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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Descriptive Psychiatry and the Development of Diagnostic Criteria in the History of Child Psychiatry and Phenomenological Descriptive Psychiatry
Bahn, Geon Ho ; Lee, Yeon Jung ; Han, Ju Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.1
Phenomenology has been developed by philosophers like Kant and Husserl since the late 18th century. Jaspers, a German psychiatrist, adopted it into psychopathology studies and accumulated data by closely observing and recording the patients' symptoms and signs. Among descriptions done even before the psychopathology or diagnostic criteria of disorders in the field of child psychiatry was established, we can find exact and valuable descriptions matching the autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The diagnostic criteria of modern childhood psychiatric disorders were established based on these grounds. Phenomenological/descriptive methods in various psychiatric fields lead to medical study methods for social phenomenon such as oiettolie, hikikomori, and internet game addiction. Since Romanian orphans were adopted to the western world, descriptive studies along with neurobiological studies on the influence of stimulus deprivation on emotional and physical development are being conducted. While phenomenology, which was adopted by Jaspers to verify psychopathology, was developed mainly by observation and description, recent studies are explaining such descriptive phenomena even at the synapse level due to advances in neurobiology. Although phenomenological/descriptive psychiatry, describing precise and detailed experiences of patients, is less applied nowadays among modern study methods, we must remember that such descriptions may lead to biological studies and provide evidence to improve the accuracy of choosing and applying treatment methods.
The Early Childhood Care and Education Policy in the United Kingdom and Similar Policies in Korea : A Comparison of the Sure Start Children's Centres and Dream Start
Lee, Yeon Jung ; Bahn, Geon Ho ; Lee, Soyoung Irene ; Kim, Bongseog ; Bhang, Soo-Young ; Sohn, Seok Han ; Yang, Jaewon ; Lee, So Hee ; Chung, Un-Sun ; Joung, Yoo-Sook ; Hong, Minha ; Hwang, Jun-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 12~21
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.12
In an effort to expand working opportunities for women and encourage childbirth, the government of Korea introduced the free infant care policy in 2013. This policy, however, was controversial with regard to issues, such as budget shortages and dissatisfaction based on socioeconomic status. In addition, the lack of evidence-based data regarding adequate age criteria for the entry of children into childcare facilities was noted as a challenge. As child development professionals who are concerned with mental health issues, we investigated the influence and challenges of the free infant care policy with regard to infant mental health. In this review, we examined the policies enacted by developed countries, such as the United Kingdom (UK), and compared them with those in Korea. The childcare systems in Korea and the UK differ historically and socially, but show some similarities, such as maternal responsibility for parenting and household issues. Like Korea, the need for UK childcare facilities increased in the 1990's in response to market recovery and associated increase in female employment. Among the new policies in the UK, the Sure Start program has begun to provide integrated services for infants, particularly to those 0-4 years of age, who are vulnerable to social exclusion. Similar to the Dream Start program in Korea, it has been successful in providing family-related services, resulting in improvements in problematic behaviors of children, enhanced parenting skills, and decreased rates of severely injured children.
Clinical Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder According to the Presence of Motor Stereotypes
Kim, Ji-Soon ; Yoo, Hee-Jeong ; Bae, Jeong-Hoon ; Cho, In-Hee ; Park, Tae-Won ; Son, Jung-Woo ; Chung, Un-Sun ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, Bung-Nyun ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Yang, Young-Hui ; Kang, Je-Wook ; Song, Sook-Hyung ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 22~29
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.22
Objectives : Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors are core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of our study was to investigate the frequency of motor stereotypes in ASD children and their clinical features. Methods : Among 171 ASD children (age range, 3-15), the ASD group with motor stereotypes was defined according to two items in the Korean version of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (K-ADI-R). We compared the clinical features, behavior problems and severity of other domains in the K-ADI-R and executive functions between the ASD group with motor stereotypes and the ASD group without motor stereotypes. Results : Ninety (52.6%) of 171 ASD children had motor stereotypes. The ASD group with motor stereotypes had a lower intelligence quotient score (62.23 vs. 84.94, p<.001) compared to the ASD group without motor stereotypes. The ASD group with motor stereotypes had more impairments in the social interaction domain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.11, p=.001] and communication domain (AOR 1.15, p=.008). Thought problems and lethargy were more frequent in the ASD group with motor stereotypes than the ASD group without motor stereotypes (AOR 2.059, p=.034 ; adjusted OR 1.045, p=.046). However, no significant differences in executive function were observed between the ASD group with motor stereotypes and the ASD group without motor stereotypes. Conclusion : The ASD group with motor stereotypes showed more impairment in social interaction and communication domains, which are core symptoms of autism. Motor stereotypes may indicate greater severity of ASD.
