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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Sep 2005
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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NEURODEVELOPMENTS IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY - CUTTING EDGES IN THE STUDY OF NEURODEVELOPMENTS : INTRODUCTION -
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 3~4
GENETIC CONTROL MECHANISM AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF NEURODEVELOPMENT
Joung, Yoo-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 5~14
There has been an enormous progress in understanding of how genes contribute to both normal and abnormal development. Also many laboratory works are exploring the intricacies of how to develop in the human central nervous system. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical development gives essential insight into the pathogenesis of many genetic and acqured developmental psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, and teaming disorder. Genes have been implicated in an ever-increasing number of disorders. Advance in genetics have begun to clarify the molecular basis of not only single-gene disorders, but also more complex phenotypes.
NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF CEREBRAL DEVELOPMENT
Kim Boong-Nyun ; Cho Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 15~25
During the recent decade, the new data about normal neurochemical system development have been accumulated very much. Based on these new data, the up-to-date theory and hypothesis have been developed. These development of this field results from the technological/methodological development which increase the sensitivity, specificity and validity of neurochemical research. Especially, molecular technological development support the recent neurochemical development. In this review article, the authors described the recent research findings in the field of normal neurochemical development of neurotransmitter system in animal and human. Most of child psychiatric disorder, especially neuropsychiatric developmental disorders (ADHD, Autism, Tourette's disorder, MR etc) seem to have underlying neurochemical developmental problems in the pathophysiological basis. So, the data on the normal ontogeny of neurotransmitter system can be the most valuable resources for the research on the etiology of the diverse child psychiatric disorders.
NEUROIMAGING IN NEURODEVELOPMENT
Lee Jeone-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 26~32
Neuroimaging in neurodevelopment is a fast growing area and new imaging techniques are rapidly developed every year. In the neurodevelopmental viewpoint, the definitive psychopathology in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders are not yet known. But many consistent findings in neuroimaging studies are being published recently. This review describes the past, present, future and limitation of neuroimaging study in neurodevelopmental perspectives.
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY IN NEURODEVELOPMENT
Shin Min-Sup ; Kim Hyun-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 33~46
First, the author reviewed the relationship between human brain development and cognitive functions such as attention, perception, memory, and language. And then Luria's neurodevelopmental theory and its application on the Neuropsychological test battery for children were reviewed. Finally, various assessment tools to evaluate attention, intellectual function, visual-perception, visual-motor coordination, and executive function were examined.
PARENTAL ATTACHMENT STYLES AND PSYCHIATRIC MANIFESTATIONS IN THEIR
GRADE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
Yoo Han Ik ; Hwang Jun Won ; Kim Boong-Nyun ; Shin Min Sup ; Hong Kang-E ; Cho Soo Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 47~53
Objectives : Few studies have examined the relation between the attachment styles of the primary caregivers and the behavioral problems of their children. This study was performed to identify the impact of the insecure parental attachment patterns on the development of their higher grades elementary school children's psychiatric manifestations and disorders. Methods : 504 higher elementary pupils and their primary caretakers were included in our study. Relationship Questionnaire, Kovacs Children's Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children, and Korean Child Behavior Checklist were applied to them. Results : The grade-school children of the parents who belonged to preoccupied attachment type revealed higher Withdrawn, Anxious/depressed, Social Problems, Attention Problems, Delinquent Problems, Aggressive Problems, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, Total Behavioral Problems scores than ones of securely attached parents (p<0.01). Internalizing Problems score of preoccupied parents' children was highest, and one of avoidant and secure typed parents' kids followed in order (p=0.004) . More youngsters revealed Total Behavior Problem score high enough to clinically meaningful level in insecure parental attachment style than in secure one (p=0.038). Higher CDI score in insecure parental group was reported than in secure one (p=0.040). Conclusion : Parental insecure attachment can be associated with the development of the behavioral problems and psychiatric illness of their children.
A FAMILY-BASED AND CASE-CONTROL ASSOCIATION STUDY OF THE DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Park Tae Won ; Kim Boong Nyun ; Im Myung-Ho ; Yoo Hee Jeone ; Kang Daehee ; Cho Soo Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 54~62
Objective : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder, affecting
of school age children. Although the biological basis of ADHD is unknown, family studies provide strong evidence that ADHD has a genetic basis. Recent genetic studies have suggested associations between ADHD and Taq I polymorphism of dopamine beta hydroxylase gene(DBH) . The aim of this study is to test the association between ADHD and Taq I polymorphism of DBH in Korean population. Method : We processed DNA extraction and genotyping for 106 korean children with ADHD and their parents. Genotyping was additionally performed for 212 age and gender matched normal controls. Case-control association study was applied. And we tested the association using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype-based haplotype relative risk test (HHRR). Results : There were no statistical differences of genotype distributions between cases and controls. However, we did observe preferential transmission of allele Al of DBH Taq T polymorphism in ADHD. Conclusion : On the whole, our results lend credence to the notion that the relationship between ADHD and DBH is complex. The number of cases and informative transmissions were small, therefore it would be premature to make any conclusions from our study concerning the role of DBH in ADHD. Further work is needed to support these findings.
