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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume 3, Issue 1 - Dec 1992
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COMPARISON OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGlCAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR RAD AND PDD CHILDREN
Yoon, Hyun-Sook ; Choi, Jin-Sook ; Kim, Tae-Ryeon ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 3~13
For the purpose of better understanding of RAD children, comparisons were performed about the developmental and psychopathological characteristics between RAD and PDD children. Study subjects were the children between the ages 2 and 6. who visitied SNUCH Child and Adolescent Psychiatry OPD or treated in Day Treatment Center during May, 1989 and Sep., 1991, diagnosed by the child psychiatrist as RAD or PDD according to DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. A total of 40 children were included in the study. 20 were RAD(18 boys, 2 girls). 20 were PDD(20 boys). PEP was performed to all study subjects, by the raters blind to psychiatric diagnosis of each. And analysis was done about the level of developmental functioning score and psychopathological scores between RAD and PDD children. The results are as follows 'There were retardation on the general developmental functioning in RAD children, and the severity of retardation were lined up as perceptual ability>imitation>gross motor>cogitive language>eye-hand coordination>fine motor. Characteristics of psychopathology in RAD children were lined up by severity as language>play>relationship>affection >sensory. Group differences of the two shows on PDD group rejection score was significantly higher on the perception item. while RAD was superior on the perception emerging response. Differences of the psychopathology between two groups were on such areas as ; Affection, which was significantly higher on 'Absent' in RAD, while significantly higher on 'severe' in PDD children. On the interest for the play and materials. sensory and language areas, RAD children were significantly higher ratings on 'Absent' than PDD children.
A STUDY ON THE VARIABLES OF CHILDHOOD ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Kim, Tae-Ryeon ; Lee, Kyung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 14~25
The present study was purposed to find out variables of childhood antisocial behavior. The variables consisted of social cognition competence(Peer perception. acquaintance perception, frustration situation perception). academic competence(Visual integration function. written expression function, grammar closure function). The subject in this study were 32 nine year old-fourteen year old antisocial behavior boys and 32 third grade in elementary school-second grade in middle school normal boys and girls. The results of this study were obtained as follows. 1) In peer perception antisocial behavior children perceived peer as more supportive than normals. In acquaintance perception. there was no difference between groups. 2) In frustration situation perception, normal children used intropunitive attack still more than antisocial behavior children and antisocial behavior children perceived frustration situation more sensitive than normals and they were less active in problem solving aspects than normals. 3) In Academic competence, antisocial behavior children have deficits in visual motor integration function, written expression function. grammar closure function.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION BY ADMINISTRATION OF METHYLPHENIDATE AND IMIPRAMINE IN ATTENTION DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Ahn, D.H ; Hong, K.E ; Oh, K.J ; Shin, M.S ; Yoo, B.C ; Chung, K.M ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 26~45
This study presents the behavioral and cognitive changes by administration of methylphenidate(MPH) and imipramine(IMI) for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) in
years old children referred to child psychiatric clinics. Behavioral changes are assessed with parent's and teacher's ratings. Drug effects on attention. short-term memory, and impulsivity are evaluated with psychological tests in laboratory. The changes were assessed twice in a 8-week periods. The data were analyzed seperately for 15 subjects each drug using repeated measured analysis of variance(ANOVA). The findings indicates that behavioral and cognitive impairments are improved by both drugs, but impulsivity is not. And MPH is superior to IMI on the improvement of attentional problem ; especially the findings indicates important differences between simple task and complex. perceptual-search task. These data confirm the effectiveness of MPH for treatment of ADHD, also raise questions regarding assessment method of attention and impulsivity as fell as importance of impulsivity in ADHD.
THE SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN DEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE DISORDERS
Park, Jin-Seng ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Lee, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 46~55
The pathophysiology of developmental language disorder is a highly controversial matter. In order to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in developmental language disorders, the authors studied three dimensional regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) using Tc-99mH-MPAO in 42 children with developmental language disorders. The results are summarized as follows : 1) 61.9% (26/42) of this series revealed decreased perfusion in SPECT. 2) Regions of hypoperfusion were seen in cerebral cortex(47.6%, 20/42), thalamus(33.3%, 14/42), basal ganglia(11.9%, 5/42) and cerebellum(7.1%, 3/42). This study suggests that developmental language disorder could be due to specific functional impairment of the local brain regions which could not detected by conventional investigations such as brain CT or EEG.
