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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Childen and Adolescents : A Review
Kang, Kyoung Doo ; Cho, Jung Hwan ; Han, Doug Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 143~148
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.143
The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between aerobic exercise and cognitive function as well as synthesize the effect of aerobic exercise intervention studies centered on psychiatric symptoms associated with general cognitive deficit. Prospective studies on aerobic exercise and improvement of cognitive function were reviewed and synthesized. In addition, this literature review provides significant positive results on the relationship between aerobic exercise and general cognitive deficit associated with psychiatric symptoms. Review of this literature suggests that there is a positive relationship between participation in aerobic exercise and cognitive function. In this text, there are at least three general pathways by which aerobic exercise may facilitate executive function in children : 1) cognitive demands inherent in engaging in physical activity, 2) cognitive demands inherent in cooperation of complex motor tasks, and 3) physiological changes resulting from aerobic exercise. Another main finding of this review is that physical activity has a stronger influence on cognitive deficit, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety. Development of cognitive function is the most important factor for children and youth. Therefore, future research should prove relationship between physical activity and cognitive function using a more scientific and quantitative approach design.
Risky Behavior Subtypes and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents with Depression
Kim, Ran ; Kwon, Hoin ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Yook, Ki-Hwan ; Song, Jeongun ; Song, Min-A ; Hong, Hyun Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 149~158
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.149
Objectives : The objective of this study was to identify the risky behavior subtypes in adolescents with depression, and the relationship between those subtypes and suicide attempt. Methods : Ninety adolescents who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition criteria for major depressive disorder, dysthymia, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified participated in the study. Participants were interviewed about suicidal attempts, non-suicidal self-injuries. Smoking, drinking behaviors, and searching for the word "suicide" on the internet, negative life events including bulling-bullied experiences, and history of abuse were also included with questionnaires. Results : The results of cluster analysis showed that four risky behaviors were divided into three clusters : non-risky type, characterized by few risky behaviors ; delinquency type, which was characterized by smoking and drinking ; non-suicidal self-injury type. In non-suicidal self-injury type, percentage of girls was higher and clinical symptoms were more severe than delinquency type. In addition, delinquency type members could be a bully, while non-suicidal self-injury type members could be abused by a family member. Logistic regression analysis showed that both risky behavior subtypes were significant predictors of suicide attempt. Conclusion : These results suggest that two types of risky behaviors of depressed adolescents have an effect on the suicide attempts independently. Then, the implications and limitations of the study were discussed and directions for future studies were suggested.
Smart-Phone Addiction, Depression/Anxiety, and Self-Esteem with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Children
Lee, Hyo Chul ; Hong, Min Ha ; Oh, Chang Keun ; Shim, Se Hoon ; Jun, Yeon Joo ; Lee, Seog Bum ; Lee, Kyung Kyu ; Paik, Ki Chung ; Baek, Hea Soon ; Lim, Myung Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.159
Objectives : The current study investigated the risk of smartphone addiction among children and adolescents with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), risk of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem using the Smartphone Addiction Scale Proneness, Kovac's Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, commonly used in clinical medicine. Methods : Ninety five students with ADHD who visited psychiatry outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire. At the same time, 592 middle and high school students living in a similar area regardless of ADHD diagnosis, completed the questionnaire as control subjects. Results : Overall, 40.0% of 95 ADHD and 12.8% of 592 control subjects were classified as the smartphone addiction proneness group, 26.3% of the ADHD subjects and 8.3% of the control group were classified as the depression group, and 32.6% of the ADHD subjects and 16.2% of the control group were classified as the anxiety group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that ADHD subjects are more prone to smartphone addiction, becoming depressed or anxious than those in the control group. From this study, we could suggest that students with ADHD are more easily affected by smartphone addiction than normal control subjects. In addition, we might understand how some psychiatric problems like depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are related to ADHD and smartphone addiction.
The Distributional Changes in the First-Visit Psychiatric Child and Adolescent Outpatients at a University Hospital over a Ten-Year Period
Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Jung, Sung-Won ; Jung, Chul-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 165~175
DOI : 10.5765/Jkacap.2015.26.3.165
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in child and adolescent outpatients at a university hospital in Daegu from 2004 to 2013. Methods : The subjects were first-visit patients under 18 years old, who visited Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. Computerized medical records of 2,738 patients (male 1,906, female 832) were reviewed. Results : The ratio of male to female was 2.3 : 1 in the period of study. The most prevalent age category was 7-9 years. The mean age was
years in males,
years in females). The ratio of child and adolescent patients to total outpatients was 27.0%. The most common diagnostic category was the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) group, followed by the mental retardation (MR) group. In males, the ADHD, MR, communication disorder groups were more prevalent, but in females, the MR, ADHD, depressive disorder groups were more prevalent. Conclusion : The female to male ratio and total mean age were on the rise. The ADHD group was the most prevalent and the depressive disorder group was also on the rise in this period.
