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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Oct 2010
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Environmental Risk Factors in Tic Disorders
Jung, Yong-Woo ; Park, Tae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.133
Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are known as neurobiologic disorders and as such, much emphasis has been placed on isolating genetic determinants. Although previous reports involving studies of discordance among monozygotic twins have shown the importance of genetic predisposition, they have also supported a role for environmental factors in the development of tic disorders. Therefore, it is important to consider that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to their clinical expression. The goal of this article was to review recent reports regarding the role of environmental factors in development and progression of tics. Specific environmental factors associated either with a more severe course of illness or improved outcomes were discussed. Given that accumulating evidence had suggested the usefulness of behavior therapies in the suppression of tic disorders, particular emphasis was placed on the impact of several contextual factors.
Environmental Risk Factors for Children and Adolescents Suffering from Depressive Disorder : Clinical Aspects
Lee, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 141~146
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.141
This summary of literature during the past year reviews published studies relating to risk factors for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Risk factors include environmental toxins, socio-environmental, and genetic factors. As depression has a complex, multifactorial causal mechanism, it is likely that the accumulation and/ or interaction among multiple risk factors lead to depression. Findings related to the result of toxin exposure have been difficult to interpret given that risk factors tend to interact and that higher mental functions are not easily measurable. However, some findings have been consistent. Clinical research data has also shown that the risk for negative outcomes may be modified both by genetic and environmental factors through a gene environment interplay mechanism.
Comparison of Executive Function in Children with ADHD and Anxiety Disorder
Park, Soon-Mal ; Shin, Min-Sup ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 147~152
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.147
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the deficits in executive function in children with ADHD and anxiety disorder, and further, to characterize executive function deficits among the two groups. Methods : Subjects consisted of 60 children between the ages of 5 and 14 (16 Normal, 24 ADHD, 20 Anxiety Disorder). Neuropsychological tests (KEDI-WISC, CCTT, STROOP, WCST, ROCF) for assessing cognitive and executive function were individually administered to all subjects. Results : There were no significant differences in FSIQ or PIQ among the three groups. However, the ADHD group tended to score lower on the VIQ and subtest of similarity, vocabulary, and digit span tests. The three groups did not significantly differ with respect to CCTT test results. On the STROOP test, the ADHD group showed poor performance on the word, color, and color-word subtests. The three groups did not exhibit significant differences in WCST test results ; however, the anxiety group performed poorly belonging to below 25 percentile rank on perseverative response. On the ROCF test, the ADHD group performed poorly with respect to their organization score and in particular, regarding copy and immediate recall. The anxiety group also performed poorly with regard to organization ; however, this was limited only to immediate recall. Conclusion : Children with ADHD displayed poor inhibition and organizational abilities compared to children with anxiety and normal controls. Further, children with anxiety disorder exhibited low cognitive flexibility and voluntary problem-solving abilities compared to ADHD children and normal controls. Based on these results, we suggest that the characteristics of executive dysfunction in ADHD and anxiety disorder in children are different.
Prenatal, Perinatal and Infancy History of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nam, Bo-Ra ; Yoo, Hee-Jeong ; Cho, In-Hee ; Park, Tae-Won ; Son, Jung-Woo ; Chung, Un-Sun ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, Bung-Nyun ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Yang, Young-Hui ; Kang, Je-Wook ; Song, Sook-Hyung ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 153~160
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.153
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prenatal, perinatal, and infancy history of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to unaffected siblings (SIB) and typically developing children (TC). Methods: Subjects with ASD, their SIB, and TC were recruited. All subjects were assessed using both the Korean version of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (K-ADI-R) and the Korean version of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (K-ADOS) and were subsequently identified as affected or unaffected. Prenatal, perinatal, and infancy history was obtained from the primary caregivers and each facet was compared in those with ASD, the SIB, and the TC groups using SPSS ver. 17.0 (p<.05). Results: 70 individuals with ASD (63 males, 87.94
37.8months), 53 SIB (27 males, 85.4087.94
48.06 months), and 32 TC (19 males, 104.1987.94
23.409 months) were analyzed. The ASD group showed significantly higher rates of insufficient vaccination as they aged age (
=15.54, p=.000). Among the scheduled vaccinations, the DPT vaccination (
=10.08, p=.006) was insufficient in ASD groups. The ASD group also showed higher rates of sleep disturbances from infancy. Differences in maternal/paternal age at conception, gestational age, and growth parameters at birth were not significantly difference among the three groups. Conclusion: These results do not support the previous controversies regarding the relationship between prenatal/perinatal complications and ASD. However, these results indicate that perinatal and prenatal factors may contribute to the development of ASD.
