed no significant correlation with TOVA findings(5-HT：omission pearson correlation 0.10, commision 0.23, reaction time 0.01, variability in attention 0.11, all p>0.05, 5-HIAA：omission 0.21, commision 0.15, reaction time 0.09, variability in attention 0.15, all p>0.05). 5) Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels showed no significant correlation with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity based on DSM-IV criteria. 6) Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels showed no significant correlation with age both in ADHD and control group. These findings show that decreased plasma 5-HT level may play a role in the genesis of ADHD, but this finding has no significant correlation with the psychopathology of ADHD. And we could not find any significant differences in ontogenetic processes in 5-HT. Future studies should be focused on the drug effects, family history and prognosis based on the biochemical subtypes(high and low 5-HT group).
NEONATAL BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER GENE AND DOPAMINE D2, D3, D4 RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISMS
Park, Young-Nam ; Kim, Dae-Kwang ; Kim, Sung-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 179~191
Objectives：This study evaluated the association between behavioral characteristics and polymorphisms in DAT1, DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genes. Methods：The subjects were 114 neonates, who were born by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and had no physical problems. The behavioral characteristics were evaluated using Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale(NBAS) at
hours after their birth to minimize environmental influences, and cord blood was used to analyze the gene polymorphisms. Results：In comparison to DAT1 gene 10/10 genotype group(N=93), other genotype group(N=19) showed significantly high NBAS scores on social-interaction, state organization, and state regulation. DRD2 gene Ser311/Cys311, TaqI A, and TaqI B polymorphisms showed no significant differences on NBAS scores when they were grouped by genotypes. DRD3 gene polymorphism and DRD4 gene promotor polymorphism showed no significant difference on NBAS scores when they were grouped by genotypes. In comparison to the short repeats(N=102), long repeats(N=10) in DRD4 gene showed significantly high habituation score of NBAS. Conclusion：These results suggest that the genetic effects of the neonatal behavioral characteristics may be mediated via DAT1 and DRD4 genes.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF ADOLESCENTS IN RUNAWAY SHELTERS BY THE EVALUATION OF THEIR PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Lee, Jong-Sung ; Kwack, Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 192~217
Object：This study was carried out to classify adolescents in runaway shelters by evaluating their psychopathology. And the ultimate purpose is to offer basic data for preventing adolescents‘ runaway and for diversifying runaway shelters suitable for the problem of individual adolescent. Method：128 adolescents who stay in the runaway shelters were asked to complete self-report qeustionnaires including basic sociodemographic data, Child Behavior Check List(CBCL), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI), and Symptom Check List-90-Revised(SCL-90-R). Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(K-WAIS)[or Korean Educational Developmental Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(KEDI-WISC)] and Bender-Gestalt test(BGT) were also done by clinical psychologists. Results：The most common age of the subjects were 15-year-old, and they dropped out their schools in the middle school most commonly. Mostly they were from middle class family and their parents' educational level were high school graduates. The first runaway episode was most common in the middleschool period, and their runaways were repeated. The most common frequency of runaways were more than 10 times. About 10% of them abused drugs and about 80% of them abused alcohol. One third of them had experiences of illegal problems and 10% of them engaged in sexual activity for money. 95 adolescents(83%) in CBCL, 42 adolescents(36%) in SCL-90-R, and 70 adolescents(69.3%) in MMPI showed clinical significance. In intelligence test, 22 adolescents(22%) were mentally retarded. In BGT, 35 adolescents(39.4%) manifested brain dysfunction signs. Conclusion：Runaway adolescents in the shelters have variable and severe psychopathology. Their psychopathology is classified as follows；The behavior disorder group, the mood disorder group with anxiety/depression, the somatic disorder group with somatic symptoms, and the psychosis group with possibility of severe psychopathology. Therefore it is very important to evaluate psychiatric problems of runaway adolescents, and specific therapeutic interventions according to their problems are required.
A PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT SCALE FOR ADHD IN ADOLESCENTS：RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FOR CASS(S)
Shin, Min-Sup ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hong, Kang-E ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 218~224
Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) has been considered as the disorder occurring during childhood, the prevalence is increasing among adolescents and adults. The prevalence rate varies from 2.0 to 14.3% due to the difference of diagnostic criteria, different assessment methods, or subjects' age difference. Therefore, it needs to make age specific(i.e., for children, for adolescents, and for adults) assessment tools. Authors translated Conners-Wells Adolescents Self-Report Scales(short form)[CASS(S)] in to Korean to get validity and reliability as a way of development of assessment tool for adolescent with ADHD in Korea. CASS(S) was translated and corrtected by three psychiatrists and one clinical psychologist. To examine the concurrent validity and test-retest validity, CASS(S) was applied with K-YSR on one class of each grade in a middle school in Seoul with two week interval(total 115：male 58, female 57). To test validity, authors analysed and got Cronbach's as internal consistency. Construct validity was done by principal axis factor analysis on 4,354 students. As a result, Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was .88, Pearson coefficient for test-retest reliability .83, and coefficient for concurrent validity .65. And in the factor analysis to examine construct validity, three factors were revealed as cognition, hyperactivity, and conduct. These results shows that CASS(S) may be useful tool for adolescents with ADHD, although there was a limit not to be done the comparison with clinical groups.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEST-ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, TRAIT ANXIETY AND STATE ANXIETY
Jung, Yeoung ; Hong, Kang-E ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Seong, Yeong-Hoon ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 225~236
Introduction：Test anxiety is a pervasive problem among high school students in Korea. While anxiety in test situations may actually facilitate the performance of some students, more often it is disruptive and leads to performance decrements. Over the past years, many child psychiatrists have become concerned with understanding the nature of test anxiety, but it is not clearly understood yet. In order to understand the nature of test anxiety, the relationship between test anxiety and depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety was examined. In addition, the relationships between the subscores of test anxiety (worry and emotionality) and the subscores of CDI, state anxiety or trait anxiety were examined. Methods：The Test Anxiety Inventory, Chidlren's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 425 high school students in Seoul. The relationships between test anxiety and other measures were tested using Pearson correlation coefficients and to test the causal ralationship among the variables, regression analysis was performed. Results：The correlation coefficients between test anxiety and depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety were 0.56(p<0.05), 0.75(p<0.05), 0.53(p<0.05) respectively. The correlation coefficients between subscales of test anxiety and depression were all significant. The correlation between subscales of test anxiety and state and trait anxiety were also statistically significant. Conclusions：This study indicates that test anxiety is closely related with depression, state and trait anxiety. In addition, the subscales of test anxiety are significantly related with those of the depression. The correlation coefficients between test anxiety and state-trait anxiety are also statistically significant. Thus, in order to develop the preventive and effective methods for treatment, these psychopathological characteristics should be kept in mind.
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE PERCEIVED PARENTING AND PROBLEM BEHAVIORS IN KOREAN MALE ADOLESCENTS
Kim, Do-Hoon ; Moon, Yoo-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 237~244
Objectives：Dysfunctional parent-child relationships have been associated with various mental and conduct disorders in adolescence and mental problems in adulthood as well. Most studies have done in clinical settings and little is known about the relationship between parenting and adolescent problem behaviors in community settings. This study is done to compare the perceived parenting and problem behaviors between problem behavior group and those of non-problem behavior group in male adolescents. Methods：The subjects of this study were 147 male high school students in Seoul, who do not have any known mental or conduct disorders and live with their real parents. Parental Bonding Instrument and Youth Self Report were administered to evaluate the perceived parenting and problem behaviors of adolescents. Results：There were significantly higher scores of mother overprotection in problem behavior group when comparing to non-problem behavior group. There was a significant association between mother overprotection and problem behavior when adjusting the number of family members, mother's job, parents' education level, grades, and religion. Conclusion：The parenting such as mother overprotection can be helpful to predict the problem behaviors in male adolescents, and appropriate parenting may prevent various problem behaviors in male adolescents.
