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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
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THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT TO CONDUCT DISORDER IN ADOLESCENTS
Chin, Tae-Won ; Kim, Sa-Jun ; Lee, Heung-Pyo ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 163~174
This study was to know the influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder. Subjects were composed of 47 male and female patients with conduct disorder(patients group), 113 general male and female students(normal group), and 173 juvenile prisoners(JP group). The Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(FES) was used to assess the family environment of the subjects and the Korean Defining Issues Test(DIT) was used to assess the moral development. Conduct disorder was diagnosed with the DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder. The influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder was analyzed with ANOVA and the differences among groups were verified with Scheffe test. There was no difference in the socioeconomic status and the physical abuse by the parents among the three groups. But the rates of divorce or separation of the parents were significantly highest in the JP group and higher in the patients group than in the normal group. Especially the subjects of the JP group experienced the divorce or separation of their parents during the preschool or the elementary school periods. In regard to the family environment, there was no difference among the three groups in the Subscales of Expressiveness, Independence, Intellectual-cultural orientation, Moral-religious emphasis, Organization, and Control. ‘Cohesion Subscale’ was significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. ‘Conflict Subscale’ was significantly higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. ‘Achievement orientation Subscale’ was significantly lower in the JP group than in the patients and normal groups. ‘Activerecreational orientation’ was significantly lower in the normal group than in the JP and patients groups. In gegard to the moral developmental stage, the lower moral developmental step was higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. The higher steps were significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. There was no significant correlation between the degree of ‘Moral-religious emphasis Subscale’ and the moral development. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were listed and discussed.
ATTACHMENT SECURITY IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN
Kim, Sang-Won ; Shin, Yee-Jin ; Lee, Kyung-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 175~182
25 young autistic children were examined in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. The attachment security of 21 children could be classified. Almost half(44%) of these children were securely attached. The relationship between attachment security and developmental variables(chronological age, social quotient, severity of symptom) was investigated. There were no significant differences on CA, social quotient, and severity of symptom between secure attachment group and insecure attachment group. Although autistic children have social deficits, they develop secure attachment to their mothers.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE KOREAN FORM OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT INVENTORY FOR ADOLESCENTS
Shin, Jee-Yong ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 183~198
Objects：This study was carried out to develop the Korean form of Moral Development Inventory for Adolescents designed to assess the principled morality in adolescents. And the auther also intended to find the demographic variables that influence the moral development. Methods：The Korean form inventory was applied to 507 middle and high school adolescents, and retest was done in 42 second year middle school adolescents with 3 weeks interval. Together this inventory, short form of Rest moral development which had been proved its reliability and validity, were administered to the all subjects for concurrent validity. And then the author examined whether this inventory discriminates between conduct disorder patients, psychiatric controls and normal controls in the level of moral development. Results：Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were very satisfactory. Concurrent validity with this inventory was also high level. And conduct disorder patients were scored significant lower than psychiatric and normal controls in the level of principled morality. The mean PM scores did not show significant difference according to the variables such as sex, birth order and religion. But there was significant difference according to the educational level of mother and places. Conclusions：These results indicate that the Korean form of Moral Development Inventory is a reliable and valid rating inventory to assess the moral development level in Korean adolescents.
ADOLESCENT VIOLENCE TOWARD PARENTS
Chun, Ryo-Sook ; Min, Sung-Kil ; Oh, Kang-Sup ; Lee, Si-Hyung ; Lee, Ho-Bun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 199~206
Object：The purpose of this study was to investigate frequency and risk factor of violence toward parents seen in adolescents. We also want to apply this data toward developing a prevention program for adolescent violence. Method：A total of 1,345 students from 5 middle schools in Seoul, participated in this study：675 males, 670 females. We administered self-reporting questionnaire including violence toward parents, exposure to violence, family history of alcoholism, substance abuse of adolescetnt and dermographic data etc. Result：The frequency of boys’ violence toward parent was 2.8%, which was significantly higher than girls’(p<0.001). The frequency of violence toward the father was higher than the mother. The risk factors for violence toward parents were sex, parental alcohol problem, adolescent alcohol-smoking-drug problem, exposure to violence at home in the last year and exposure to violence in the life(p<0.0001). The grade, punishment, socioeconomic status, educational level of parent were not significantly related to violence toward parents. Conclusion：These suggest that adolescent violence toward parents is not rare problem any more and preventive intervention is needed for high-risk groups, that is related with experience domestic violence, substance abuse, alcoholic parent.