Agreement between Parents and Teachers on School Children's Emotional/Behavioral Problems
Park, Hyo-In ; Kim, Jin-Mi ; Park, Yong-Chon ; Kim, Seok-Hyeon ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 161~167
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.161
Objectives: In assessing behavioral/emotional problems in school-aged children, the importance of multi-informant reporting has been well documented. However, in clinical settings obtaining multiple informants' opinions has proven difficult. For that reason, we researched the agreement and predictive validity of the Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire (CPSQ) in order to reveal how accurate parents' assessments reflected teachers'opinions. Methods: We conducted the first screening for second- and third-grade children from 3 elementary schools in Seoul from 2003 to 2007 using the CPSQ. There were 1178 children included in the analysis. We then administered the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) as a second screening tool and subsequently, the ADHD Diagnostic System (ADS) and the Korean Educational Development Institute version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (KEDI-WISC) was administered by a psychiatrist. We examined each item on the CPSQ and the subscale's agreement between parent and teacher as well as the predictive validity of the CPSQ in children diagnosed with emotional/behavioral problems. Results: The agreement rates between parents and teachers appeared high for questions 18 (0.433), 1 (0.385), and 2 (0.325). Among the subscales, a relatively high correlation was found for externalizing problems, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and cognitive problems. For all diagnosed children, their parents revealed a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than teachers. Conclusion: From these results, we confirmed that the CPSQ can be useful for sorting out externalizing and cognitive problems. There is a need for further study, however, with a larger sample size.
The Emotional Distress Prior to the Surgery and the Parenting Stress in Elementary School Children with Neurosurgical Diseases : The Preliminary Study
Won, Joo-Sik ; Eom, So-Yong ; Kim, Dong-Seok ; Shim, Kyu-Won ; Song, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 168~173
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.168
Objectives: This study was conducted to compare emotional problems in children with neurosurgical diseases prior to surgery as well as levels of parenting stress experienced by mothers of children treated with surgery and those without surgery. The goals was to provide a basis on which comprehensive treatment interventions could be established. Methods: Subjects included 78 elementary school children who visited the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery as well as their mothers. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Revised Children Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) were administered to children. The Parenting Stress Indexs (PSI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to their mothers. Results: The children with neurosurgical diseases showed higher levels of depression prior to surgery. In their mothers, parenting stress was relatively higher and parenting competence was lower. In particular, for those children who underwent surgery, depression was significantly higher. Specifically, they exhibited more negative expectations, and negative self-image. In mothers of children who underwent surgery, depression was significantly higher. Conclusion: Our results suggest higher levels of emotional distress and parental stress in children who undergo neurosurgical operations and their mothers, respectively. Based on this, the necessity for surgical and comprehensive psychological intervention is suggested.
Factors Affecting Adherence to Pharmacotherapy in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Retrospective Study
Kim, Yoon-Jung ; Oh, So-Young ; Lee, Ji-Ah ; Moon, Su-Jin ; Lee, Won-Hae ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 21, issue 3, 2010, Pages 174~181
DOI : 10.5765/JKACAP.2010.21.3.174
Objectives: To identify the factors affecting long-term adherence to methylphenidate treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A retrospective medical record review of 239 ADHD patients (mean age
years, range 6.0-17.4 years) who had visited the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic at a university hospital, in Seoul, Korea from March 2005 to February 2008. Subjects were diagnosed as ADHD based on the criteria set forth in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision version (DSM-IV-TR) and underwent neuropsychological tests including the continuous performance test (CPT). Treatment discontinuation was defined as the last prescription date when the medication possession rate (MPR) became less than 0.80. Subjects were divided into three groups and labeled as Group I, non-adherence without pharmacotherapy, Group II, non-adherence with short-term pharmacotherapy, and Group III, adherence with long-term pharmacotherapy. Results: Ninety (37.7%) patients were grouped as non-adherent (Groups I+II) and 149 (62.3%) as adherent (Group III). The adherence group exhibited lower intelligence, higher symptom severity, and a higher number of comorbid psychiatric disorders than controls. The use of stimulants was significantly associated with long-term adherence to treatment. Additionally, the duration of interval between the date of the first visit and the date of the first prescription was positively associated with long-term adherence. Conclusion: About two-thirds of patients diagnosed as ADHD adhered to the treatment six months after the first visit. With respect to patient evaluation and the development of treatment strategies, factors affecting early drop-out and longer follow-up must be considered.