Factors Associated with Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescent Victims
Han, Jung-Soo ; Cho, Seong-Jin ; Bae, Seung-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 176~182
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.176
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors related to the disclosure patterns of sexual abuse in children and adolescent victims. Methods : A sample of 153 children and adolescents who visited the Sunflower children's Center (Incheon) between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. The medical records of the victims were reviewed retrospectively. Results : Ninety (58.8%) subjects made a disclosure of sexual abuse voluntarily. The revelation was most commonly made to a parent. The severity and duration of sexual abuse were related to the disclosure patterns. In addition, the group that displayed below average intelligence, particularly subjects in the group with borderline intellectual functioning, tended to disclose their history of abuse less voluntarily than the subjects with normal intelligence. Conclusion : The current study provides insight into the factors that affect disclosure patterns in children and adolescent sexual abuse victims. To prevent sexual abuse, we suggest that special legal assistance and social concern be required for children and adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning.
Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Profiles in Child and Adolescent with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : Retrospective Study
Koh, Minkyung ; Noh, Eun-Ah ; Kim, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 183~189
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.183
Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate Korean Wechsler Intelligence profiles and specific abilities related to attention problem of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods : The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition (K-WISC-IV) and Advanced Test of Attention (ATA) were administered to 91 children and adolescents (age
years, 73 boys) with ADHD. Pearson correlation and independent t-tests were used. Results : The means of Working Memory Index (WMI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) showed a score of low average in K-WISC-IV. WMI scores for the K-WISC-IV showed clinically significant correlations with omission errors, commission errors, and response time variability on auditory ATA. PSI scores also showed significant correlations with response time and variability on visual ATA. In addition, significantly lower digit span backward scores were observed in hyperactive-impulsive/combined subtypes compared to inattentive subtype (t=3.60, p<.001). Conclusion : Children with ADHD showed significantly lower scores in WMI and PSI which were clinically correlated with ATA scores, and hyperactive-impulsive/combined subtypes showed poorer working memory functions in WMI. Follow-up studies are proposed.
Functional Impairment and Executive Dysfunction of Children with Tourette Disorder : Comparison with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Non-Affected Controls
Kang, Hanna ; Lee, Soyoung Irene ; Lee, A Reum ; Kim, Shin-Gyeom ; Jung, Han-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 190~196
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.190
Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine whether children with Tourette disorder (TD) have functional impairment and executive dysfunction in comparison to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-affected controls. Methods : From January 2006 to December 2013, 45 children and adolescents with TD and 50 children and adolescents with ADHD diagnosed at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital and 50 non-affected controls were enrolled in this study. Functional impairment of the subjects was assessed using the Child and Adolescents Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS), parent and teacher versions. In addition, neuropsychological tests including Stroop color-word Test, Finger windows Test (FWT), and Digit span were administered. Outcomes were compared across the TD, ADHD, and non-affected controls. Results : No difference in CAFIS-parent and CAFIS-teacher results was observed between children with TD and non-affected controls, whereas, children with ADHD showed more impairments relative to non-affected controls in the CAFIS-parent. According to the Stroop color-word Test, FWT, and Digit span, executive function in children with TD did not differ from non-affected controls. Children with ADHD had poorer performance in measures of the Stroop color-word Test compared to children with TD. Conclusion : Children and adolescents with TD but not ADHD were not significantly different from non-affected controls on most measures of functional impairment and executive function. These findings suggest that an education program and intervention for children with TD would be important to reducing the stigma of TD.
