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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Auditory and Visual P300 in ADHD Children with Higher and Lower IQ : Pilot Study
Wang, Sheng-Min ; Jeon, Yang-Whan ; Han, Sang-Ick ; Park, E-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 211~218
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.211
Objectives : Intellectual impairment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with relatively severe cognitive dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate cognitive function using auditory and visual event-related potential P300 in children with ADHD with relatively higher and lower IQ. Methods : A total of 20 children aged 6-12 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD-combined type were recruited. For 10 children with lower IQ (
100) and 10 children with higher IQ (>100), auditory and visual P300 using oddball paradigm (target 0.2, standard 0.8, in probability) were employed. Results : No significant differences were found in P300 amplitude and latency between ADHD children with higher and lower IQ in both modalities. However, auditory P300 amplitude in the right parietal area (P8 electrode) was negatively correlated with verbal IQ in ADHD subjects (R=-.50, p<.05). Visual P300 amplitude in the left parietal area (P3 electrode) was positively correlated with performance IQ in ADHD subjects (R=.57, p<.01). Conclusion : This study suggests intellectual impairment, as evidenced by lower IQ, could not be associated with cognitive dysfunction reflected in event-related potential P300 in ADHD children. However, cognitive function reflected in intellectual subcomponents and P300 might be processed in a stimulus modality-specific and asymmetric pattern.
The Effect of Mother's Object Relation on Mother's Rearing Attitude and Children's Self-Esteem in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Ko, Myoung-Jung ; Park, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Dae-Hwan ; Choi, Young-Min ; Kim, Bong-Seog ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 219~227
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.219
Objectives : This study examined maternal object relations, child's and mother's perception on rearing attitude, and children's self-esteem in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their mothers. Methods : 64 children with ADHD and their mothers were included in the study group. In the control group, there were 85 children and their mothers. Mothers completed the following tests : Bell object relation inventory (BORI), maternal behavior research instrument (MBRI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). Children completed Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Results : Mothers of ADHD children displayed more rejecting and controlling parenting style than mothers in the control group. ADHD children showed lower self-esteem and perceived their parents as not affectionate, but rejecting and controlling. Mothers with ADHD children who belonged to object relations pathological group showed more rejecting rearing attitude and their children believed that they were more controlling, compared with children and mothers in other conditions. Among factors in mother's object relations, insecure attachment and ego-centricity impacted the rearing attitude. In turn, affective rearing attitude mainly influenced children's self-esteem. Conclusion : This study suggests that the approach focused on mother's object relations may help with the treatment of children with ADHD.
The Relationship between Object Relations and Parenting Behavior of Mothers of ADHD Children
Son, A-Young ; Park, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Dae-Hwan ; Choi, Young-Min ; Kim, Bong-Seog ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 228~235
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.228
Objectives : This study was conducted to compare the object relations and parenting behavior of the mothers of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of the mothers with normal children. Methods : In this study, we studied 64 mothers of children who were diagnosed with ADHD and 90 mothers of normal children. The mothers completed the Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI), the Parenting Behavior Inventory (PBI), the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale. Results : As compared with the mothers of normal children, the mothers of children with ADHD showed significantly different results for the parenting stress and parenting efficacy. For parenting behavior, the mothers of children with ADHD perceived their mothering as being more neglectful. On the other hand, the mothers of the normal control group perceived their mothering as being more affectionate and the fathers as being more reasonable and monitoring. Conclusion : This study suggests there is a significant difference of object relation between the mothers of children with ADHD and the mothers with normal children. The object relation pathology of the mothers of children with ADHD might contribute to impaired parenting behavior. The result of the present study indicate that inadequate grandparental rearing behavior affects the insecure object relation of their child (the mother), and a mother's insecure object relation affects their parental stress and parenting efficacy.
The Relationship of the Parenting Stress with Child's Characteristics in Preschool Children
Park, Jang-Ho ; Chung, Seock-Hoon ; Kim, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 236~245
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.236
Objectives : The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the parenting stress with their children's characteristics for typically developing preschool children. Methods : Parents of 38 preschool children (mean age : 4.4
0.7 years, 22 boys) completed the Korean Parenting Stress Index, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist, the Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-Abbreviated form (CPRS and CTRS), the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale. All 38 children performed the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT). Results : The children's inattentive and hyperactive problems, as measured by the CBCL, CPRS and CAT, had positive correlation with parenting stress. Both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were associated with parenting stress. Of the child's temperament dimensions, Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance were positively correlated with parenting stress, but Persistence and Cooperativeness were negatively correlated with parenting stress. Sleep anxiety and other sleep characteristics showed a correlation with parenting stress. Social Motivation and Communication were also positively related to parenting stress. Conclusion : Our results suggest that parenting stress could be related to the children's cognition, emotion, behavioral characteristics, sleep habits and social development. These results could assist in the development of interventions to improve the parental well-being in typically developing preschool children.
