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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 1996
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Jun 1996
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STUDY ON THE POSITIVE POWER IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP - (II) THE ISSUE OF TRUST -
Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 3~13
All human being can not exist by oneself That is, all human being depend on intimate attachment for their survival. Physical and psychological powers are prerequisites fir one's survival and these serve important functions hi interpersonal relationships. There are two kinds of powers. One is positive power which helps one survive effectively. Another one is negative power which disturbs one's effective survival. In this paper, the author reviewed the precept of 'trust' which is described in 'Bible' and oriental classical books such as 'The Analects of Confuicus' and 'Tao Te Ching' etc. and tried to integrate this precept with the importance in everyday life, 'How to communicate' is closely related to 'trust' and one's speech is closely related to one's thinking or emotion. Thus in order to keep trustful communication, one has to introspect oneself to understand one's own emotional reaction.
CLINICAL STUDY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC OUTPATIENTS
Lee, He-Len ; Hwang, Soon-Taeg ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 14~22
This study aims to look at main problems of visiting the clinic, diagnoses and other related factors of outpatients in a private psychiatric clinic f3r children and adolescents located in Seoul. The analyses were based on the reports of 2,785 patients who were 18 years old and less, and visited the clinic during last 4 years. The results showed that the ratio of boys to girls was 2.7 to 1, and about 64% of the whole sample were 6 years old and less. Especially the percentage of patients aged 3 and less was the highest and that of schoolage and more was gradually reduced. The average number of siblings was 195 and the percentage of the first child in a family was the highest. Particularly, there were more boys in rase of one child families and more girls in case of families with 3 children and more. The chief problems were mainly language-deficit, hyperactivity, autistic behaviour, tic, aggressive behavior and academic problem. The higher frequency of diagnoses was in the order of parent-child problem, mental retardation, developmental language disorder, reactive attachment disorder, other emotional disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder. The more frequently used method fir treatments was in the sequence of psychotherapy, play therapy, parental counseling, occupational therapy and speech therapy. The results from this study were compared with those from other studies and discussed.
THE TYPES OF INCEST AND FAMILY DYNAMICS
Park, Hye-Young ; Kim, Yoon-Ock ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 23~33
This paper was to investigate the relationships between the types of incest and family dynamics. 9 incest cases were collected from the Department of Social Work, Seoul National University Children's Hospital and an adoption agencies. The study cases were categorized into three types of incest, father-daughter incest, mother-son incest, sibling incest. The father-daughter incest families revealed various dysfunctional family dynamics such as sociopathic father, psychologically and physically absent mother, pseudomature child, and lack of communications among family members. In mother-son incest families, the fathers were absent and the mothers abused their sons as an outlet for their sexual desire, which was most pathological, among three types of incest. Sibling incests were characterized by the absence of parental supervisions and appropriate emotional care, and younger sibling becoming a sexual outlet of older sibling. It is evident that the incest does not occur simply because of pathology of one family member but because of family dystunction. Therefore the incest was a kind of 'family disease', and the focus of treatment should be on the whole family.
DIFFERENCES IN THE PATTERNS OF PARENTAL REARING BETWEEN DEPRESSION AND DEPRESSIVE CONDUCT DISORDER IN ADOLESCENCE
Jeon, Seong-Il ; Lee, Jung-Ho ; Lee, Gi-Chul ; Choi, Young-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 34~43
In adolescence, the symptoms of depression are more various and different from those of adult. Conduct behaviours are frequently represented in adolescent's depression. The patients who have the depression and conduct disorder are defined as depressive condor disorder in ICD-10. We hypothesized that there might be different parental rearing patterns between the patients with depression alone and the depressive conduct disorder. We applied children's depression inventory (CDI), parental rating form for conduct disorder based on DSM-III-R, and parental bonding instrument (PBI) to patients and normal control adolescent group. The results were as follows : 1) There were no significant differences in severity of depressive symptoms, maternal care, maternal overprotection, and paternal care. 2) Paternal overprotection showed significant higher scores in depressive conduct disorder group than depression group and normal control group. 3) There were positive correlations in the severity of depressive symptoms and behavior problems in all subjects. 4) There were no correlations in maternal care and overprotecion with conduct problems, but with depressive symptoms in all subject. 4) There were no correlations in paternal care with conduct problems and depressive symptoms in all subjects. 5) There were significant correlations in patienral overprotective, intrusive attitudes with conduct problems, not with depressive symptoms in all subjects.