A Validation Study of the Korean Version of Social Communication Questionnaire
Kim, Joo-Hyun ; Sunwoo, Hyun-Jung ; Park, Su-Bin ; Noh, Dong-Hyun ; Jung, Yeon Kyung ; Cho, In-Hee ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Kim, Bung-Nyun ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Park, Tae-Won ; Son, Jung-Woo ; Chung, Un-Sun ; Yoo, Hee Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 197~208
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.197
Objectives : The purposes of this study were to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Social Communication Questionnaire (K-SCQ) and to determine cut-off scores for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods : A total of 166 subjects with ASD and their 186 unaffected siblings were recruited through child psychiatry clinics of university hospitals. Board certified child psychiatrists screened all probands suspected to have ASD based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. To confirm the diagnoses, the Korean versions of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (K-ADI-R) were administered to all the subjects. All parents completed the K-SCQ and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The non-ASD siblings were evaluated with the same instruments as the probands with ASD. We performed a factor analysis to examine the structure of K-SCQ. For testing the validity of K-SCQ, we compared the difference in Lifetime and Current scores of probands with ASD and their non-ASD siblings using t-test and analysis of covariance. Correlations between the K-SCQ and other measurements of ASD symptomatology, including K-ADI-R totals and domain scores and SRS, were examined. Receiver operation characteristic curve analysis was performed to extract cutoff scores discriminating affection status. Results : Four factors were extracted through factor analysis of K-SCQ ; 1) social relation and play, 2) stereotyped behavior, 3) social behavior, and 4) abnormal language. Cronbach's internal consistency was .95 in K-SCQ Lifetime, and .93 in K-SCQ Current. There were significant differences in total score of K-SCQ, both in Lifetime and Current between the ASD group and non-ASD siblings group (p<.05). K-SCQ scores were significantly correlated with K-ADI-R subdomain scores and SRS total scores (p<.05). The best-estimate cut-off scores of K-SCQ for diagnosis of ASD were 12 for 48 months and over, and 10 for below 47 months. Conclusion : Our findings suggest that the K-SCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for screening autistic symptoms in the Korean population. Lower cut-off scores than the original English version might be considered when using it as a screening instrument of ASD.
Efficacy of a Day-Hospital Treatment Program for Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Mental Retardation : A Retrospective Study
Ryu, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Soon-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 209~216
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.209
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a day-hospital treatment program designed to help development of children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and mental retardation (MR). Methods : Retrospective review of the charts of 32 children (28 with PDD, 4 with MR), who participated in a day-hospital treatment program of Seoul Metropolitan Eunpyeong Hospital, from October 2008 to February 2012, was conducted. Development level of each patient was evaluated according to the Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised (PEP-R), Social Maturity Scale (SMS), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Evaluation was done at two points, before participation and after 1 year participation. Results : Children who participated in the day-hospital treatment program showed significant improvement in all categories of PEP-R, SMS, and CARS. Conclusion : Day-hospital treatment program is effective for helping development of children with PDD and MR.
Clinical Application of the Korean Personality Rating Scale for Children in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Yoon, Woon ; Park, Kee-Jeong ; Kweon, Kukju ; Kim, Hyo-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 217~225
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.217
Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the Korean Personality Rating Scale for Children (K-PRC) profile between children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children. We also aimed to investigate the association of K-PRC and ADHD symptoms. Methods : Ninety-nine youth (age
years, 72 boys) with ADHD and 84 controls (age
years, 43 boys) were recruited from the Department of Pediatric Psychiatry of the Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. Diagnoses of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were confirmed with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The parents of the subjects completed the ADHD rating scale, and K-PRC. Independent t-tests, analysis of covariance, partial correlation analyses, and Mc Nemar test were used for analysis. Results : Children and adolescents with ADHD showed higher K-PRC scores in verbal development, physical development, depression, delinquency, hyperactivity, family dysfunction and psychoticism. Delinquency and hyperactivity were significantly correlated with parent-rated ADHD rating scales and ADHD scores on K-SADS-PL. The hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes showed higher scores on hyperactivity and delinquency than the inattentive subtype, and the inattentive subtype showed higher scores on depression and social dysfunction of the K-PRC. Conclusion : Our results suggest that K-PRC could be used to comprehensively evaluate symptoms, combined psychopathologies, developmental delay and family dysfunction of children with ADHD.
Factor Analysis of the Adolescent Personality Assessment Inventory
Kim, Dae-Jin ; Park, Min-Cheol ; Lee, Kui-Haeng ; Lee, Sang-Yeol ; Oh, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 26, issue 3, 2015, Pages 226~235
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.3.226
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Adolescent Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI-A) in a standardized adolescent sample using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods : For this purpose, three models about factor structure of the PAI-A were explored with EFA in 490 adolescents and then were evaluated with CFA in 268 young offenders. Results : The results showed that the five factor model was considered to be most appropriate for factor structures of the PAI-A in EFA. However, none of the factor models were appropriate for the factor structures of the PAI-A in CFA. Conclusion : These findings suggest that the "five factor model" is thought to explain the PAI-A the best, but further studies are needed.