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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume 2, Issue 1 - Dec 1991
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CONCEPT AND THEORY OF TEST ANXIETY
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 3~10
Test situations are relatively specific and are experienced by everyone. The major purposes of this overview are to review the current concepts and theories of test anxiety and based on this review to suggest future directions in test anxiety theory and research. Test anxiety can be explained in terms of drive-oriented approach. trait-state anxiety theory, cognitive theory, cognitive and emotional approach, and psychodynamic theory. Usually, high test-anxious students keep the following characteristics : 1) The test situation is seen as difficult, challenging and threatening. 2) The individual sees himself as ineffective, and inadequate in handling the task at hand. 3) The individual focuses on undesirable consequences of personal inadequacy. 4) Self-deprecatory preoccupations are strong and interfere or compete with task-relevant cognitive activity. 5) The individual expects and anticipates failure and loss of regard by others. Future directions in test anxiety research should be focused to elucidate the nature and construct of test anxiety and the etiological factors of test anxiety by conducting research on the relationship between parental or social attitude and test anxiety. The effects of test anxiety on memory, attention, and cue utilization should be performed to elucidate the relationship between test anxiety and performance.
TEST ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Song, Sook-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Eun ; Jung, Hyun-Jee ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 11~23
The main purpose of this study was to investigated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance, additionally to examine the sexual and developmental differences in test anxiety. Test anxiety was assessed by the TAI-K(Kim Moonjoo, 1990) and was done to 388 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, grades and 104 9th grades. The level of TAI-K scores devided into a threeway split or five-way split. In the case of elementary school, four main cognitive subject-areas makes(the mean sum of semester) were used as academic performance indicator and with secondary school, all twelve subject-areas were included. The data were processed by correlational analysis and one-way ANOVA. The Results of this study are as follws : 1) Test anxiety correlated negatively and significantly with academic performance. While in the case of elementary school, in four cognitive subject-areas(Korean, Mathmatics, Society and Physics), two variables showed negative relationship, it was shown negatively in six subject-areas among twelve by secondary students. 2) In the area of sexual differences in test anxiety, female showed significantly higher level than male in elementary school however, there were no significant differences in secondary school. 3) In the area of developmental differences in test anxiety, in the case of elementary school. there were no significant differences between four grades.
THE PARENT INFLUENCE ON STUDENT'S TEST ANXIETY
Kim, Moon-Joo ; Lee, Hye-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 24~31
It has long been accepted that test anxiety is developed by parent-child relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the parent influence on student's test anxiety. The Korean Form of Test Anxiety Inventory(TAI-K) and the Parent Attitude Scale were used. 481 primary school-and 500 high school students were participated in the study. The results were as follows ; 1) The parental factor identified as 'rejecting' was positively correlated with students' test anxiety, while the parental factor identified as 'rearing as self-controlled being' was negatively correlated. 2) The students who identified their parents as 'being achievement-oriented' reported significantly higher test anxiety than those who identified their parents as 'accepting'. Many studies also report that high test anxiety interferes with student's performance. Therefore, parents should accept and understand their children in order to alleviate test.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE KOREAN FORM OF THE TEST ANXIETY INVENTORY
Kim, Moon-Joo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 32~42
Spielbergers Test Anxiety Inventory(TAI) is a self-report scale which can measure the cognitive(Worry) and affective(Emotionality) components of test anxiety separately. After having administered it to 756 Korean middle school students, it was concluded that some of the items of TAI were not relevant for Koreans as they were. They have been revised on the basis of informations collected from interviews with Korean students. The Korean Form of TAI(TAI-K) consists of 25 items for primary school- and 35 for high school students. The Cronbach's
of the TAI-K and the test-retest reliability were proved(
r=.78 for primary school students ;
r=.85 for high school students). General Anxiety Scale and Self-esteem Scale were used to prove its validity. test Anxiety correlates with general anxiety positively. while it correlates with self-esteem negatively.
CLINICAL SUBTYPING AND TREATMENT STRATEGY OF COLLEGE ENTERANCE EXAMINATION STRESS SYNDROME
Lee, Young-Sik ; Ku, Young-Jin ; Lee, Kil-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 43~48
The College entrance examination stress syndrome is a kind of anxiety disorder. The underlying cause of this disorder is not a test anxiety itself. One's hidden inner and familial conflicts are more likely attributed to this disorder. Patient's the most common complaints are various psychosomatic symptoms but in severe cases underlying psychopathology may be activated and progress to major psychosis. In a broad sense adolescent's delinguent behavior, drug abuse, school drop-out and sucide are closely related to this syndrome. In clinical management of these patients, considering the special situation of impending examination, the therapist must access to central conflict theme in a short time without severe resistance. The authors classified this syndrome into 5 clinical subtypes ; 'the anxious group', 'the exhaustion group', 'the despair group', 'the emptyness group' and 'the boredome group'. Typical case of each subtype and it's management methods were presented briefly.
