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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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EDITORIAL : 27년 차 경험과 패기를 바탕으로 도약
Bahn, Geon Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~1
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.1
The Code of Medical Ethics for the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Why Is It Important?
Koo, Young-Jin ; Hwang, Jun-Won ; Lee, Moon-Soo ; Yang, Young-Hui ; Bang, Soo-Young ; Kang, Je-Wook ; Lee, Dae-Hwan ; Lee, Ju-Hyun ; Kwack, Young-Sook ; Kim, Seungtai Peter ; Noh, Kyung Sun ; Park, Sung-Sook ; Bahn, Geon Ho ; Song, Dong-Ho ; Ahn, Dong Hyun ; Lee, Young Sik ; Lee, Jeong-Seop ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hong, Kang-E Michael ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 2~30
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.2
This article provides an overview of the developmental history and rationale of medical ethics to establish the code of ethics and professional conduct of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (KACAP). Most medical professional organizations have their own codes of ethics and conduct because they have continuous responsibility to regulate professional activities and conducts for their members. The Ethics and Award Committee of the KACAP appointed a Task-Force to establish the code of ethics and conduct in 2012. Because bioethics has become global, the Ethics Task Force examined global standards. Global standards in medical ethics and professional conduct adopted by the World Medical Association and the World Psychiatric Association have provided the basic framework for our KACAP's code of ethics and professional conduct. The Code of Ethics of the Americal Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry has provided us additional specific clarifications required for child and adolescent patients. The code of ethics and professional conduct of the KACAP will be helpful to us in ethical clinical practice and will ensure our competence in recognizing ethical violations.
Review on the Efficacy of Omega-3 in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Park, So-Young ; Lee, Soyoung Irene ; Lee, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.31
Pharmacotherapy is considered the first line therapy in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Many patients also choose complementary medicine such as dietary supplements. Omega-3 has shown some efficacy for improving ADHD symptoms in several studies. The goal of this review is to integrate the previous research findings on omega-3 and understand the issues worth considering in the treatment of ADHD. The terms "attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity", "omega-3", and "dietary supplements" were searched on PubMed, Cochrane, and Google scholar. The search was further limited to clinical trials, reviews, and meta-analyses. Trials that examined treatments for ADHD, used randomized design, and placebo-controlled trials were included. Eighteen clinical trials with a total of 1,141 participants were included in this review. Fifteen trials had parallel designs, comparing an omega-3/6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) or a combination of both to a placebo and three compared omega-3/6 PUFAs to a placebo and psycho-stimulants. Seven of the included trials showed significant improvements in groups receiving omega-3/6 PUFAs compared to placebo groups, however, 11 trials showed no significant differences. Evidence that PUFAs supplementation provides benefits for ADHD was yet limited. Mixed results were due to selection variability criteria, variability of supplementation, and short follow-up intervals.
Suicidal Behavior, Violent Behavior, and Neurocognitive Function in Child and Adolescent Mood Disorder Patients
Yoon, Hee Joon ; Oh, Yunhye ; Joung, Yoo Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 39~47
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.39
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between current suicidal or violent behavior and deficits of specific neurocognitive variables in child and adolescent inpatient samples diagnosed with mood disorder. Methods: A retrospective review of the charts of mood disorder patients hospitalized at Samsung Medical Center between April 2004 and April 2015 was conducted. Child and adolescent patients aged between 10 and 18 years old and those who finished neurocognitive function testing during their hospitalization were included. Among them patients whose full scale IQ was between 85 and 115 were selected (N=111). Participants were first divided into two age-groups-group Y (
, N=54) and group O (
, N=57)-because neurocognitive function test tools were different according to age [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for 10 to 15-year-old patients, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for 16 to 18-year-old patients]. They were then divided according to their suicidal or violent behavior-non suicidal/violent group (NG), suicidal group (SG), violent group (VG), and both suicidal/violent group (BG). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was checked for measurement of participants' behavior and the Gordon Diagnostic System was checked for measurement of their attention efficiency. Kruskal-Wallis Test and Tukey test was used to determine the differences in neurocognitive function between groups. Results: O-SG patients showed lower scores on the comprehension subscale of WAIS-III than O-NG patients (
, p=.015). O-VG patients showed lower scores on the block design subscales of WAIS than O-SG patients (
, p=.024). Y-VG patients showed higher scores in aggressive behavior, externalizing problems, and total problems scores of CBCL. Conclusion: This study showed relationship between specific neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or violent behavior. These relationships were significant in relatively older adolescents.