COPING STYLE, FAMILY SUPPORT, PARENTING BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENTS WITH HIGHLY PERCEIVED STRESS
Cho In Hee ; Lee Byoung Jo ; Ha Jee Hyun ; Yoo Hee Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 63~71
Objectives : This study was intended to compare coping style, family support, and parenting behavior between adolescent groups with different levels of perceived stress. Methods : A total of 795 high school students participated in this study. First, they were tested on the Perceived Stress Scale and then were separated into two groups depending on the level of perceived stress. Both groups completed the Scale for the Coping Style, the Family Environment Scale (relationship subscale) and Parenting Behavior Inventory. Results : The high stress group had significantly higher scores on all their coping scores than the low stress group. Also, the high stress group had significantly higher family conflict scores, lower family cohesiveness scores and lower expression scores than the low stress group. The high stress group experienced negative parenting behavior from both parents more often than the low stress group. In the adolescents with low family cohesiveness and expression, the use of active behavioral coping was decreased, if the higher stressful events occurred. The use of avoidant coping by these adolescents increased when there were higher levels of stress in their environment. Conclusion : Low family support directly reduced the usage of active behavioral coping and increased the use of avoidant coping strategy through the mediation of high stress condition.
A CLINICAL STUDY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CONSULTATION IN A GENERAL HOSPITAL
Kim Yeoung-Rang ; Hong Sungdo D. ; Lee Sang-Sin ; Lim Seong Hu ; Park Jeoung Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 72~78
Objectives : This study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of psychiatric consultation for children and adolescents in a general hospital. Methods : Hospital records of 302 children and adolescents who were referred for psychiatric consultation in a general hospital over 4 years were reviewed and analyzed. Results : The mean referral rate for psychiatric consultation for school age children and adolescents was
. While more girls were referred in middle and high school age group, more boys were referred in pre-school age group. Fifty percent of the consultation was requested from department of internal medicine and pediatrics. Main reason for requesting psychiatric consultation was fur the assessment of the patients from psychiatric point of view
, followed by the management of depression
. Most frequently rendered psychiatric services for the treatment was psychosocial education and supportive therapy
. Conclusion : There are differences in clinical nature of psychiatric consultation and referral patterns between adult patients and child and adolescent patients. Future research is needed to strengthen the services for child and adolescent psychiatric consultation.
COMORBIDITY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN WHO HAVE THE SYMPTOMS OF OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER - COMMUNITY BASED STUDY -
Kim Boong-Nyun ; Jung Kwang-Mo ; Cho Soo Churl ; Hong Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 79~89
Objectives : To acquire an improved understanding of oppositional defiant disorder, we evaluated the characteristics of children who have the symptoms of ODD in community sample. Methods : 1200 children from an elementary school in Bucheon (an urban community near Seoul) were recruited by randomized sampling method. By Disruptive Behavior Disorder Scale according to DSM-III-R & DSM-IV, we evaluated the symptoms of ODD and selected subjects with ODD. Psychiatric comorbidity, character trait were compared in subjects with ODD and comparison group. Also we examined the association between prenatal/perinatal risk factors, family functions and the symptoms of ODD. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical method using SPSS 11.5 window version. Result : Children with oppositional defiant disorder were revealed to have significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity and significantly greater family dysfunction compared to comparison group. Among the prenatal/perinatal risk factors, severe emotional stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, medication during pregnancy were revealed as risk factors of ODD. In character inventory, ODD group were evaluated to have high score in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, but low in reward dependency. Conclusion : These results support that 1) prenatal/perinatal and psycho-social risk factors could be a important role in the progression of ODD, and 2) children with ODD have diverse comorbid psychiatric symptoms.
CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN THE SCORES OF KEDI-WISC SUBSCALES AND THE SCORES OF ADS VARIABLES
Kim Eun-Yee ; Cho Ara ; Kim Bongseog ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 90~97
Objectives : The present study was conducted to investigate a correlation of ADS and KEDI-WISC measures. Methods : The data of 91 children were used. On KEDI-WISC, PIQ, VIQ, and 11 subtest measures, and on ADS, 4 variables (ommission error rate, commission error rate, response time mean, and response time deviation) were analyzed. Results : The correlations of Ommission Error Rate and Coding, Digit Span, and Arithmetic, the correlations of Commission Error Rate and Object assembly, Picture Completion, Arithmetic, Digit Span, and Coding, the correations of Response Time Mean and Coding, and the correlations of Response Time Deviation and PIQ, and Coding were significant. Conclusion : ADS variables and several IQ scores are significantly related.
