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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Sep 2006
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Development of Attachment Promotion Therapy Program for the Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Hong Kang-E M. ; Ju Se-Jin ; Im Sook-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 79~90
Social deficits are the most critical and core deficits of the children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder(ASD) and they are qualitatively as well as qualitatively different from typically developing children. It is proposed that the attachment between the mother and the autistic child should be promoted foremost and early as possible, to improve social deficits, just like early social developments in normal children depend largely on interactions between the mother and the child who are attached to each other we have developed an interventional program, 'Attachment Promotion Therapy', largely based on the attachment theory. The Attachment promotion Therapy mandates the participation of both the mother and the autistic child, and consists of mutually enjoying play activities, close physical contacts and parental training on intense mother-child interactions, focusing on improving maternal sensitivity, responsiveness, and nurturing behaviors during their interactions. The program was found to be effective in improving attachment behaviors, attachment security and acquiring joint attention skills. Attachment Promotion Therapy is therefore proposed here as the important earliest intervention method for children with ASD and could become the base for many other educational and therapeutic interventions.
Effects of the Attachment Promotion Therapy Program for the Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Im Sook-Bin ; Ju Se-Jin ; Hong Kang-E M. ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 91~97
The effects of the Attachment Promotion Therapy (APT) program for the autistic children were reviewed by 8 papers. The program was consisted with play activity centered mother-child interaction, educational activity for parents, lecture, video-feedback, and support. APT program was effective to improve the attachment behaviors and attachment security. And the mother's behaviors to her child became more child-centered, positively responsive, expressive supportively. Ninety six point seven percent of the mothers were satisfied with the APT program. They described that it was helpful to understand their children's developmental limitation and strength, to learn how to play with their children, to make supportive social network among the mothers, to minimize familial conflicts, and to make them much more comfortable with their children. They thought the APT Program was to be a steppingstone of the further educational program. APT program is an effective early intervention to promote social development and decrease autistic problems.
Assessing Suicidality in Adolescents
Martin Graham ; Kwak Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 98~105
Objectives : To consider which questions are most useful clinically and to find a framework for assessment of suicidality or risk of suicide for adolescents. Methods : Authors reviewed and integrated both clinical works and researches about measures used to evaluate suicidal behaviors in adolescents. Results : The 'cascade approach' for assessment of suicidality was developed; the quality and quantity of 'distress' leads to an entry question to do with the 'quality of life' and whether it is worth living. These two questions lead to examinations of 'thoughts' which may lead to 'plans' which leads to 'threats' which then leads to 'deliberate self injury' and then on to a history of 'past suicide attempts'. Authors also suggested to use a summed score of cascade approach in clinical decisions and showed how to modify it up to different evaluation situations. Focusing on the good things helps not only to qualify suicidality but also to begin the search for solutions. Conclusion : In the clinical assessment process, while scales assist the clinician, there is nothing to supplant a sensitive clinical approach. The 'cascade approach' was proposed as a framework for assessing adolescents for suicidality.
Adult Attachment Style in Mothers of Children with Selective Mutism
Cha Sang-Hun ; Jeong Sung-Hoon ; Chung Un-Sun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 106~113
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the adult attachment style characteristics of mothers with selective mutism children and their relations to selective mutism. Methods :The subjects of this study were 15 mothers with selective mutism children who were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria at psychiatry outpatient department of Kyungpook National University Hospital from March 1998 to February 2005. The controls of this study were 30 mothers with normal children who are in the second grade of elementary school in Daegu. We assessed the adult attachment style characteristics of these mothers by Revised Adult Attachment Scale, and Reciprocal Attachment Questionnaire-Korean version, self-report attachment style questionnaire. Results : 1) On the self-report attachment style questionnaire, it revealed that mothers with selective mutism children had both of the secure and the dismissing-avoidant types predominantly and the tendency that mothers with selective mutism children more commonly had dismissing-avoidant type than controls did. 2) On the comparison of attachment quality of mothers, although only the anxiety subscale difference was significant, it revealed that mothers with selective mutism children had generally lower score pattern in all of closeness, dependence and anxiety subscale than controls did. It was consistent with the consequence of self-report attachment style questionnaire in this study. Conclusion : This study showed that the distribution of adult attachment style of mothers with selective mutism children was different from those of controls. The dismissing-avoidant attachment style was predominant in mothers with selective mutism children. we suppose the possibility that the dismissing-avoidant attachment style of mothers with selective mutism children has relation with selective mutism.