TREATMENT OF TEST ANXIETY - Theoretical Background of the Treatment of Test Anxiety -
Paik, Young-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 49~55
Test anxiety has been defined as a situational-specific personality trait, with cognitive worry and affective emotionality components. Various treatments differ in the extent to which they attempt to modify the emotional and cognitive components of test anxiety, and can thus be placed along a cognitive-emotional continum on the basis of the intended locus of impact of the therapeutic techniques. Various treatments along a cognitive-emotional continum and study habits, test-taking skills and modeling in the treatment of test anxiety were reviewed. On the basis of a recent review of a number of test-anxiety treatment studies, most cognitively-focused treatments tend to be more effective in reducing test anxiety and its worry and emotionality components.
TREATMENT OF 4 CASES WITH TEST ANXIETY
Kim, Haeng-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 56~62
The author reported treatment experiences of 4 cases with test anxiety. The first one was a 15 year old boy with problem of mild attention deficit which caused test anxiety and academic underachievement around the 8th grade in middle school. The second and the third cases were brother and sister. The test anxiety was caused basically due to the problem of mother child relationship. their mother expected too much of her son and always urged him to study and never left him alone. The mothers practically gave up her whole life to devote to oversee her son's academic achievement and her daughter experienced affectional deprivation. The fourth case, a 16 year old boy, was a borderline personality disorder with extreme anger and hostility toward his parents who controled him too much. Different therapeutic approaches appropriate for different cases were described and the relationship between test anxiety and various psychopathology was discussed.
RAPPROACHMENT OF PSYCHIATRY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Hong, Kang-E.M. ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 63~65
GENETIC STUDY IN AUTSTIC DISORDER - Chromosomal Analysis -
Jung, Chul-Ho ; Lee, Inn-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 66~75
The authors studied chromosomal abnormalities in 38 autistic children meeting the diagnostic criteria of DSM-III-R in order to investigate genere factor in autistic disorder There were 28 males and 10 females, with the mean age being
All samples were analyzed on short-term lymphocyre cultures in Medium 199 that contained FUdR. The fragile X chromosome was not found in any of the patients. There were other chromosomal abnormalities in 14(36.8%) of 38 patients, such as breakage, 11cases ; gap, 2case ; breakage and gap, 1 case. In grouping of chromosomal abnormalities, group A patients were 4 cases ; group C were 3 cases ; group A and B was 1 case ; group A and E was 1 case ; group C and E was 1 case ; group A, B and C was 1 case. There were no statistical significance in the 16 symptoms of autistic disorder of DSM-III-R between patients with chromosomal abnormalities and patients without chromosomal abnormalites. These results do not support the hypothesis that fragile X chromosome is an etiological factor in autistic disorder.
THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ONTOGENESIS OF PLASMA
ACTIVITY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN INFANTILE AUTISM
Cho, Soo-Churl ; Suh, Yoo-Hun ; Kim, Hun-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 76~86
activity was measured in 37 autistic disorders, 26 atypical pervasive developmental disorders and 23 controls, to elucidate the biological etiology in pervasive developmental disorders. The results are summarized as follows : 1) In the autistic group, the mean plasma DBH activity was significantly elevated compared to the atypical and control groups. The mean plasma DBH activity was also significantly elevated in pervasive developmental disorders(autistic disorder+atypical developmental disorder) compared to control group. 2) In the atypical and control groups, the DBH activity significantly increased with age, but in the autistic group, the DBH activity was not significantly correlated with age. 3) No significant correlation was found between the DBH activity and the severity of psychopathology. These findings support the hypothesis of a possible involvement of brain catecholamine dysfunction in the production of autistic symptoms, and this dysfunction might be due to the abnormal ontogenetic process of DBH activity in autistic disorders.
EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CARBAMAZEPINE IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN
Hong, Kang-E ; Choi, Jin-Sook ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Hwang, Yong-Seung ; Ahn, Yun-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 87~96
A double bhad, placebo controlled study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Carbamazepine in autistic children, 23 boys with the diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorders according to the DSM-IIIR were selected for study subjects, from Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatient Department of Seoul National University Children Hospital during Oct.