Dysfunction of Time Perception in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Shin, Dong-Won ; Lim, Se-Won ; Shin, Young-Chul ; Oh, Kang-Seob ; Kim, Eun-Jin ; Kwon, Yun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 48~55
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.48
Objectives: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in time perception, as assessed by the time estimation task and the time reproduction task, however its age-related trajectory is not yet determined. Therefore we examined the correlation between accuracy of time perception tasks and age, and the association between accuracy of estimation tasks and reproduction tasks. Methods: Sixty-three patients with ADHD, aged 8 to 18 years tested the tasks for five time durations (2, 4, 12, 45, and 60 seconds). Accuracy of tasks was assumed differences (absolute values) between raw results of tasks and original time durations. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to determine correlation between accuracy of time perception tasks and age. Multivariate regression was used to determine the association of accuracy of estimation tasks with accuracy of reproduction tasks. Results: Age showed correlation with accuracy of estimation tasks, but not with that of reproduction tasks. We observed that the higher the accuracy in 12, 45, and 60 seconds duration time reproduction, the higher the accuracy in longer seconds duration time estimation. Conclusion: Age was correlated with time estimation accuracy whereas there was no impact on time reproduction accuracy. Association of each of the two time perception tasks, particularly in longer time duration, suggested specific impairments in time perception.
The Relationship between Parent's and Offspring's Personality and Offspring's Psychological Adaptation
Lee, Suk-Hi ; Kim, Tae-Ho ; Jun, Young-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 56~63
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.56
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personality of parent and offspring, and offspring's psychological adaptation. Methods: We examined temperament and character of 65 parents and their offspring (measured using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory) and offspring's internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (delinquency, hyperactivity) problems. Results: The internalizing problems of offspring were positively associated with harm avoidance (HA) of offspring and parent, and negatively associated with self-directedness (SD) of offspring and parent. The externalizing problems of offspring were positively associated with novelty seeking of offspring, and were predicted by SD of parent. The interaction between parent's HA and offspring's HA predicted higher levels of anxiety of offspring. Conclusion: The association between the offspring's personality and internalizing and externalizing problems can depend on the personality of the parent.
A Study about Effects of Osmotic-Controlled Release Oral Delivery System Methylphenidate on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Yang, Young-Hui ; Hwang, Jun-Won ; Kim, Boong-Nyun ; Kang, Hyejin ; Lee, Jae-Sung ; Lee, Dong-Soo ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 64~71
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.64
Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system methylphenidate on changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: A total of 26 children with ADHD (21 boys, mean age:
years old) were recruited. Each ADHD participant was examined for changes in rCBF using technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain SPECT before and after 8 weeks methylphenidate medication. Brain SPECT images of pediatric normal controls were selected retrospectively. SPECT images of ADHD children taken before medication were compared with those of pediatric normal controls and those taken after medication using statistical parametric mapping analysis on a voxel-wise basis. Results: Before methylphenidate medication, significantly decreased rCBF in the cerebellum and increased rCBF in the right precuneus, left anterior cingulate, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule and right precentral gyrus were observed in ADHD children compared to pediatric normal controls (p-value<.0005, uncorrected). After medication, we observed significant hypoperfusion in the left thalamus and left cerebellum compared to pediatric normal controls (p-value<.0005, uncorrected). In the comparison between before medication and after medication, there was significant hyperperfusion in the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus and significant hypoperfusion in the right insula, right caudate, right middle frontal gyrus, left subcallosal gyrus, left claustrum, and left superior temporal gyrus after methylphenidate medication (p-value<.0005, uncorrected). Conclusion: This study supports dysfunctions of fronto-striatal structures and cerebellum in ADHD. We suggest that methylphenidate may have some effects on the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cerebellum in children with ADHD.
Association between BDNF and Antidepressant Effects of Exercise in Youth: A Preliminary Study
Lim, You Bin ; Kim, Jun Won ; Hong, Soon-Beom ; Kim, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 27, issue 1, 2016, Pages 72~81
DOI : 10.5765/jkacap.2016.27.1.72
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate anti-depressive effects of exercise on child and adolescent and its association with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods: Twenty nine middle school boys (age
) were divided into two groups, 15 boys for control group and 14 in the experimental group. The control group participated in a regular exercise program, 3 times a week for 15 weeks. During the same period, the experimental group participated in an aerobic exercise program specifically designed to enhance anti-depressive effect of exercise. Serum BDNF level and its performance of each group on the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Aggression Questionnaire (AK-Q), and Stroop task were compared before and after the exercise program. Results: Scores of BDI, CDI, SCARED, and AK-Q were significantly lower in both groups after the exercise programs compared to those before the programs. The Stroop task performances were significantly improved after the programs. However, there were no significant differences between two exercise programs, except SCARED separation anxiety, AK-Q physical, and verbal aggression scores. Also, no association was found between serum BDNF level and anti-depressive effects of exercise. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest a possible effect of exercise on depression, anxiety, aggression, and cognition of child and adolescents.