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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Oct 2008
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Stimulants Medication of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Yang, Young-Hui ; Yoo, Hee-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 61~71
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, impulsiveness and problems in other higher cognitive processes such as executive function deficits. Currently, there are many treatment modalities, of which pharmacotherapy is the most strongly supported by scientific and clinical evidence. Stimulants, which are first choice in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD, block dopamine reuptake by binding the dopamine transporter and so increasing the concentration of dopamine in synaptic clefts. Stimulants are effective in improving core ADHD symptoms, as well as the nonspecific symptoms, such as aggressiveness and oppositional behavior. Frequently reported short-term adverse effects are decreased appetite, sleep disturbance, headache, dizziness and irritability. Although questions have been raised about the long-term side effects of stimulants, including growth suppression, cardiovascular events, and abuse potential, there is no clear evidence to support these concerns.
Non-Stimulant Medications in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Hwang, Jun-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 72~82
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of non-stimulants, including atomoxetine, bupropion and modafinil, as alternative approaches to the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A comprehensive review of the empirically based literature regarding the efficacy and the safety of the non-stimulants was performed. There is a large and increasing body of data supporting the efficacy and the safety of non-stimulants. Although the treatment effect sizes for non-stimulants may be smaller than those for stimulants, non-stimulants alone have been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as several comorbidities. These results suggest that non-stimulants are effective in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of alternative pharmacological medications in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Antidepressants in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Yang, Su-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Min ; Yoon, Jin-Sang ; Kim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 83~88
Antidepressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are one of the most commonly used classes of psychotropic drugs for treating children and adolescents. The US Food and Drug Administration has issued a black box warning concerning the increased risks of suicidal ideation and behavior associated with antidepressant treatment in children and adolescents. The aim of this review is to assess the risks and benefits of antidepressants in the treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.
Pharmacotherapy in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Field: Atypical Antipsychotics
Yoo, Han-Ik K. ; Paik, Kyoung-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 89~103
Although the scientific evidence is not entirely supportive, atypical antipsychotics have been used widely for the treatment of children and adolescents with mental illnesses as alternatives to typical antipsychotics which have more serious unwanted adverse effects than atypical neuroleptics. On the basis of clinical experiences and research data, atypical antipsychotics have been prescribed for adolescents with schizophrenia, manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorders, tic disorders, aberrant behaviors in pervasive developmental disorders, and impulsive or violent behaviors in disruptive behavior disorders. Due to their efficacy and relatively more tolerable side effects, the use of atypical antipsychotics has become increasingly popular in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, we should pay attention to the limitations associated with short-term clinical experiences and the lack of well-designed controlled studies, especially in terms of adverse effects including those involving metabolic processes.
A Preliminary Study for Continuous Performance Test by Subtypes of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Huh, Seung-Eun ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ; Lee, Won-Hye ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 104~111
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare two subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls in their attention using ADHD diagnostic system (ADS), a kind of continuous performance test. Methods : Subjects of this study were 8 children with ADHD-predominantly inattentive type, 28 children with ADHD-combined type and 20 control children. Ages ranged from 5 to 14 years. The Korean Educational Development Institute version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (KEDI-WISC) and the ADS were administered to all subjects to provide measures of intelligence and attention. Results : Significant differences were found in the ADS variables for the three groups. When compared with controls, the ADHD-predominantly inattentive type children scored significantly higher on the omission error at middle stage and later stage and ADHD-combined type children scored significantly higher on the omission error and reaction time at later stage. When compared with the other two groups, the ADHD-combined type children scored significantly higher on the commission error at all three stages. Conclusion : Our results suggest that the two subtypes of ADHD have different features in attention deficit. And there was a possibility that commission error is available variable to show cognitive characteristics of ADHD-combined type than any other ADS variables. Further studies are needed to evaluate this finding.
Usefulness of Clinical T-Score of Continuous Performance Test for Differential Diagnosis : among Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Tic Disorder
Yoon, Soo-Youn ; Koo, Hoon-Jung ; Kim, Boong-Nyun ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Shin, Min-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 112~119
Objectives : This study was conducted to examine whether there are qualitative differences in attention problem among children with various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and tic disorder using clinical ADHD diagnostic system (ADS) T-scores. Methods : The subjects were 794 outpatient children aged from 5 to 15 years, including 540 children with ADHD, 95 children with depressive disorder, 86 children with anxiety disorder, and 73 children with tic disorder. Clinical T-scores on the ADS were calculated using the mean and standard deviations of four ADS variables for the ADHD group. Results : All four groups had T-scores on the ADS in the abnormal range. However, when comparing the clinical T-scores, the children with depressive and anxiety disorders performed better than the children with ADHD. We also found that although the four groups seemed to be similar in terms of clinical T-scores for omission and commission errors, there were significant differences in clinical T-scores for reaction time and the standard deviation of response time (RT) between the ADHD and other groups. Conclusions : We concluded that inattention and impulsivity might not be specific only to ADHD and that the clinical T-scores of RT and standard deviation of RT on the ADS could be used to discriminate between ADHD and other clinical groups.
Effects of Maternal Sociodemographic Characteristics and Parenting Stress on a Child's Self-Concept: Parenting Style as a Mediating Factor
Chung, Soo-Jin ; Choi, Jeong-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 19, issue 2, 2008, Pages 120~127
Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal sociodemographic characteristics, especially education and employment, and parenting stress on the child's self-concept. Attention was also paid to the mediating impact of parenting style on the relationship between the maternal variables and a child's self-concept. Methods : A questionnaire and three scales were completed by fifth graders and their mothers, and 270 sets of paired data were analyzed. Results : The results showed that mothers with higher education experienced less child-related parenting stress, were perceived to be more achievement-oriented and rational by their children, and also had children with more positive self-concept. The relationship between maternal education and child's self-concept was mediated by the rationality dimension of parenting style. Maternal employment was not related to parenting stress, parenting style and most aspects of the child's self-concept. Lastly, child-related parenting stress had a negative effect on the child's self-concept, and this effect was mediated by the warmth and rationality dimensions of parenting style. Conclusion : Parenting style had a mediating effect on the relationships between the child's self-concept and maternal education and child-related parenting stress.