Discriminant Validity of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 in Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Lee, Sun Hee ; Ha, Eun Hye ; Song, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 30~37
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.30
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to verify the validity and clinical cutoff score of the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (CBCL 1.5-5) for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: 44 ASD infants and 100 normal infants participated. T-test, discriminant analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and odds ratio analysis were performed on the data. Results: Discriminant validity was confirmed by mean differences and discriminant analysis on the subscales of Withdrawn, Attention problems, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, Total problems, and all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-oriented scales between the two groups. ROC curve analysis showed that Withdrawn, Attention problems, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, Total problems, DSM pervasive developmental problems, DSM attention deficit/hyperactivity problems, and DSM oppositional defiant problems significantly predicted ASD infants compared to normal infants. In addition, the clinical cutoff score criteria adopted in the Korean CBCL 1.5-5 for subscales of Withdrawn, Attention problems, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, Total problems, DSM pervasive developmental problems, DSM attention deficit/hyperactivity problems, and DSM oppositional defiant problems were shown to be valid. Conclusion: The subscales of Withdrawn, Attention problems, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, Total problems, DSM pervasive developmental problems, DSM attention deficit/hyperactivity problems, and DSM oppositional defiant problems significantly discriminated for the diagnosis of ASD.
The Effect of Sexual Abuse on Posttraumatic Psychiatric Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Sexual Abuse
Shin, Eun-Young ; Cheon, Keun-Ah ; Jhung, Kyungun ; Song, Dong-Ho ; Kim, So-Hyang ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 38~44
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.38
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the characteristics of victim and sexual abuse on posttraumatic psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents with a history of sexual abuse. Methods : A total of 137 children and adolescents were recruited from the Seoul Sunflower Children Center, a nation-funded sexual violence victim protection center, from January 2009 to December 2013. We collected the demographic data of the victims and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) from victims. We hypothesized victims' age, sex, and intelligence quotient, and the characteristics of sexual abuse as the affecting factors of posttraumatic psychiatric symptoms. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were performed for analysis of demographic data, TSCC scores, and psychiatric symptoms. Results : The victims' age and the characteristics of sexual abuse were significantly related to the traumatic distress of sexual abuse. R-square was 23% for anxiety, 39% for depression, 21% for posttraumatic stress, and 37% for dissociation on TSCC. Conclusion : This study suggests that victims' age, type, frequency and duration of exposure, and disclosure of sexual abuse are significant affecting factors on posttraumatic psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents. Exploration of psychiatric symptoms other than posttraumatic symptoms, and relations between pretraumatic and posttraumatic psychiatric symptoms is needed through collection of larger samples.
The Treatment Effect of Neurofeedback Training on Executive Function in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Yun, Seok Min ; Kwack, Young Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 1, 2015, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.1.45
Objectives : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been shown to display more inhibitory deficits and executive function deficits. This study investigated the treatment effects of neurofeedback (NF) training on executive function by comparing the results of neuropsychological tests of the trained children at pre- and post-training. Methods : Fifteen children with ADHD, aged 6 to 14 years, participated in the study. The NF treatment consisted of slow cortical potential (SCP) training and these sessions took place once a week. The ADHD children performed 20 sessions of NF training within 6 months. Pre-training and post-training assessments encompassed Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Stroop Test, Children's Color Trails Test I&II (CCTT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results : Patients receiving NF training showed significant improvement in visual commission error and standard deviation of auditory response time on CPT ; and total errors on WCST. But there was no significant improvement in the Stroop test and CCTT. Conclusion : SCP training using NF improves the self-regulatory capacities and impulsivity in ADHD patient, especially impulsivity in visual stimulation tasks. This study showed evidence of clinical efficacy of NF on executive function in ADHD.