Clinical Diagnosis and Emotional Behavioral Characteristics Study of Children in a Special Education Class in Korean Elementary School
Lim Myung-Ho ; Kang Jin-Kyung ; Lee Joo-Hyun ; Kim Hyun-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 114~123
Objectives : The special class has been made, bringing rapid increase quantitatively. The authors carried out the child psychiatric interview and evaluation for 9 special-classed children in Asan city to find out clinical diagnosis and emotional/behavioral characteristics. Methods : The child psychiatrists evaluated special class children by DSM-IV and K-SADS-PL. Tools for the evaluation were Child Behavior Checklist- Korean version, Korean Personality Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, Abbreviated Conners Parent-Teacher Rating Scale-Revised, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results : Ultimately 53 children, consisting of 35 boys(67.9%) and 18 girls(32.1%), participated, and the average age was
years old. Their measure of Vineland Social Maturity Scale was
, Childhood Autism Rating Scales was
, Child Depression Inventory was
, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children was
, and Abbreviated Conners Parent-Teacher Rating Scale was
. In the clinical diagnosis evaluation, the prevalence rate of learning disorder was decreased compared to early research, ADHD had been newly appeared and depression disorder and anxiety disorder had been increased. Conclusion : This result suggests that a lot of children in a special class have complex emotional and behavioral problems in addition to educational problems.
Temperament and Character Patterns of ADHD Children in a Community
Cho Soo-Churl ; Kim Boong-Nyun ; Jung Dong-Sun ; Hwang Jun-Won ; Shin Min-Sup ; Lyoo In-Kyoon ; Kim Jae-Won ; Go Bock-Ja ; Lee Sang-Eun ; Jung Sun-Woo ; Kim Hyo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 124~130
Objectives : The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in patterns of temperament and character, as assessed by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), between the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the control group in a community sample. In addition, we examined the potential differences on JTCI profiles according to the ADHD subtypes. Methods : Parents of 185 ADHD subjects (mean age
years), as diagnosed by the DISC-IV, and 185 age- and gender-matched comparison children have completed the parent's version of the JTCI. Results : The ADHD group scored significantly higher in Novelty Seeking and lower in Persistence than the comparison group on JTCI. However, there were no significant differences in the temperament or character profiles by the ADHD subtypes. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that the temperamental factors of higher Novelty Seeking and lower Persistence are related to ADHD. The temperament or character profiles in this study do not provide support for the distinctiveness of the ADHD subtypes.
Comparison of Executive function in Children with ADHD, Asperger's Disorder, and Learning Disorder
Shin Min-Sup ; Kim Hyun-Mi ; On Shine-Geal ; Hwang Jun-Won ; Kim Boong-Nyun ; Cho Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 131~140
Objectives : This study was conducted to investigate the deficits of executive function in children with ADHD, Asperger's Disorder(AD), and teaming disorder (LD), and to identify the differential characteristics of executive function deficits among three groups. Methods : The clinical group consisted of 46 children between the ages of 7 and 15 (16 ADHD, 16 LD, 14 AD). Neuropsychological tests for measuring cognitive function, attention and executive function were individually administered to children, and their performance scores were calculated based on the age norm for each test. Results : There was no significant difference in FSIQ, VIQ, and PIQ among the three groups. However, the AD group tended to show higher scores on the subtests of Information, Vocabulary and Digit Span, and lower score on Comprehension subtest than the ADHD and LD groups, while the LD group tended to show the lowest scores on the Information and Vocabulary subtests. On ADS, the ADHD group showed the highest omission and commission errors. All groups showed poor performances belonging to below 25 percentile ranks on executive function tests when compared to the age norms of normative group. The number of completed category on WCST was the smallest in the ADHD group, while the working memory score was the lowest in the LD group. Conclusion : These results suggest that ADHD, LD, and AD children have executive function deficit in common. However, the specific deficit areas in executive function are different for each group.