Diagnostic Significance of Comprehensive Attention Test in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Seo, Jong-Man ; Lee, Jung-Sun ; Kim, Seong-Yoon ; Kim, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 246~252
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.246
Background : The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT) by comparing the results of the continuous performance test (CPT) and the CAT in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method : A total of 110 children and adolescents with ADHD (mean age : 11.2
2.9 years, 76 boys) and 36 children and adolescents without ADHD (mean age : 12.0
2.7 years, 25 boys) completed the CAT. We compared the specificity and sensitivity of the CPT and CAT at two different cut-off points via the McNemar test. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) between the two groups were compared using Medcalc software. Results : The sensitivity and specificity of the CPT were .419 and .806, respectively. The sensitivity of the CAT was .827, which was significantly higher than that of the CPT (p<.001), and the specificity of CAT is .444, which was significantly lower than that of CPT (p<.001). The AUC of the CPT and CAT was .664 and .692, respectively, and there were no significant difference between the two groups on the paired comparison (p=.513). Conclusions : The results of this study suggest that the CAT has moderate specificity and high sensitivity. The CAT can be used as a useful tool to evaluate the neuropsychological function of children and adolescents with ADHD.
An Open-Label Study of the Improvements in Clinical Symptoms and Neurocognitive Functions in Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder after Treatment with Metadate CD
Yoo, Han-Ik K. ; Kim, Bong-Seog ; Joung, Yoo-Sook ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ; Song, Dong-Ho ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 253~261
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.253
Objectives : This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Metadate CD (MCD) when given to Korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also explored the effects of the drug on diverse neuro-cognitive functions. Methods : Ninety-one subjects with ADHD (mean age 8.6
2.2 years) were recruited at 6 outpatient clinics in Seoul, Korea. We used the ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and comprehensive attention test (CAT) to measure the drug's effects. Results : After 0.92
0.32mg/kg/day of MCD were administered for 57.4
7.6 days, there was a 48.5% reduction in the mean total ARS scores (p<.001). Fifty-seven subjects (64.8%) showed either much improved or very much improved outcomes on the CGI-Improvement scale. The CGI-Severity scale also decreased from an average of 4.7 to an average of 2.9 (p<.001). Errors and response time standard deviations of the CAT, sustained attention test-to-response tasks, the flanker test, and divided attention test scores decreased after treatment (p<.05). The forward memory span of the spatial working memory test scores increased (p<.05). Thirty-five patients (39.8%) experienced side effects, of which the most common were headache (14.8%), nausea (12.5%), and anorexia (9.1%). Conclusion : This open-label study suggests that MCD is effective and safe in improving the symptoms and neurocognitive functions of Korean children and adolescents with ADHD.
Development of Parental Screening Questionnaire for Hidden Youth
Baek, Hyung-Tae ; Kim, Boong-Nyun ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 262~270
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.262
Objectives : The definition of a hidden youth is a young person who has completely withdrawn from society and shut himself or herself away for more than 3 months. Those pathologically-withdrawn youths have become a burden not only to society but also to the family. However, screening of these hidden youths cannot be done easily. This study focused on developing a primary effective screening tool for these hidden youths. Methods : The 42 participants of this study were parents of hidden youths that are between 8 to 25 years old. They were selected from from mental health centers and psychiatric clinics around Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. We also recruited 239 parents of middle and high school students in the Seoul metropolitan area for a control group. In order to decide the concurrent validity of this questionnaire, we used the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck Depression Inven-tory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, Avoidant Personality Disorder Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. SPSS version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results : Cronbach's alpha values, the reliability coefficient to represent internal consistency, were between 0.396 and 0.935, which showed relatively high internal consistency for this questionnaire. The test-retest coefficient was between 0.68 and 0.78, which was a statistically significant result. In a factor analysis, 4 factors such as avoidance, withdrawal, isolation, and apathy were extracted. In a concurrent validity test with SCL-90-R, the isolation factor showed a statistically-significant relationship with a phobic-anxiety sub-scale, and avoidance and withdrawal sub-scales were remarkably correlated with the interpersonal sensitivity sub-scale. Conclusion : Since the questionnaire for socially withdrawn youths has achieved statistically-satisfactory reliability and validity, it will be a useful method to screen for hidden youths in educational, community, and clinical settings.
Revision of Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire : Development of Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire-II
Bhang, Soo-Young ; Yoo, Han-Ik K. ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Bong-Seog ; Bahn, Geon-Ho ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ; Suh, Dong-Su ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hwang, Jun-Won ; Lee, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 271~286
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.271
Objectives : The purposes of this study were to develop a mental health screening questionnaire and the practical intervention programs or guidelines which can be used in middle and high schools by students and teachers. Methods : The Adolescent Mental health & Problem behavior Screening Questionnaire II (AMPQ-II) was developed and was tested for reliability and validity using nationwide data from 2,180 middle and high school students and 2,145 teachers. Results : The AMPQ-II was measured by both students and teachers. The correlation coefficient of the test-retest test was 0.567 and internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.878). Five factors such as worry and thought, mood and suicide, academic and Internet-related problems, peer problems, and rule violations were proposed. We also developed a practical guideline and manuals which can be easily used by secondary school teachers to screen for and manage mental health problems at school. Conclusion : The AMPQ-II can be a useful and reliable tool to screen for mental health problems in middle and high schools in South Korea.