FAMILY ENVIRONMENT OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
So, Jun-Hyun ; Shin, Yon-O ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 44~51
Objective : The authors investigated family environemtn of ADHD referred to child psychiatric clinics. Method : Seventy two patients were grouped into pure ADHD and comorbid ADHD. Patient's lither and mother conducted the Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(K-FES). And then, scores were compared with that of 77 normal controls. Results : Among subscales of K-FES, expressiveness, achievement orientation and organization were scored significantly lower in ADHD mothers' reporting than ADHD fathers' And only organization subscale was scored significantly lower in ADHD fathers' reporting than controls' In post hoc comparison, subscales of expressiveness, moral-religious emphasis and organization were significantly lower in mothers' reporting of pure ADHD and comorbid ADHD than of controls, and only organization subscale was significantly lower in fathers' reporting of comorbid ADHD than of controls. Conclusion : Parents of ADHD patients agreed that their families were not well organized, and each perceived somewhat differently on the family environment. Further study is needed to eludicate whether specific family environment causes ADHD or is caused by behavior of ADITD patients.
PATTERN OF PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS IN THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE OF ADOLESCENTS - FOCUSED ON THE MEAN DAILY PATTERN OF SYMPTOM CHANGES BY DAILY RATING FORM -
Joe, Sook-Haeng ; Nam, Min ; Lee, Hyeon-Soo ; Song, Soo-Shic ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 52~60
Premenstrual symptoms can begin at anytime after menache and usually remit with menopause. Numerous studies of the premenstrual symptoms have been reported, based on mature woman and clinic patients. As yet, however, no prospective study has specially examined the extent or nature of PMS in adolescents. The authors investigated the pattern of mood, behavior and physical symptom changes in the menstrual cycle for 230 high school students who reported premenstrual symptoms by using Baily Rating form(DRF), The scores on 21 symptoms of DRF were recorded daily for at least one menstrual cycle. The results as follows : 1) 1.7%(4/230) of the subjects who reported premenstrual symptoms met criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD) by 30% change criteria. 2) The pattern of symptom changes in the menstrual cycle showed a clear increase in mean daily symptom score at premenstrual -1,-2 day. and reaching a maximum scores at the first day, rapidly decreased at day 4 during menstruation. 3) The mean daily symptom score in the menstrual phase was significantly higher than those in the premenstrual and postmenstrual phase, and significantly higher in the premenstrual phase than that in postmenstrual phase. 4) The scores of the subjects with longer duration of menstrual bleeding were higher than those of the subjects with the shorter duration. Particularly in the menstrual phase, there was a significant difference on the mean scores of physical symptom duster between the longer and shorter group. These results demonstrated that the mean daily pattern of symptom changes in the menstrual cycle for the subjects was similar pattern of change for the PMDD group, except high level of symptom scores if premenstrual phase. The adolescents might experienced more physical discomfort than the other symptoms in the menstrual phase Especially the subject with longer duration of mense flow were more likely to report more discomfort than that of shorter duration.
A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-IMAGE AND SOCIAL SENSITIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS : THE STRUCTURAL RELATION AMONG SELF-IMAGE, DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND SOCIAL SENSITIVITY
Shin, Min-Sup ; Soh, Jun-Hyun ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 61~67
The purpose of the present study was to investigate empirically the relationship among self-image, depression, anxiety, and social sensitivity in adolescents. 1602 normal adolescents(697 males and 905 females) responded to self report scales-Offer Self-Image Questionnaire-Revised, 3 subscales of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and LISREL to examine the effect of self-image on depression, anxiety, and social sensitivity, and to test the relationship among the above 4 variables. Adolescents with low self-image showed significantly higher scores in the scales of depression, anxiety, and social sensitivity than did adolescents with high self-image. The result of LISREL showed that the low self-image leads to the emotional state of depression and anxiety, and those of depression and anxiety lead to the increase of social sensitivity, suggesting that self-image has a direct effect on depression and anxiety, and has a direct effect on social sensitivity in adolescent. These results were discussed in terms of implications for the prevention and treatment of adolescent social phobia.
FOLLOWF-UP STUDY OF THE TIC DISORDERS
Shin, Zong-Hun ; Jung, Chul-Ho ; Kim, Hee-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 68~76
30 DSM-III or DSM-III-R tic patients were assessed by hospital records and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale to study the common characteristics, clinical course and longterm outcome of tic disorders after 3.1-18.1 years, 73.3% of the patients(treated or untreated) have recovered or partially improved. Identifical precipitating factors were found in 9 patients. Associated disorders were ADHD, sleep disorder, and so on. The outcome according to age of onset, duration of follow-up and diagnoses have no statistically significance. Increased age at follow up was influenced improvement of tic symptoms, though statistically not significant(p=0.327). These results suggest that the outcome of tic disorder is not ominous and they are relatively good social adjustment inspite of carrying the tic symptoms. But this study has some limitations such as retrospective study and sample size. Studies designed prospectively with large sample would be needed to generalize theses results.
STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN TOURETTE'S DISORDER
Cho, Soo-Churl ; Shin, Yun-O ; Suh, Yoo-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 77~91
In order to elucidate the biological etiology and the effects of comorbidity on biological variables in tic disorders, plasma serotonin (5-hydroxlfryptamine, 5-HT) and 5-hydroxy- indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) we.e measured in 87 tic disorders and 30 control subjects. The 87 tic disorder were composed of 45 Tourette's disorder(TS), 22 chronic motor tic disorders (CMT) and 20 transient tic disorders (TTD). Among these patients,43 patients were pure tic disorder (PT), 28 subject also had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (T+ADHD) and 16 subjects had obsessive compulsive disorders (T+ OCD) as comorbid disorders. The results are summarized as follows : 1) Plasma 5-HT levels showed significant positive correlations with plasma 5-HIAA levels (Pennon r=0.77, p<0.05). 2) Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels showed no significant correlation with age in tic disorders. 3) Plasma 5-HIAA and 5-HT levels showed no significant correlations with age in control subjects. 4) There was significant difference in plasma 5-HT levels among TS, CMT, TTD and control groups (ANOVA F=34.48, df=3, 113, p<0.01), and post-hoc test using Scheffe method showed significant differences between control and TS, control and CMT, control and ITD groups. But, post-hoc test showed no significant differences between TS and CMT, TS and TTD, CMT and TTD groups. 5) There was significant difference in plasma 5-HIAA levels among TS, CMT, TTD and control groups (ANOVA F=26.48, df=3, 113, p<0.01), and post-hoc test using Scheffe method showed significant differences between control and TS, control and CMT, control and TTD groups. But, post-hoc test showed no significant differences between TS and CMT, TS and TTD, CMT and TID groups.f) There was significant difference in plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels among PT, T+ADHD, T+OCD and contol groups (ANOVA 5-HT, F=37.59, df=3, 113, p<0.01, 5-HIAA, F=27.37, df=3, 113, p<0.01), and post-hoc test using Scheffe method showed signiscant differences between control and PT, control and T+ADHD and control and T+OCB. But, post-hoc test showed no significant differences between PT and T+ADHD, PT and T+ OCD and T+ADHD and T+ OCD. These results show that decreased 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels may play a role in the genesis of tic disorders, but these findings have no significant correlations with the severity of tic disorders. And the comorbid disorders of tics may have minimal effects on the biochemical abnormalities. Future studies must be focused on the effects of serotonin agonists and antagonists on tic disorders and molecular biological methodology may enhance to elucidate the mechanisms of these abnormal findings.
THE STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEUROLOGICAL FACTORS IN CHRONIC EPILEPTIC CHILDREN
Kim, Bung-Nyun ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hwang, Yong-Seung ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 92~109
The objectives of the present study were to provide comprehensive assessment of the impact of epilepsy on the psychological well-being of children with epilepsy and to identify the neurological factors associated with the psychopathology. The participant patients were recruited from the population of children and adolescent aged 7 to 16 attending the OPD of department of pediatric neurology in Seoul National University Hospital in Korea. We exclude mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and brain organic pathology. As control group, formal students were chosen and their sex, age, achievement, socioeconomic status were matched to patients. The first author interviewed the children and their family members and obtained the developmental history and family information. We used the following 10 scales for assessing psychological and behavioral problems in patients and their family member. The scales were standardized and their validity and reliability were confirmed before. Parent rating scales : Yale children's inventory, Disruptive behavior disorder scale, Parent's attitude to epilepsy questionnaire, Family environment scale, Symptom check-list-90 revision, Children behavior check-list. Children's self rating scales : Children's depression inventory, Spielberger's state-trait anxiety anxiety, Piers-Harris self-concept inventory and Self-administered Dependency questionnaire for Mother. The result showed the risk factors associated depression were early onset, complex partial seizure, lateralized temporal focal abnormality on EEG, Drug polypharmacy, high seizure frequency and sick factors associated anxiety were old age of patient, lateralized temporal focal abnormality EEG, Drug polypharmacy, high seizure frequency. Also the result of this present study indicated that risk factors associated oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were young age, male, early onset, lateral temporal EEG abnormality and high seizure frequency. According to these results, common risk factors associated psychological and behavioral problems were lateralized EEG temporal abnormality, high seizure frequency in neurological factors.
A CASE OF THE CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER
Kang, Byung-Goo ; Cho, Soo-Churl ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 7, issue 1, 1996, Pages 110~119
Heller recognized the children exhibiting developmental regression after normal period of development and proposed the term 'dementia' infanilis for the condition and reported it 1908. But the foolowing studies were insufficient, the diagnostic concept was not definded, and various names such as dementia infantilis, Heller's syndrome, disintegrative psychosis and childhood disintegrative disorder have been used for that condition. Recently the term childhood disintegrative disorder fir that condition was proposed as independent disease entity by DSM-IV and ICD-10, and the interset in that condition is increasing now. But because of insufficient previous studies on that condition, the definite concept, the characteristics, the relationship with autism or other similar conditions, the treatment and prognosis of that condition are not clear by this time, therefore we have not seen the official report on the condition in our country. These authors experienced a case considered as childhood disintegrative disorder and report it with the review of literatures.