Relationship between Communication Stance and Characteristics of Internet Use
Lee Moon-Soo ; Choo Chung-Sook ; Joung Yoo-Sook ; Hong Sung-DoDavid ; Lee Hyeon-Soo ; Nam Min ; Song Hyoung-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 141~148
Objectives : Internet became essential component in these days. This study primarily tried to find out the characteristics of high risk internet users through using the communication scale. Methods : We investigated levels of internet addiction using Internet Addiction Scale in 1,193 high school and middle school students. Participants were divided into 3 groups (high risk user group, potential risk user group, normal user group) according to the results from internet addiction scale. We additionally surveyed characteristics of internet use, and patterns of communication and Communication Scale based on Satir theory in 614 from 1,193 participants. Results : Boys showed higher tendencies for internet addiction than girls in internet addiction scale. There were significant differences in mean computer using time especially during weekends among 3 internet user groups. The distribution of communication types in each internet user group was similar and this finding coincided with previous study results. However high risk user group showed higher scores in each inadequate communication pattern such as placating, blaming, super-reasonable and irrelevant stance. Conclusion : These results suggest that adolescents who use internet in addictive patterns may have more problematic communication styles and these may be associated with poor interpersonal relationships.
Relation between Abuse History and Psychopathology in Runaway Sheltered Adolescents
Kwack Young-Sook ; Lee Hae-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 149~162
Objectives : This study examined psychopathology, abuse history and the relation of them in sheltered runaway adolescents. The purpose is to investigate characteristics of adolescents who are in shelters according to abuse type and then to offer basic data which are needed in establishing comprehensive protection policy for runaway adolescents. Methods : One hundred twenty eighty adolescents who stay in the runaway shelters were asked to complete self-report questionnaires including basic sociodemographic data, Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR), Minnestota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and then examined the correlation of psychopathology and abuse in runaway adolescents. Results : In abused runaway adolescents, social performance scale of K-YSR was higher than school performance sealer and among scales of behavioral problem syndrome delinquent scale was highest. Scales of behavioral problem syndrome showed relatively significant correlation with abuse history. In MMPI scale of psychopathic deviate scale was highest, social introversion showed significant correlation with emotional abuse, and psychopathic deviate and hypomania showed significant correlation with physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse. In SCL-90-R somatization scale was highest. Scales of somatization, hostility, and paranoid ideation scale were significantly high in adolescents with emotional abuse and neglect history, and scores of anxiety and depression scale were significantly high in sexually abused adolescents. Conclusion : Runaway adolescents who had abuse experience showed significantly higher level of psychopathology than general adolescents and there were various interrelations between them according to the presence and the type of abuse. More precise psychiatric evaluation and detailed treatment intervention for runaway adolescents are needed.
Effects of Intelligence Ability on Continuous Performance Test
Lee Ji-Yeon ; Cho A-Ra ; Kim Bong-Seog ; Kim Joo-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 17, issue 2, 2006, Pages 163~169
Objectives : The study was conducted to investigate the effect of intelligence ability on attention using Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methods : 56 children with ADHD (52 boys, 4 girls) and 41 children in normal (28 boys, 13 girls) were sampled, their age range was 7 to 15. They performed IQ test and ADHD Diagnostic System (ADS) in order to examine intelligence and attention. Participants were divided into normal group and ADHD group, average IQ level children and superior IQ level children. Then ADS variables (omission error, commission error, reaction time, reaction time deviation, response sensitivity, and response criterion) were analyzed. Results : There was no significant interaction effect between group (normal, ADHD) and intelligence (average, superior). But there was significant difference between normal group and ADHD group in omission error, commission error, reaction time deviation, and response sensitivity. Also average level IQ group had significantly showed more omission, greater reaction time deviation, and lower response sensitivity than superior level IQ group. Conclusion : ADHD group has attention deficit than normal group, and CPT is available tool to detect attention problems. These findings indicate that intelligence can contaminate inattention and cognitive impulsivity thus it compensates for attention deficit. And it suggests that intelligence effect is considered in analyzing CPT in ADHD children.