1991. Subjects with histories of medical disease or psychiatric diseases were excluded and all study subjects had drug free periods more than 2 Months. Study subjects were randomly assigned to Cabamazepine treatment group(N=12) and placebo group(N=11). After the baseline observation periods, the double blind drug treatment and observation were performed for 12 weeks. Several scales (Ritvo-Freedman Real Life atring Scale. Behavior Checklist) were employed to evaluate the effects of drug treatment during baseline observation periods and the drug treatment periods by two raters blind to the study. Interrater reliability of each scales were .4875~.6613, the socrodemographic variables and the rating scores during baseline observation periods were not significantly different between two groups. Reduction of total scores in Autsm Behavior Checklist scale, i.e.. improvement of global autistic symptoms were noted significantly in Carbamazepine treatment group. Improvement in significant social maturations according to Vineland Social Mataration scale were observed in both patient groups after drug treetment periods.
COMPARISON OF K-WISC PROFILE FOR PDD AND ADHD CHILDREN WITH NORMAL INTELLIGENCE
Chung, Hyun-Hee ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 97~101
K-WISC Profiles of 15 PDD and 19 ADHD children were compared. Children with PDD showed more uneven scores among subtests, particularly lower scores in verbal comprehension, similarity and block design than ADHD children. It is suggested that two groups can be discrminated by the WISC profile.
EFFECTS OF GROUP THERAPY ON SPEECH FLUENCY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUTTERING CHILDREN
Shin, Moon-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 102~115
This study reviewed the stuttering literature and reported the clinical experiment in stuttering intervention. There is still no single answer as to the cause of stuttering or to the most effective therapy for stutterers despite the vast amount of research. One certain thing is that we have come closer to a better understanding of the stuttering and to more effective therapy. There have been three main statements about the origins of stuttering ; biologic origins ; psychodynamic origins ; environmental-learning origins. There also have been various methods of the treatment of stuttering. Broadly, two major treatment approaches are attentive ; stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. In this experiment, the researcher attempted to investigate complex elements that each child might have and to use an integrative approach rather than to keep the specific one. Individual subjects were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Initially, the subjects received individual therapy. They then were placed in group therapy. The purpose of the group therapy was to raise their fluencies to the higher communicative situation and to maintain improved fluency over time. All three subjects improved their fluencies in reading and in conversation and showed the better(SSI)scores in total stuttering behaviors. It was also discussed that it is necessary to have sensitive assessment tools to investigate each element of stuttering ; and to develop a therapy program reflecting current advanced stuttering theories.
NURSING PROBLEMS OF THE INPATIENTS WITH CONDUCT DISORDER
Im, Sook-Bin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 116~124
Nursing problems of 48 hospitalized patients with Conduct Disorder at a Child-Adolescent psychiatry inpatient were analyzed by reviewing nursing records. The results showed that the problems such as ineffective individual coping, impaired social interaction, disturbance in self-concept, potential for violence, alteration in parenting, altered growth and development were continued from early to later phase of the hospitalization and the other problems such as self-care deficit, anxiety, sleep disturbance, altered nutrition, hyperthermia were temporary. The etiologic factors related to these problems were underdeveloped ego, low self-esteem, dysfunctional parent-child relationship, some situational crises in family and handicap like mental retardation or epilepsy. Therefore nursing approach for the patients with Conduct Disorder should focus on ego growth and improvement of interpersonal relationship through systematic and long-term nursing plans and interventions for these patients and their family.
SEX DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR PROBLEM PATTERNS
Oh, Kyung-Ja ; Lee, He-Len ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 125~134
In an attempt to study sex differences in child behavior disorders, 834 clinic-refered children(582 boys and 252 girls) between the ages of 6 to 11 were assessed using CBCL parental form and the data were factor analysed to form empirically derived syndromes for each sex. The analyses yielded eight behavior disorder syndromes for boys and ten, for girls. Six syndromes(aggressive, hyperactive, delinquent, social withdrawal, emotional lability, physical complaints) were found in both sexes while obsessive, depressive and psychotic syndromes were organized differently in boys and girls. There were also considerable differences in item composition of the six syndromes common to box sexes, suggesting that clinical features of common behavior disorders such as aggression and hyperactiveity might be different for boys and girls despite their apparent similarity. The results were discussed in terms of culturally shared attitudes and beliefs concerning sex differences in behaviors.