A COMPARISON STUDY ON THE COMMUNICATIVE INTENT OF CHILDREN WITH REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER AND DEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE DISORDER
Lee, Kyung-Sook ; Lee, Ho-Boon ; Shin, Cheong-Hyoun ; Noh, Kyung-Sun ; Im, Yun-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 207~216
This study was conducted to investigate the communicative intent between Reactive Attachment Disorder(RAD) and Developmental Language Disorder(DLD). The subject of this study were 20 27-51 monthold children(10 RAD Children, 10 DLD children) functioning at similar stage of language development. The communicative intent was investigated vertical and horizontal dimension. Rating of vertical communicative intent was based on the assessment scales devised by Wetherby and Prutting(1984). Horizontal dimension was measured by the assessment guidelines of Wetherby and Prizant(1989). All the data were rated by two rators independantly. 1) In communicative intent, vertical development level of DLD children was more sophiscated than that of RAD children. 2) DLD children expressed more horizontal communicative intent than RAD children. The percentage of the three major categories(behavioral regulation, social interaction, and joint attention) of communicative intent in DLD children was lined up social interaction>joint attention>behavioral regulation. On the contrary, RAD children displayed in order of behavioral regulation>social interaction>joint attention. In addition, DLD children showed diversely as compared with RAD children.
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Shin, Min-Sup ; Park, Suzanne ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 217~231
This paper first reviewed the current neurological theories concerning the etiology of ADHD and secondly, examined results of studies that applied neuropsychological assessment methods in the examination of ADHD children both here in Korea and abroad. ADHD children were found to exhibit characteristic responses indicating deficits in vigilance, sustained attention, distractibility, allocation and regulation of attention in many assessments of attention, in addition to deficits in executive functioning, working and associative memory. Such neuropsychological assessment results suggest that in addition to dysfunction in the frontal lobe and the reticular activation system, dysfunction may exist in other neural pathways involving many areas of the brain. However, because a substantial number of neuropsychological assessment tools being employed in Korea for ADHD children had been developed abroad, a Korean standardization project involving ADHD and normal control children, in addition to other child psychiatric population pools must be conducted in order to obtain appropriate age norms and test validity, and in order to make possible a more accurate and precise comparison and interpretation in the assessment of ADHD children.
A CASE-ANALYSIS OF THE PSYCHIATRIC SEQUELAE IN ADOLESCENTS VICTIMIZED BY SCHOOL VIOLENCE
Yook, Ki-Hwan ; Lee, Ho-Bun ; Noh, Kyung S. ; Song, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 232~241
The psychological problems following the experiences of school-violence could be more important than the physical problems. Victims could suffer from fear, depression, anger, lowered self-esteem, suicidal thought, and personality changes. To study the risk factors for school violence and the psychiatric problems after the experiences to school-violence provide us important informations to prevent and solve the problems of school violence. We examined clinical characteristics and psychosocial backgrounds of 13 adolescents who visited the psychiatric clinic after exposures to school violence from September, 1996 to May, 1997. The clinical data included intensity, motivations, durations, and methods of violence, psychiatric symptoms following exposure, findings of psychological test, and treatment course. The socioeconomic data included developmental characteristics of subjects, family characteristics, school life, and peer relationships. Of the 13 adolescents who experienced exposure to violence, 8 have experienced chronic psychiatric disturbances, 5 experienced transient psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, suicidal attempt who eventually returned to home and school life. Of the 8 adolescents who experienced chronic psychiatric disturbances, 4 experienced PTSD and depression lasting 3-6 months more, otherwise 4 showed converted features, such as aggressive behavioral disorder or perpetrator by strong compensatory effects after psychological shock. The subjects who have experienced chronic psychiatric disturbance have clinical characteristics such as physical or emotional abuse, physical illness or handicap, defects of ego functionings, and lack of family support. In summary, victims by school-violence manifested serious psychiatric disturbances, and they had clinically significant risk factors and some of them became perpetrators of school-violence.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT OF ADHD ON COMPUTERIZED NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION TESTS
Chung, Sun-Ju ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Ha, Kyoo-Seob ; Hong, Kang-E ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 242~255
Characteristics of attention deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) were investigated by administering six computerized attention tests of Vienna Test System and four neuropsychological tests to children aged 6-12, with ADHD(n=21) and age-matched normal control children(n=22). The findings indicated that ADHD children show lower level of vigilance, more decline of performance in vigilance task on time, and impaired preparedness to response. They also have selective attention deficit on monitoring tasks, but did not have sustained attention deficit compared with normal control children. On the tasks wich overload their information processing capacity, ADHD children show more impulsive response pattern than normal control children. The performance of ADHD was worse than control on the neuropsychological tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. The presense 'These' attention deficits supports the theory that the defect of ADHD is due to the dysfunction of more than one brain region, including brain stem reticular formation and frontal lobe.
