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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jun 2003
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KOREAN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY - A REVIEW OF THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE -
Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 139~149
Objectives：To review the history of the development and current status of Korean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and to propose the future tasks at this 20th anniversary of Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Methods：Records and publications of Korean Academy, personal communications with senior members of the Academy, the author's recollections and memoirs. Results：Korean Child Psychiatry started with opening Child Psychiatry Clinic at Seoul National University Hospital in 1979 and establishing Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the same hospital in 1980. A Child Psychiatry Study Group was formed in 1983 and it transformed into Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in 1986. In the past 20 years, Korean child and adolescent psychiatry made an impressive progress and contributed significantly to the development of Korean medicine as well as to the establishment of child mental health service. There are 77 board-certified and 48 board-eligible child psychiatrists, and 18 child psychiatry fellows are in training as of 2003. Main forces of this successful introduction of child psychiatry are 1) 7 child psychiatry training centers at major university hospitals, 2) publication of Korean Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in 1990, 3) the establishment child psychiatry board certification system in 1996. Korean child psychiatry has extended its role in the international child psychiatry and took leadership in establishing Asian Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions(ASCAPAP). Conclusion：Korean child psychiatry has achieved a remarkable progress for the past 20 years and is currently producing 15 or more child psychiatry each year. However, there are needs of more active involvements in adolescent problems, more active consultation-liaison services at general hospitals as well as community mental health institutions. More school consultation and preventive educational services are desired. There is a urgent need of carrying out more empirical studies with strong scientific rigor. Korean Academy should pay attention and provide assistance to the development of child psychiatry service in other countries in Asia.
PARENTING IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY
Noh, Kyung-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 150~156
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY - DEVELOPMENTAL PHARMACOKINETICS, PHARMACODYNAMICS AND PHARMACOGENETICS -
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 157~173
The history of pediatric psychopharmacology is very short and the research on safety, efficacy and side effects is preliminary and long-term effect on growth and maturation is not well known yet. Clinical findings have shown that the responses to antidepressants, antipsychotics, CNS stimulants and steroids in children and adolescents might be different from adult populations. Based on these findings, this paper reviewed three issues, Firstly, in developmental pharmacokinetics. the author discussed the developmental factors affecting drug absorption, distribution, protein-binding, metabolism and excretion. Secondly, in developmental pharmacodynamics, developmental characteristics of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine receptors and their clinical implications were reviewed. Lastly, in pharamcogenetic part, the clinical utility of pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetic aspects of pharmacogenetics, the pharmacodynamic aspects of pharmacogenetics, the association studies of dopamine-related alleles in neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders or Tourette’s disorders, pharmacogenetic studies dopamine-related alleles and the pharmacogenetic studies of serotonin-related alleles. Based on these preliminary research, future pharmacogenetic applications in childhood and adolescent psychiatry were also discussed.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RORSCHACH RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN ADHD WITHOUT DEPRESSION AND ADHD WITH DEPRESSION
Lee, Sun-Mi ; Lee, Moon-Suk ; Cho, Eun-Cheong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 174~182
Objective：Present study compared the Rorschach responses characteristics between ADHD without depression and ADHD with depression. Method：60 children diagnosed ADHD(30 ADHD without depression and 30 ADHD with depression) were assessed with The Rorschach. Responses characteristics between two groups were compared by t test and
test. Results：ADHD without depression had more Rorschach response ration and frequency, with statical significance, in m, M-, DV, (3r+(2)/R>.44 and Fr+rF=0, OR(3r+(2)/R>.33)=YES, pure H<2=YES, H+(H)+Hd+(Hd), FQ none, Sc than ADHD with depression. ADHD with depression had more Rorschach response ration and frequency, with statical significance, in p, H+(H)+Hd+(Hd), (Hd), M than ADHD without depression. Conclusion：This results suggest that we had better consider the impulsivity of idation and cognition for ADHD without depression, preferred introversive coping style for ADHD with depression in diagnosing and intervening.
THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF KOREAN CONNERS PARENT AND TEACHER RATING SCALE
Park, Eun-Hee ; So, Yu-Kyoung ; Choi, Nak-Kyung ; Kim, Se-Joo ; Noh, Joo-Sun ; Ko, Yun-Joo ; Kim, Young-Shin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 183~196
Objectives：The Purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of Korean Parent and Teacher Conners' Rating Scale. Methods：Randomly selected 1st to 6th graders of the two elementary schools(N=1044) in Anyang City participated in the study. Children diagnosed with ADHD(N=23) at the child and adolescent clinic at a university affiliated hospital were included in the study for the analysis of clinical validity of the scales. Parent and teacher completed Korean Conners' Rating Scale and Korean-ADHD Rating Scale(KARS). In addition, parents completed Korean-Children Behavior CheckList(K-CBCL). Descriptive statistics, t-test, and analysis of variance were performed. Results：Scores of Korean Conners' Parents Rating Scale were significantly correlated with those of Korean Conners Teacher Rating Scale. High internal consistency reliability were demonstrated in both parent and teacher rating scales. There were significant correlations among sub-scales of Conners' Rating Scales, K-CBCL and K-ARS. Factor analyses revealed that the K-CTRS had three-factor structure (Inattention-Passivity, Hyperactivity, Conduct Problem) and the K-CPRS had five-factor structure(Impulsive-Hyperactive, Conduct Problem I, Anxiety, Psychosomatic, Conduct Problem II). Conners' Rating Scales effectively distinguish children with ADHD from children without ADHD. Conclusion：Korean Parent and Teacher Conners' Rating Scales are valid and reliable instruments that are useful for screening and identifying childhood problem behaviors. Future studies are required with a larger number of sample sizes including adolescents from various geographic regions.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON AUDITORY ATTENTION AND PHONEME DIFFERENTIAL ABILITY AMONG CHILDREN WITH READING DISABILITY AND WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY
Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, Boong-Nyun ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 197~208
Objective：In this study, we hypothesized that deficit in processing rapid linguistic stimuli is at the heart of Reading Disability(RD) and deficit in response inhibition is at the heart of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity(ADHD). We conducted experiments to identify the core cognitive characteristics of children either with RD or with ADHD or with both, using attentional tasks and phoneme differential tests. Method：In the study 1, 28 children with ADHD, 16 children with RD+ADHD were individually administered visual/auditory performance tests. Then, the differences of performance on attentional tasks between two groups were compared while IQs of two groups were controlled. In the study 2, 13 children with RD+ADHD/RD, 13 children with ADHD, and 13 normal children were administered computerized phoneme differential tests. Result：Visual attentional tasks did not distinguish an ADHD group from a RD+ADHD group. With auditory attentional tasks, however, the comorbid group showed significantly more difficulties, causing a large variance in reaction time. RD, RD+ADHD, and ADHD groups showed more errors in phoneme differential tests than a normal control group, and each group showed distinctive performance patterns. Discussion：An ADHD group had difficulty in response inhibition and sustained attention, and children who also had RD along with ADHD magnified the auditory attentional difficulties. Even though children with RD had more trouble with responding correctly to target stimuli, their responses were not significantly different from those of children with ADHD.
DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF THE K-ABC AND THE K-LDES FOR CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISORDER AND LEARNING PROBLEM
Shin, Min-Sup ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Kim, Boong-Nyun ; Jeon, Sun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 209~217
Object：This study examined the diagnostic validity of the K-ABC and the K-LDES for identifying the cognitive deficits and the learning difficulty of children with learning disorder and to diagnose the learning disorder. Method：The clinical group consisted of 15 children with learning disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder accompanying learning problem(LP) and 14 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. They were diagnosed either learning disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on DSM-IV criteria by child psychiatrists and clinical psychologists visiting Seoul National University Children’s Hospital. The normal group was composed of 15 children be going to an elementary school. All groups were between the age of 7 and 12. The K-ABC was administered to the clinical and the normal group. The K-LDES was also administered to mothers of all groups. Result：There were no significant differences on sequential, simultaneous, mental processing subscales of the K-ABC in three groups. However, The LP group showed slightly lower scores on Achievement scale and significant low scores on Reading/Decoding than the other groups. On K-LDES, LP group showed significant low scores on Listing, Thinking, Reading, Writing, Spelling, Mathematical calculation, Learning quotient(LQ) than the other groups. Also there were significant correlations between K-ABC and K-LDES subscales. Conclusion：The result of present study showed that the K-ABC and the K-LDES are a valid and effective instruments for evaluating and diagnose the learning disorder.
THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG CHILD'S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS, MATERNAL DEPRESSION, AND PARENTING STRESS
Lee, Young-Joon ; Song, Won-Young ; Choi, Yui-Gyum ; Shin, Yee-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 218~228
Objectives：This study investigated the relationship among child's behavior problems, maternal depression, and parenting stress in children with psychiatric diagnoses and their mothers, and the effect of these variables to the mothers' parenting stress. Methods：Seventy-three children(31 externalizing, 24 internalizing, 18 mixed) and their mothers were involved in this study. The mothers of three groups completed MMPI, KPI-C(Korean Personality Inventory for Children), and PSI(Parenting Stress Index). To investigate the relationships among each variables, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, stepwise regression analysis were performed. Results：There was no significant difference in maternal depression among three groups of children. In 2-Way ANOVA, main effect of maternal depression was statistically significant on depression, parent health, and relationship with spouse subfactor in parent domain, parent domain total, and overall parenting stress. But the main effect of child group was statistically significant on distractability/hyperactivity subfactor in child domain only. In regression analysis, maternal depression explained the parent domain of parenting stress most effectively, and child's hyperactivity and anxiety explained the child domain of parenting stress significantly. Conclusion：These findings suggest that it is important to intervene maternal depression to reduce the parenting stress, along with the treatment of the child's behavior problems.
SOCIOPSYCHIATRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO USE COMPUTERS EXCESSIVELY - ON THE BASIS OF CARERS' REPORT -
Jhin, Hea-Kyung ; Kim, Mun-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 229~237
Objectives：Among the studies related to excessive computer use, the studies for elementary school students are relatively rare. Because children have relatively poor ability to recognize and express themselves, the carers' information is important to assess the children. This study attempted to investigate the relationship between children's computer use and sociopsychiatric characteristics on the basis of carers' reports. Methods：The subjects of this study were 287 5th- and 6th-grade students in the elementary school in Seoul. The student carers were asked to answer the questions for children's computer use, the computer addiction test modified from Young's parent-child internet addiction test, Korean Personality Inventory for Children(K-PIC). SPSS(version 10) was used to analyse the differnece of computer use between genders and the relation of the computer addiction test with K-PIC. Results：1) The score of computer addiction test was significantly higher in male children than in female children and more male children compared to female children were distributed in the excessive user group. 2) The score of computer addiction test correlated with the scores of most clinical scales of K-PIC and the average scores of most clinical scale were significantly higher in the excessive user group than in the general user group. 3) More children with score above 65 in HPR, DLQ, FAM scale were distributed in excessive user group than in general user group. Conclusion：The 5th- and 6th-grade elementary school students with excessive computer use were found to show more sociopsychiatric problems. With these finding we suggest that social and clinical attention to the children who use computer excessively shoud be required.
A PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR STANDARDIZATION OF THE MAYSI-2K (MASSACHUSETTES YOUTH SCREENING INSTRUMENT-2 KOREAN) IN KOREAN DELINQUENT YOUTHS
Yi, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Hae-Kook ; Lee, Chung-Tai ; Kim, Sun-Kyung ; Kweon, Yong-Sil ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 14, issue 2, 2003, Pages 238~246
Objectives：Mental health problems have been found to be more common among juvenile delinquents. This report assessed the reliability, and validity of the MAYSI-2K(Massachusettes Youth Screening Instrument-2 Korean) in Korean delinquents to examine the utility as a screening measure. Methods：The study consisted of 119 male juvenile youths(mean age 16) who admitted in the probation & detention office. They completed an assessment battery including MAYSI-2K and K-YSR(Korean-Youth Self Report) upon entry. Factor analysis, reliability test, and validity test were conducted. Results：The results of factor analysis represented 14 factors which showed more factor structures in comparison with published factor loadings of 7 in the MAYSI. In factor analysis according to the each subscale of the MAYSI, the internal coefficients of 7 subscales ranged from .142 to .756. Test-retest reliability revealed significant correlations(r= .84). There were significant correlations among subscales of MAYSI-2K and K-YSR. Conclusion：Our findings suggested that MAYSI-2K might be a useful screening measure. But further studies with extended number of subjects and culturally appropriate items are required for clinical utility of the MAYSI-2K in Korean delinquents.