AN INCIDENCE SURVEY OF BATTERED CHILD IN THE TWO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF SEOUL - A FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN 5 YEARS -
Ko, Bock-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 56~72
The author compared the follow-up study in 1991 with the previous study conducted in 1986 as same method and sample population selected from same schools as the previous study. Twenty classes of 3rd and 4th grade of two elementary schools in Seoul were selected as sample population. One of the two schools was located in the area of lower social class, and the other in the area of higher social class. The total sample was 1.142 in 1986 and 1,048 in 1991. According to the severity and the frequency of being battered among the sampled ones during the last one year. three groups were purposefully identified : The unbattered the intermediate and the seriously battered. The seriously battered was defined as the severity of battering more serious than N degree owing to Straus' Conflict Resolution Technique Scale with the frequency of 12 or more episodes for one year. The rest of being battered were classified into the intermediate group. Surprisingly the incidence rate of the seriously battered, was increased about 3 times more than previous study. Except incidence rate, the results were same or similar as previous one. The experience of being battered was more serious as previous study in the lower social strata, under the poor living and housing condition, in the broken family such as step parents or absence of parents and with the parent of unemployed. Also the child battering was evaluated to be closely related to all the other forms of family violence. And psychosomatic. psychological and behavioral manifestations were markedly serious in the seriously battered group. The drastic increase of incidence rate of battered child should be analyzed in various aspects : one of them might be derived from the improvement of social recognition and understanding toward the battered child.
THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE TO THE EMOTIONS AND BEHAVIORS IN CHILDREN
Kwon, Ja-Young ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Jung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 73~83
The purpose of this study was to undrstand the emotional and behavioral sequela in the abused child caused by phygical abuse. To achieve the purpose. the emotional and behavioral differences between not or less abused children group and severely abused children group were compared in this study. The subjects in this study were 61 male children who were selected among children under custody at 4 child-welfare institutions in Seoul. A violence scale in CTS(Conflict Tactics Scale) developed by Straus(1979) was modified and used as a research tool to measure the children's physical abuse. The Korean text of Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL) was also used to measure the emotional and behavioral problems of abused children. The results of this study were as follows : 1) The total scores of behavioral problems in physically abused children were significantly higher than those in control group. 2) The comparison of behavioral problems has shown significant differences between two groups in social withrawal. somatic symptom, emotional disturbance, obsessive-depressive behavior, hyperactivity and psychotic-sexual factors. However. there were no differences in aggressive and delinquent factors. The above results presents us the profile of children's emotional and behavioral problems caused by physical abuse, and can be used as a framework for the treatment protection and preservation of abused children in the course of social work practice.
MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION PATTERNS OF ADHD CHILDREN
Ha, Eun-Hye ; Oh, Kyung-Ja ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 84~96
The present study was designed to investigate variables associated with mother-child interaction patterns of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), and also to evaluate short-term effects of stimulant medication on the behaviors of ADHD children and their mothers during interaction. 15 ADHD boys(ages 5
10 years) were treated with metylphenidate(0.5mg/kg per day) for 1 month, and their behaviors as well as their mothers for the 10 minute free play and 20 minute task performance period were videotaped through one-way mirror. The childrens attention was also evaluated using the Continuous Performance Task(CPT) and ratings of their hyperactive behaviors were obtained from their mother prior to the treatment. The videotaped interaction were rated according to the Response Class Matrix developed by Mash, Terdal & Anderson(1973). Results indicated that percentage of behavior of the mother and child during interaction was highly correlated with each other, which, in turn, was highly correlated with the symptom severity of the ADHD child. That is the more severe the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ADHD, the more negative the interaction behavior pattern was. After 4 weeks of stimulant medication the mothers as well as the ADHD children showed a significant decrease in the percentage of negative-aggressive behavior during the task performance period. The results indicated that negative interaction behavior of the mothers was in large part a response to the negative behavior of their ADHD children.
MMPI PROFILE TYPES OF MOTHERS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERED CHILDREN
Shin, Min-Sup ; Oh, Kyung-Ja ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 97~105
Present study investigated the relationship between children's psychiatric disorders and their mothers' psychological problems. Ninety-one psychiatric outpatients from a children's hospital were classified into three diagnostic groups - internalizing symptom group(n=35), externalizing symptom group(n=35), and developmental disorder group(n=21) - based on their psychiatric problems. A normal control group was formed by matching on the age and education of mothers. Mothers' MMPI profiles which were classified into five types - normal, depression, anxiety disorder, somatization disorder, and personality disorder - were examined in relation with children's diagnoses. The profiles of the mothers in the normal control group were mostly normal, while depressive profiles were dominant among those of the clinical groups regardless of the children's diagnoses. Therefore, the data implied association between children's psychiatric problems and their mothers' psychological problems. A possibility of negative reciprocal interactions between children and their mothers was discussed. It was also suggested that further research need to examine the specific effects of children's psychiatric problems on the psychological adjustment of their mothers, as well as the effects of parental psychiatric problems on the adjustment of their offsprings.
PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD ADJUSTMENT ASSOCIATED WITH PARENTING STRESS WITH AUTISTIC CHILDREN
Kim, Tae-Ryeon ; Park, Rang-Gyu ; Lee, Kyung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 106~116
This study were purposed to find out parental perceptions of child adjustment associated with parenting stress with autistic children and differences of parenting stress between autistic children's parents and normal children's. Subjects were 27 autistic children's parents, 28 normal children's, 4 teachers with autistic children. 'Scales were Parenting Stress Index(PSI), Eyberg Child Behavior Index(ECBI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale(CARS), Social Maturing Scale(SMS). The results of this study were as follows. 1) In total parenting stress, parents with autistic children had significantly higher scores than normal's. 2) In child domain of parenting stress, fathers with autistic children had significantly higher than mothers on the other components except Mood and Demandingness. 3) In parent domain of parenting stress, parents with autistic children had significantly higher than nomal's on Restrict of role, Attachment, Sense of Competence. All mothers of normal and autistic children had significantly higher than fathers on the other components except Repression. 4) In parenting perceptions associated with parenting stress level of autistic children's parents. Low level group perceived their children as higher adaptibility than teacher's evaluation and high level group perceived them as equal to teacher's.
DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE ON DEPRESSION IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Oh, Kyung-Ja ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 117~128
For many years, a number of critical issues have been raised in relation to classification criteria. prevalence and clinical features as well as the concept of childhood depression itself. In order to achieve a better understanding of the childhood depression, empirical data on the prevalence and clinical features of depression in childhood and adolescence were reviewed and discussed from the developmental perspective. The developmental perspective proposes that maladaptive behaviors are products of the coping process to normal developmental tasks and it is necessary to make out the normative and adaptive developmental process in order to understand maladaptive behaviors. Age associated changes in depression symptomatology were discussed in relation to cognitive and socio-emotional development and directions for future research in childhood depression were suggested.
TELEPHONE PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH ADOLESCENTS
Lee, Kil-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 129~137
This article describes several clinical usefullness of the telephone in psychotherapy with adolescents through case analysis by Tolchin, and discussed various management problems and some practical guidelines for therapists planning to utilize telephone psychotherapy with adolescents through literature analysis. In general, most adolescent patients in regular treatment benefit from knowing that the therapist can be reached by phone and that their call will be returned that same day. The therapist's telephone availability helps the young patient to develope a positive working alliance. Telephone psychotherapy had it's first widespread application in crisis intervention and suicide prevention. It's current uses also include enhancement of self-control in cases of self-destructive adolescents, and management of anxious, depressive, or anorexic adolescents. In addition, such widely divergent modalities of treatment as follow up of patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital, alcoholic rehabilitation programs, drug hotlines, sex counselling group therapy for visually impaired elderly, control of separation anxiety in girls, resolution of fear on the mental disorders, and helpful modality to continue psychotherapy without geographic barrier during longer periods of separation with therapist are currently available via telephone. But telephone psychotherapy is generally not suitable for more self-defensive and introverted cases, more dependent chronic callers, silent cases, test callers. the cases of telephone scatologias, the cases of intellectualized discussion, of more dependent cases calling phone in order to get attention from therapist. Telephone psychotherapy for adolescents serves as an important and useful method in the therapeutic armamentarium for this most challenging and rewarding population.
THE PROCESS OF PLAYTHERAPY OF A CHILD WITH ELECTIVE MUTISM
Kwak, Young-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 138~146
The study presented the experience of playtherapy of a 6-yr old girl with elective mutism and attempted to understand her psychopathology and formulated her psychodynamic which was expressed though the therapeutic process of playtherapy in the viewpoint of developmental model. Therapist's attitude was nondirective and supportive. Main theme of her play, fantasy and art was separation anxiety and abandonment fear as the result of continued psychic traumas such as separation from her grandmother and physical abuse by her father and mother etc. So she couldn't achieve developmental tasks such as autonomy and separation individuation and became generally inhibited and selectively mute. The process of play therapy was summarized and coceptualized as her successful progress through sequential developmental phases within the therapeutic relation ship. By reexperiencing this developmental process, she could accomplish her autonomy and separation individuation and developed to oedipal stage and successfully resolve oedipal conflict.
Fragile X Syndrome and it's Association with Autism
Yang, Moon-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 3, issue 1, 1992, Pages 147~157
The fragile X syndrome, which is considered to be synonymous with the Martin-Bell syndrome, is a relatively common form of X-linked mental retardation. The syndrome seems to occure in many different ethnic groups and its prevalence among mentally retarded males has been estimated to be in the order of 2 to 6%. The karyotypic hallmark of the syndrome is made up with a pronounced constriction near each tip of the long arm of the X chromosome(fragile site), shown in vitro only under conditions in which thymidylate production is blocked(lowered folate levels). Special culture media are needed to demonstrate this constriction site. Major clinical features associated with the syndrome include macroorchidism, large or prominent ears, significant emotional and behavioral dysfunctions such as hyperactivity, self-injury, lack of eye contact and social interaction, schizophrenia, autism, etc., and speech and language dysfunctions ranging from nonverbal to verbal speech with moderate to severe expressive language delays. Some have minor clinical features in common such as an increase in birth weight high forehead, prognathism, increased head circumference in infancy and childhood which did not persist into adult life. The recent research findings have shown that the fragile X syndrome is associated with infantile autism. Many patients with the fragile X syndrome fulfill the diagnostic criteria for infantile autism. Therefore it is recommendable that any patient with developmental delays and autism or autistic manifestations should have a chromosomal analysis, including fragile X examination. In the present review, historical aspects, incidence, and clinical features are presented. Recent anecdotal reports of the association with autism and the clinical improvement following high dose folic acid treatment will be discussed.