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF BRAIN SPECT IN CHILDREN WITH PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER OR DEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE DISORDER
Shin, Yee-Jin ; Ryu, Young-Hoon ; Yook, Ki-Hwan ; Noh, Kyung S ; Song, Dong-Ho ; Lee, Ho-Bun ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 256~265
Objectives：The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and differences of brain function in pervasive developmental disorder and developmental language disorder. Method：The subjects were composed of 14 cases of pervasive developmental disorder and 13 cases developmental language disorder. They were investigated by technitium-99m-EDC SPECT. All SPECT were visually assessed by two nuclear medicine specialists, and then quantified by region of interest including temporal, parietal cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Result：In both groups, cerebral blood flow was decreased in the temporal, parietal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum by visual assessment. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion：These results suggest that pervasive developmental disorder and developmental language disorder are caused by defects in the interneural connection and that both disorders are spectrum disorders.
A CLINICAL TRIAL OF FLUOXETINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SELECTIVE MUTISM
Park, Min-Sook ; Nam, Soo-Yong ; Yook, Ki-Hwan ; Noh, Kyung S ; Lee, Hong-Shick ; Song, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 266~272
We examine the clinical efficacies of fluoxetine in treating the children with selective mutism. In an 8-week open-label clinical study, 17 children with selective mutism are received 20-60mg/day of fluoxetine. Our results reveal that 13 subjects(76%) of 17 subjects improve statistically in within subjects comparison of pre- and post-treatment changes in the scores of Clinical Global Impression scale for mutism, Children’s Depression Inventory scale, and Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale. These data suggest that selective serotonergic antidepressants may be effective in treating selective mutism in children and adolescents.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHANGES IN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND CHANGES IN CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE TEST UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF METHYLPHENIDATE IN ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Choi, Young ; Lee, Mu-Suk ; Lee, Mi-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 273~286
Objective：This study was designed to evaluate effects of methylphenidate(MPH) on event-related potentials(ERP) and continuous performance test(CPT) in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to see the correlation between changes in ERP and changes in performance. Method：ERP and CPT were used to examine the acute effects of MPH(0.5mg/kg) in eleven ADHD boys(89-103 months old). Results：1) After MPH administration, P3 latency to nontarget stimuli at Fz was significantly decreased (p<0.01) and P2 amplitudes to target stimuli at Pz and at Oz and P3 amplitude to target stimuli at Cz were significantly increased(p<0.05). 2) Commission error and omission error in the CPT-X and commission error in the CPT-AX were decreased(p<0.01), and hits and perceptual sensitivity(d') in the CPT-X and d′ in the CPT-AX were increased(p<0.01). 3) The change of P3 latency to nontarget stimuli at Fz and the change of d′ in the CPT-X were negatively correlated(p<0.05), and the change of P2 amplitude to target stimuli at Pz and d′ in the CPT-AX were positively correlated(p<0.05). Conclusion：MPH improves change orienting reaction, the delivery of task relevant information, accuracy and perceptual sensitivity in ADHD. And the increase of ability to discriminate targets from non-targets reflects reduced evaluation time in large memory component task and enhanced change orienting reaction in simple task.
A CASE OF CONDUCT DISORDER CONFINED TO FAMILY CONTEXT
Chung, Sun-Ju ; Cho, Soo-Churl ;
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 8, issue 2, 1997, Pages 287~297
Conduct disorder has been subclassified by the symptom characteristics of socialization, aggression, or age of onset. In ICD-10, ‘Conduct disorder confined to family context’ has been developed as a distinct subtype. Which delineates the conduct problems which take place only in the family and related situation. These authors experienced a case which presents a child who shows aggressive and violent behavior to his parent and brother, severe tamper tantrum and destructiveness only in family. By through history taking, observation and treatment after admission, we could find that insecure and ambivalent attachment between parent and child due to chronic neglect and abuse, and inconsistent parental behavior contribute to many behavioral and emotional problems of this child. We reviewed the relationship between conduct disorder and family pathology and treatment strategy for conduct disorder with family problems.