A STUDY OF RELIABILITY & VALIDITY FOR THE KOREAN VERSION OF ASPERGER SYNDROME DIAGNOSTIC SCALE
Kim, Joo-Hyun ; Shin, Min-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 98~105
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale as a tool to diagnose Asperger disorder. Methods : Subjects consisted of 15 Asperger disorder, 20 PDD & PDD NOS, 20 Communication disorder children who visited the department of child psychiatric outpatient clinic. The age range of the children was between 5 years 1 month and 15 years 6 month. The K-ASDS, the Korean version of Asperger disorder inventory (K-ADI), and K-CARS were administered to mothers of all children by clinical psychologists. Results The internal consistency of the ASDS was high (Chronbach's
) and the range internal consistencies of each subscales of K-ASDS were from .83 to 66. Correlation coefficients between K-ASDS and KADI was significant. Discriminant analysis showed that the Korean version of ASDS significantly discriminate Asperger disorder from PDD and Communication disorder, and the percentage of correct classification were
. Conclusion : The results of this study proved that the Korean version of ASDS was a reliable and valid measure for Asperger disorder.
THE DIFFERENCE OF TEMPERAMENT, GOODNESS OF FIT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN ADHD SUBTYPES OF ADOLESCENT HIGH RISK GROUP
Park, Hae-Song ; Choi, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 106~116
Summary : This study was designed to identify the difference in temperament, parent-adolescent's goodness of fit and behavioral problems between early-adolescent high risk group which can be divided into subgroups (ADHD-I and ADHD-HI/C) and normal group. Method : Subjects of this study were students of a Boy's Middle School and their parents. ADHD high risk group was determined by using three rating scales of ADHD behavioral symptoms : 1. Korean-ADHD Rating Scale, 2. Abbreviated Conners Parents Rating Scale, 3. Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Final research was based on the subjects including 25 people in ADHD-I high risk group, 70 ADHD-HI/C high risk group, 70 in normal group. Revised Dimensions of Temperament (DOTS-R) was used for students to assess their temperament, while DOTS-R : Ethnology for parents to access environmental demands. Goodness of fit between parent and adolescent was figured out by results of the two scales. Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR) was used to examine behavioral problems. Results : When it comes to temperament of adolescents, ADHD-HI/C high risk group was found to be associated with higher scores on general activity level. In contextual parent demand to adolescent, ADHD-HI/C parents showed higher level of demands in general activity than other groups, and lower expectation of positive mood than ADHD-I parents. In parent-adolescent's goodness/poorness of fit, the research found out that ADHD-I and ADHD-HI/C had lower level of fit on pesitive/negative mood than normal group and indicated that ADHD behavioral symptoms connected with poorness of fit in emotional relationship between adolescents and their parents. In behavioral problems, ADHD-HI/C high risk group had severe externalizing and internalizing problems distinctly. It had more severe in externalizing problems than ADHD-I, while there were no differences in internalizing problems between the two subgroups. Conclusion The two ADHD subgroups in high risk adolescents had differences on temperamental activity level and on goodness of fit about positive mood. In addition, they had different patterns in externalizing/internalizing problems.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS OF KOREAN ADOLESCENTS
Lee, Hyunji ; Ha, Eun-Hye ; Oh, Kyung-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 117~123
Objectives : The purpose of the present study was to investigate the gender differences in behavior problems and social competences of Korean Adolescents. Methods : K-YSR (Korean-YSR) data from 6570 Korean adolescents (2549 boys and 4021 girls) and K-CBCL (Korean-CBCL) data from 2373 parents (boys 1173 and girls 1200) between the ages of 12 to 17 were analysed. Results : The results showed that boys reported higher mean scale scores on the Social Problems, Delinquent Behavior, whereas girls showed higher mean scale scores on the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed and Aggressive Behaviors as well as Internalizing Problems and Total Behavior Problems in K-YSR. Girls also reported higher scores on the Social. as well as Total Competence Scale. Also parents reported higher mean scale scores on the Attention Problems, Delinquent Behavior in their boys, whereas reported higher mean scale scores on the Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed and Aggressive Behaviors as well as Internalizing Problems in their girls in K-CBCL. Parents reported no differences between boys and girls in social competence scales. Conclusion : In both K-YSR and K-CBCL, girls consistently showed higher scores in the Internalizing Problem scales and there was no significant difference between boys and girls in the Externalizing Problem scores, but girls showed higher mean score in the Aggressive Behavior scale.
ANTIDEPRESSANT INDUCED-MANIC EPISODE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PRECEDING ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
Chungh Dong-Seon ; Kim Jeong-Hyun ; Ha Kyoo-Seob ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 16, issue 1, 2005, Pages 124~131
Childhood and adolescent onset-bipolar disorders have higher rate of comorbidity with anxiety disorders as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and separational anxiety disorder are common comorbid anxiety disorders with bipolar disorders in child and adolescent. Prospective and reliable data on temporal and causal relationship between the onset of bipolar disorders and the onset of comorbid anxiety disorders are still in debate. The authors report 2 adolescent cases with antidepressant induced-manic episodes with preceding anxiety symptoms. The authors suggest careful prescription of antidepressants for anxiety disorders, even for those who do not have definite past history or family history of bipolar disorders. Further comprehensive and prospective studies are requested for the temporal relationship and pharmacological guideline for comorbid bipolar disorders and anxiety disorder in child and adolescent.