Polymorphisms of CDH9 and CDH10 in Chromosome 5p14 Associated with Autism in the Korean Population
Lee, Ae-Ri ; Park, Jung-Won ; Nam, Min ; Bang, Hee-Jung ; Yang, Jae-Won ; Choi, Kyung-Sik ; Kim, Su-Kang ; Chung, Joo-Ho ; Kwack, Kyu-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.287
Objectives : The region of chromosome 5p14 is known to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The cadherin9 (CDH9) and cadherin10 (CDH10) genes are located in the region of chromosome 5p14 and reported to be associated with ASD in the Caucasian population. We performed an association study to identify if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on the CDH9 and CDH10 genes are associated in the Korean population. Methods : Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 214 patients with ASD and 258 controls. SNPs selected from two genes were genotyped using an Illumina Golden-Gate Genotyping assay with VeraCode technology. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and Plink software. Results : All controls and ASD patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In the results of logistic regression analyses for the genotype model and the chi-square test for the allele model, we found that SNPs on the CDH9 and CDH10 genes were not associated with ASD. Conclusion : Our data suggests that the CDH9 and CDH10 genes are not associated with ASD in the Korean population.
Factors Related with Suicidality in High-School Students : Focused on Perceived Academic Performance
Kwack, Young-Sook ; Shin, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.294
Objectives : This study investigated factors related to suicide in high school students and focused on perceived academic performance. Methods : We surveyed 293 grade 10 high-school students in Jeju and Gyeonggi provinces and gave them self-assessment questionnaires. To evaluate the suicide risk, the questionnaire included questions about suicidal thoughts, plans, threats, deliberate self-injury, and suicide attempts from the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI). Also, it included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Locus of Control Scale (LOC), Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale (RSE) and Perceived Academic Performance (PAP) to identify factors related to suicide in high school students. Results : Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem were related with suicidal thoughts, plans, attempts, and severe suicidal ideation (SSI score
16). In the multivariate analysis, a low level of PAP (OR=3.796, 95%CI 1.280-11.257) was significantly associated with severe suicidal ideation (SSI score
16). Deliberate self-injury was most prevalent in failing the PAP group and also having a high level of PAP (OR=6.161, 95%CI 1.474-25.760). Conclusion : The authors found that the suicide risk of high school students is related to depression, hopelessness, low self-esteem and a low level of PAP. These results provide significant indicators in planning an adolescent suicide prevention program.
Cognitive Functions in Children Treated for Medulloblastoma
Oh, Ju-Yong ; Kim, Ji-Hae ; Kim, Binna ; An, Kyung-Jin ; Sung, Ki-Woong ; Joung, Yoo-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 302~306
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.302
Objectives : To investigate the cognitive functions of pediatric cancer patients and to test the hypotheses that the impairment of processing speed and working memory are more prevalent in children with medulloblastoma (MBL) compared to children with neuroblastoma (NBL). Methods : We gave the Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligent Scale for Children-III to 21 children with MBL and 24 children with NBL during outpatient follow-up after the treatment was completed. Results : Children with MBL showed below average performance across most of the sub-tests. The full scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ of children with MBL were significantly lower than those of children with NBL. There were significant differences between two groups in coding and Digit Span subtest scores. Children with MBL performed especially poorly in the coding subtest. Conclusion : These findings support previous reports of generally low IQ and the dysfunction of processing speed and working memory among children with MBL, a kind of central nervous system tumor. Further investigation is needed to determine how the deficit of processing speed and working memory affect neurocognitive development and general intelligent functions.
Clinical Characteristics in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with/or without Developmental Coordination Disorder Patients
Song, Yoon-Jae ; Joung, Yoo-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 22, issue 4, 2011, Pages 307~313
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2011.22.4.307
Objectives : This study explored the clinical differences in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods : Participants were 49 children and adolescents with ages between 6 and 18 years. These subjects were placed into 2 groups: ADHD without DCD (24) and ADHD with DCD (25). We used several evaluation tools on both groups: the Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version- Korean Version (K-SADS-PL), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-IIII), Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), Korean Personality Rating Scale for Children (K-PRC), and Bruininks-Osretsky Test of Motor (BOT-2). Results : Patients with both ADHD and DCD had a lower performance intelligence quotient and more internal and external behavioral symptoms than patients with ADHD but not DCD. It is possible that patients with ADHD and motor coordination problems should be noticed earlier and given intensive treatment.