CLINICAL VALIDITY STUDY OF KOREAN CBCL THROUGH ITEM ANALYSIS
Lee, He-Len ; Oh, Kyung-Ja ; Hong, Kang-E ; Ha, Eun-Hye ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 138~149
The clinical validity of the Korean version of Child Behavior Checkist(CBCL) as a screening instrument was evaluated through verifying the ability to discriminate clinically referred children from the non referred. The results were as follows ; 1) The mean total social competence score and three subscale scores of the referred children were significantly lower(p<.001) than those of the non referred children. 2) The mean total behavior problem score and several subscale scores of the referred children were significantly higher(p<.001) than those of the non referred children 3) Through assessing each item, only one item for boys and five item for girls of twenty-three social competence items had less discriminating ability. 4) Of one hundred eighteen behavior problem items, ten items for boys and fourteen items for girls showed insignificant differences between two groups. The results were discussed in terms of the reason why those items had less discriminating power in korea than in the U.S., And the partial modification of the Korean version of CBCL was recommended.
COMPASIRON OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN OF KOREAN AND CHINESE ANCESTRY IN YUNBYUN REGION
Kim, Pong-Chin ; Kim, Chul-Koo ; Pyo, Mi-Ja ; Choi, Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 150~154
1012 Yunbyun children (500 of chinese and 512 of Korean ancestry) in kindergarten through sophomore in highschool were assessed using CBCL parental form and their data were compared to study differences in behavior problems among children of korean and chinese ancestry in Yunbyun. The results indicated that social withdrawal, depressive, somatic complaints and aggressive syndromes were fairey common among Yunbyun children of both korean and chinese ancestry and that compared to children in the u. s. and shanghai. Yunbyun children showed more social withdrawal but less aggressive behaviors. Internalizing syndromes such as uncommunicative, schizoid, obsessive and anxious syndromes were more prevalent among children of chinese ancestry, while hyperactive and aggressive syndromes were more prevalent among children of korean ancestry.
A STUDY ON THE PARENTAL MARITAL RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS
Lim, Ke-Won ; Hong, Kang-E ; Rhee, Kun-Hoo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 160~175
The purpose of this study is to investigate the parental marital relationships and the parent-child relationships of child psychiatric parents and its control group. This study was carried out two questionnaire instruments ; The marital satisfaction inventory(MSI) and the dyadic adjustment scale(DAS). The subjects are parents of the child psychiatric patients. A matched control group and parents of child psychiatric parents in Seoul area which were collected from July 1987 to September 1987, and classified into five subgroups : 1 Psychiatric disorder 2) Neurotic disorder 3) Tic disorder 4) Autistic disorder 5) Mental retardation. The results are as following ; 1) M.S.I scale scores of parents of patients group are lower than that of control group. 2) D.A.S scale score of parents of patients group is significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.01). 3) The global distress scale(GDS) of the M.S.I. was most positively correlated with affective communication(AFC) and problem-sloving communication(PSC). 4) Female shoed more modern concept of role identification than male but tend to have heavier role assignment especially in child rearing practices which could be characterized by maternal domination. 5) Affective communication and sexual relationship between married couple and child rearing practices are influenced by their own family history of distress. 6) The marital global distress scale(GDS) score was highest in the parents of psychosis, the next in the parents of neurosis, autism, mental retardation, and tic disorder in descending order of severity. 7) The dyadic maladjustment score was highest in the parents of psychosis, the next in the parents of neurosis, tic, autism and mental retardation in descending order of severity. 8) Conflict in child rearing and parenting problems were particularly prominent in parents of the tic patients, and their marital relationship was not significantly disturbed. The above finding suggested that couple adjustment and marital dissatisfaction were closely related with child rearing problems and the children's disorder. So marital dissatisfaction and marital maladjustment seem to play a significant role in the genesis of psychosis and neurosis not much in autism and mental retardation.
MEANINGS AND FUNCTIONS OF HYAO IN DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE
Hong, Kang-E ; Park, Sun-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 2, issue 1, 1991, Pages 176~182
'Hyao' has been studied by several Korean psychiatrists, mostly in relation to Oedipus complex and psychopathological implications. The present authors propose that 'Hyao' should be understood as being broader and more basic in its meaning and functions which are listed as the follows. 1) Hyao as an attachment, mutual dependence and basic trust between the generations. 2) Hyao as a control mechanism of aggression between the generations. 3) Hyao as a control and resolving mechanism of oedipus complex. 4) Hyao as an organizer of personality development and self-actualization. These functions of Hyao were integrated in a developmental perpective and, the role and responsibilities of parents in promoting and offering their model behavior for positive identification were discussed. 'Hyao' is suggested as being primarily mutual attachment and reverence(respect) between the generations which promote healthy resolutions of issues and conflicts of each developmental stage to be followed.