THE STUDY OF RELATION TO VARIABLES RELATED TO CHILDREN'S DEPRESSION AND PARENTS' DEPRESSION
Seo, Min-Jung ; Jung, Chul-Ho ; Chang, Eun-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 245~255
Objectives：This study was conducted to investigate variables related to children's depression, and also the relationships between children's depression and parents' depression. Methods：258 5th and 6th grade elementary school students in Taegu, and their parents were asked to complete self-report questionnaires including the children's depression Inventory(CDI) and the Beck's depression Inventory(BDI). Correlation analysis, T-test, One-way ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis and the statistically significant level is p<0.05. Results：1) CDI mean for total children is
, BDI mean for their mother is
, and BDI mean for their father is
. 2) There are significant differences in CDI for children variables related to sex, health, school achievement, economic status. 3) Mother's health slightly affect children's depression, but there are no significant differences in CDI for parents' education, religion, father's health. 4) Children's school achievement and economic status among variables related to children affect mother's BDI scores and children's school achievement affect father's BDI scores. 5) For CDI item analysis, there are significant differences in 10 items for children's sex, in 8 items for health, and in 6 items for economic status. Especially, there are significant differences in 20 items among 27 items for children's school achievement. 6) There is significant correlation between parents' BDI scores and children's CDI scores, and especially high correlation to mother for both boys and girls. Conclusion：Children's depression are significantly affected by children's sex, health, school achievement, economic status. And especially school achievement affect grossly children's depression and their mother's depression, so we know that children and their mother have much burden about school achievement. There is high correlation between children's depression and parents'(especially mother) depression. Therefore, these result imply that in the therapy for children's depression, we must include not only children's problems but also parents' depression and parent-children relationship.
THE PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS USING MRI OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE IN EARLY-ONSET PSYCHOTIC DISORDER
Lee, Youn-Hee ; Kang, Min-Hee ; Kim, Chul-Eung ; Bae, Jae-Nam ; Hong, Kang-E ; Lee, Jeong-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 256~262
Objective：The enlargement of the lateral ventricle is well established finding in adult-onset schizophrenia, but in the patients with early-onset psychotic disorder(EOPD) is still controversal. To identify structural abnormalities of the lateral ventricle in patients with EOPD and difference of the brain developmental course in EOPD group, planimetrical assessment of the lateral ventricle was conducted by means of retrospective quantitative neuroimaging. Methods：The brain MR images of 14 patients with EOPD(mean age
years) who met the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and 24 control subjects with simple headache(mean age
years) were collected. Single best view for the lateral ventricle, one axial slice was selected for analysis. MR images were redigitalized with flatbed scanner and data were analyzed with NIH IMAGE software. Results：In the patients with EOPD, there were significant correlations between aging and lateral ventricular sizes and between aging and ventricular brain ratio(VBR). The statistical significance of normal asymmetry of the lateral ventricle was not observed for the EOPD group. The EOPD group had larger lateral ventricular sizes and VBR than control group, but these results were not statistically significant. Conclusion：These findings suggest that the brain abnormalities in patients with EOPD progress from the earlier course of the disorders and the course of brain development in EOPD group is different from control group.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOILET TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN WITH ENCOPRESIS
Lee, Yang-Hee ; Cho, Young-Suk ; Koo, Mee-Hyang ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 263~274
This article describes and illustrates cases the treatment of primary and secondary encopresis using a changing conditions and criterion design with two subjects. The dependent variables measured were increase in appropriate toileting behavior and decrease in inappropriate toileting behavior. After 12 and 13 weeks of treatment encopresis was completely eliminated. In a two-month follow-up and one year follow-up inappropriate toileting behavior was not reported. Appropriate toileting behavior was also reported generalized to settings outside the home.
MALADAPTIVE COGNITIONS ACCORDING TO DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND AGE OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD - FOCUS ON COGNITIVE ERROR AND ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS -
Kim, Young-Mi ; Choi, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 2, 2001, Pages 275~281
This study examined the relationship between psychopathology(depression, anxiety, aggression), maladaptive cognitions(negative cognitive errors, attributional biases), and age of children with ADHD. 40 ADHD children and their mother completed questionnaires assessing depression, anxiety, aggression level and maladaptive cognitions of children. The results showed that maladaptive cognitions of children with ADHD was not significantly associated with their depression, anxiety, aggression level. Age was negatively related to internal stable attributions for negative events that was characteristic in depression, and had significantly effect on internal stable attributions for negative events. As age of ADHD children increased, their internal attribution for negative events reduced. It seems that their depression and anxiety level is associated with current stress event rather than maladaptive cognitions. Suggestions and limitations of this study, and the directions for future study were discussed.